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Jlartarli College librart 



PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



MuuA;>u k)K- <«• vv ;*im -■■(•■ "V.V?^?: 






FOL. 7''-8- FROM Tilt: PILPVL ZEMA.V IN THE 




ZBERCER COLLECTION OF THE JEWISH TtlEOLCXUCAL 
OF AMERICA 



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PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



BY 



ISRAEL DAVIDSON, A. B. 



Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements f<fr tke Degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy ^ in the Faculty of Philosophy, 

Columbia University 



NEW YORK 
1907 



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PRINTED BY W. DRUGULIN, LEIPZIG. GERMANY 



VITA 

The author was born May 27. 1870, in Yanova, Government 
of Kovno (Russia). He is the son of David Zeebh and Rebecca 
Rachel, both of whom died in the author's childhood. The 
author's early education was carried on under the guidance of 
his uncle Rabbi Israel Tanhum Klebansky of Grodno. He studied 
Talmud and Rabbinic Literature in the Yeshiboth of Grodno and 
Kovno up to his eighteenth year. On May 17. 1888 he landed 
in New York. In 1889 he entered Grammar School No. 20 in 
the City of New York and graduated from it to the College of 
the City of New York in 1890. From the latter institution he 
graduated in 1895, having previously been awarded the Ward 
Medal for the highest proficiency in English. During 1895 — 1896 
he held a University Scholarship in the Semitic department of 
Columbia University and pursued his studies under Professor 
Gottheil. In addition to his Semitic Studies he attended the 
lectures of Professors Price, Matthews, Trent and Woodbery. 
During 1900 — 1901 he held a University Fellowship in Semitic 
languages and received the degree of Ph. D. in 1902. In 1905 
he was appointed Instructor in Hebrew and Rabbinics at the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America. He has published the 
following: The Jew in English Fiction (Hebrew). N. Y. 1895. 
The Genesis of Hebrew Periodical Literature, Baltimore 1 900. 
Shylock and Barabas: A Study in Character, Sewanee 1900. 
Tiiree Satires . . . ascribed to Joseph Zabara (Hebrew). N. Y. 
1904. He has also contributed articles to the Jewish Encyclopedia 
and various English, Hebrew and Yiddish magazines. 



NOTE 

The study of Hebrew writings has seldom been undertaken 
from their literary side. This is true even in the case of those 
books that formed the canon of the Old Testament. It is not 
surprising then that nothing at all has been attempted along 
these lines in the domain of post-biblical Hebrew literature. In 
the present volume Dr. L Davidson has had in view one aspect 
of the subject, and has made an exhaustive study of parody in 
Hebrew literature. With much diligence and with much literary 
ability he has followed up the development of the parody in this 
literature from its rudiments in the Talmudic literature through 
its various ramifications down to its extended use at the present 
day. He has also determined the solution of a number of 
literary problems connected therewith, using for this purpose 
not only printed works but whatever manuscript sources have 
been at his disposal To this he has added a complete biblio- 
graphy of the parodies written since the beginning of the 
last century which includes also works not written in Hebrew 
but germane to the matters discussed in the volume. 

Richard Gottheil. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PREFACE IX 

INTRODUCTION XIII 



PART I 
HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

CHAPTER I. The Beginnings of Parody in Jewish Literature i 
CHAPTER II. Parody in Provence and in Italy in the 14 th. 

Century 15 

CHAPTER III. The Decline of Parody from the Middle of the 

14th. Century to the Middle of the 17th. . . 29 
CHAPTER IV. The Revival of Parody from the Middle of the 

17th. Century to the Qose of the 18th. ... 40 
CHAPTER V. Parody from the Beginning of the 19 th. Century 

to the Present Day 59 



CHAPTER I. 

CHAPTER II. 

CHAPTER III. 

CHAPTER IV. 
CHAPTER V. 
CHAPTER VI. 
CHAPTER VII. 



PART n 

STXJDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

The Massekhdh Puritn, Sepher Mahakbuk Ha- 

Nabhi and Megillath Sdharim 115 

Proven9al Parodies of the 14 th. and 15 th. 

Centuries 134 

The Verses Against Gamblers Ascribed to Ibn 

Ezra and the Parody of Leon de Modena . . 148 

Parody of a Letter of Credentials 151 

The Haggadah of Jonah Rapa 153 

The Sedher Pesah Wehilkhatho 167 

The Massekheth Purim of the 17th. Century • 172 



Vm TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VIII. liturgic Parodies of the 17th. Century ... 187 
CHAPTER IX. The Burlesque Testaments of Polido and 

Colomi 195 

CHAPTER X. Earliest Yiddish Parodies 199 

CHAPTER XI. The MassekAdtA £>€reJ^A £r€f of IsaoLC Imzsitto 203 
CHAPTER XII. The Laws for Creditor and Debtor of Zacha- 

riah Pugliese 204 

CHAPTER XIII. The Satire for Purim of Judah Loeb Bensew 206 
CHAPTER XIV. Descriptive Bibliography of the Parodies from 

the Beginning of the 19 th. Century to the 

Present Day 209 

ADDITIONS TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY 262 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 264 

INDEXES 

INDEX I. Titles of Parodies 267 

INDEX II. Names and Subjects 277 



PREFACE 



The purpose of this" book is to trace the development of that 
branch of Jewish satire which on account of its form goes by 
the name of parody, and to throw as much light upon the social 
life of the Jews as is possible to obtain from tliis peculiar class 
of literature. The author holds no brief for Jewish humorists, 
and does not pretend to defend them against the charge of 
obtaining laughter under false pretences, so frequently repeated 
since Renan pronounced his verdict that all Semitic people 
lack the sense of humor. He is not so sure that this verj' 
contribution may not help to aggravate the indictment. AH 
that is attempted here is to introduce the reader to a branch 
of literature hitherto entirely neglected, and to show what 
importance it has as a side-light on Jewish histor>'. 

As its title "Parody in Jewish Literature" indicates, this volume 
treats not only of parodies written in Hebrew, but also of those 
written in other languages, provided the>- imitate some Hebrew 
original and deal with Jewish life. On the other hand, all 
parodies written tn Hebrew are included even though they 
have no Hebrew original and do not deal with Jewish life. 
Those parodies, however, which were merely written by Jews, 
bot are non-Jewish both in language and in subject matter, do 
not come within the scope of this study. 

In the course of the work, many bibliographical, biographical 
and historical questions had to be cleared up, which made it 
necessary to divide the book into two parts, so that the results 



PREFACE 



interesting to the general reader might be kept apart from the 
minute studies intended only for the student of Jewish literature. 

The point from which the author set out to collect the 
necessary data for this work, was the late Professor Stein- 
Schneider's article "Purim und Parodie", published in the hraeli- 
tische Letterbode (vols. 7 and 9). His bibliography which absorbed 
the earlier lists of Fiirst Sommerhausen and Zedner, contains 
seventy-two titles under fifty seven numbers. But ordy thirty- 
one of them are parodies, the rest relate to Purim, The con- 
tinuation of this bibliography in the Monatsschnft of 1902 — 1904 
added comparatively little to the list of parodies. It is quite 
evident, therefore, that in gathering the five hundred parodies, 
or more, recorded in this volume, I had very little ready materia] 
before me. And though it is not lit to make a virtue out of 
necessity, I, nevertheless, feel it my duty to the reader to state 
tliat, with the exception of a very small number, I have read 
all the parodies whereof I speak. 

That I was able to gather that much material is due to the 
kindness and courtesy which I met with in all quarters. The 
Library of Columbia University furnished me with a number of 
rare books, Mr. Ephraim Deinard was kind enough to place at 
my disposal several important manuscripts and rare editions, and 
similar courtesies were shown me by Mr. A. L. Germansky and 
Rev. George A. Kohut, to all of whom I take this opportunity 
of expressing my sincere thanks- 

Until 1904, however, though this work was well under way, 
I was painfully conscious of many important omissions. The 
catalogues of the great libraries of Europe held out a vision of 
many treasures, but verily I could say: "Who shall go over the 
sea for us and bring it unto us". In that year, however, the 
library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America was 
placod at my disposal, and through the kindly interest of its 
librarian. Prof. Alexander Marx. I was able to get at the treasures 



I 



XI 

contained in the Sulzberger and Halberstam collections. Without 
these collections, the second part of this volume could not have 
been written, with them I felt as if the sea had receded and 
Europe had offered its treasures to America. 

Though I have acknowledged in the body of the book every 
obligation I owe for suggestions and information, still I take 
this opportunity once more to express my gratitude to those 
who took a lively interest in my work. I am under great 
obligation to Mr. A. S. Freidus of the New York Public Library 
for bibliographical assistance as well as for many useful hints. 
Without his aid, the last chapter of the book would have 
missed many of its more interesting data. To Prof. Louis 
Ginzberg I am indebted for many valuable suggestions, and 
to Prot Alexander Marx for bringing to my notice a number 
of rare manuscripts. I also take pleasure in acknowledging my 
obligations to Prof. Joseph Jacobs for suggesting certain alterations 
in the introduction. Thanks are also due to Dr. J. D. Fitz-Gerald 
and Prof, C. L. Speranza of Columbia University, whom I con- 
sulted in regard to several Spanish and Italian texts. Above 
all, 1 wish to thank Prof. Richard Gottheil for reading this book 
in proof and suggesting many textual corrections. 



New York, July 31, 1907. 



I. D. 




The imitative tendency in man, which sometimes manifests 
itself in parody, is much older than the art of literary expression. 
Long before man learned to ridicule or amuse his fellow-man 
by means of the written word, he must have resorted to the 
art of mimicry; before he became an adept in turning religious 
hymns into wine-songs and ribaldry, ht: must have practiced the 
art of imitating the mannerisms and peculiarities of those whom 
he loved or hated. This tendency might, therefore, be studied 
not only in literature, but in social life as well, and a few 
illustrations of the manner in which it has played a part in the 
social life of the Jews are not out of place here. 

Among the Babylonian Jews, as early as the Talmudic period, 
it was customary to celebrate the fcasl of Purim by burning 
an effigy of Haman to parody his downfall. This custom was 
still in vogue among the Jews of Caucasia in the last century'. 
In Provence, the feast of Purim was somewhat influenced by 
the Ffost of Fools, and a Purim King was appointed to take 
charge of all the festive ceremonies of the occasion'. There 
are no Jewbh festivities corresponding to Mardi Gras, but the 
Class Day Professor of American Colleges has his counterpart 
in the Purim Rabbi, who is generally the wit of the Yeshibah, 
vested with temporary privileges to mimic the master of the 
school and other dignitaries of the placed. Jewish history knows 
of no mock duels and no mimic wars*, but the Purim Plays of 

' See below p. ii—it. ' IHd. p. 26—37. ^ ^'•'- P- '7- 

iSomeregstd the en counlei between the wirrionofAboerindJoab^aSimuel. 
a, 14—17) u » mimic wir. See Ewnld. JRifoiy, iii, p. 114. 



i 



INTRODUCTION 

the seventeenth century may be regarded as nothing more than 
mock shows, and these again, may be traced back to the custom 
of masquerading on Purim which was prevalent among the Jews 
of Europe as early as the sixteenth centurys. Mock-marriage 
is another manifestation of the imitative tendency not altogether 
of rare occurrence in the life of the Jews. Rabbis have again 
and again been called upon to give their opinions on the legal 
aspect of marriages made in jest*. It is also recorded that 
Shabbethai Zebi, the pseudo-messiah, while residing at Salonica, 
prepared a solemn festival and invited his friends to the cele- 
bration of his mystical marriage with the Torah'. And if we 
may believe a well-known novelist of the last century that he 
has taken his stories from life, it is safe to say, that in certain 
localities in Russia, before the spread of Haskalah, those who 
infringed on the moral customs of the community were some- 
times put through a mock-marriage as a public chastisement'. 
All these instances are manifestations of the imitadve tendency 
in the social life of the Jews, and since all of them spring from 
the desire to ridicule or amuse, they bear the same relation to 
the social functions which they imitate as a parody to its original. 
Other manifestations of the same tendency resembling parody 
might be found in the class of caricatures which imitate well- 
known paintings, in sacred tunes set to rag-time, and in the 
racial types presented in vaudeville. But we must confine our- 
selves to parody, the manifestation of the imitative tendency in 
literature. 

Parody has been defined as a "composition in which the form 
and expression of grave or dignified writings are closely imitated, 
but are made ridiculous by tlie subject or method of treatment"*. 
This method of treatment is not without some interesting features 



i See r"« -pTB in^Kf, chap. 696; !\lonaiisckrifl, vol. 46, p. 181— 182. 

*• See RespoDsa of Samuel Abohab (^HIDV ^1), No. 291 ; of Zebi AscUkenui, 
No. 135, md of Meir of Lublin, No. 139. For > recent case see y^Kl 1903, 
No. S. 7 Graeti, Ctuhiehli, x, I91. 

* P. Smolensltin, "lion mi3p, chap. 14. For ■ still slringer iaslmee of mockery 
in Jewish life see I.. Rosenthal, 1DD mi', p. 176. 

9 The Ctnlury Di/iisnary, s. T, 



J 



INTRODUCTION 

well worth description and illustration. In its simplest form, a 
parody may consist of the mere change of a word, or even a 
letter. An example of this is Ibn Shabbethai's cynical remark, 
that "a man's enemies are the women of his own house" '", which 
parodies tlie Prophet Michah (vii, 6) by merely substituting 
"women" for "men". When a parody is produced by the change 
of a letter or only a vowel it is not far removed from a pun. 
The same effect is sometimes produced by breaking a word 
into its component syllables. Examples of the pun-parody are 
very numerous in Hebrew literature, but they are the most 
difficult to render into English". 

Sometimes a passage may be parodied by merely putting a 
pause in the wrong place. Thus, an inexperienced reader once 
ran two Biblical sentences together, making God say unto Noah: 
"Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee I have seen 
righteous before mc in this generation of every clean beast"". 

The humorous application of a well-known passage will also 
produce a parody. A good illustration of this is Ibn Eira's 
epigram on a woman with raven hair and light complexion. 
"For thy neck and the hair of thy head", says the poet, "we 
should bless Him who forms light and creates darkness" '3. The 
hturgical text parodied in this epigram has undergone no change 
whatever. The humorous effect is produced entirely by its un- 
expected application. The same method when applied to a 
proverb produces a perverted proverb, or modified maxim. The 
proverb remains unaltered, but the added clause invests it with 
a surprisingly new significance. This, again, is not far removed, 
in its function, from the exegetical parody, which derives its 
humor from the false interpretation of some Biblical passage'*. 




PSee Mow p. 13. note 54. 
Compue, for esninple, the pvodie^ aguiwl the Karvtei cited below 
p> 3, note 11, alio Immuiuel, m'Uns, ed. Lcmberg, p. 86: V> vm C\nD nnni 
m- -re. » iTmtih, vii, 1— a. 

'i See D. Koho's ed. of Ibo Eira, Wnriaw 1894, toI. 1, No. 6t. 
* See below p. 18—19. Sleinschneider would h«ve us reg&td eren the 
rneaX ioterprelitions of the Bible as puodics {Mitalss/tri/y, I. c. p. 179). 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION 



When an author parodies his owo composition, retracting the 
sentiments expressed in the original, his parody is also a palinode, 
while those parodies which consist of a rigmarole of meaningless 
phrases taken from all parts of the Bible, go by the name of 
Long Benedictions and resemble the English Tora-a-Bedlams 'S. 

AH these may be called parodies of sound because they follow, 
as closely as possible, the words of some original. Such parodies, 
however, as Dictionaries of Misinformation, sometimes called 
Foolish Dictionaries, or those that assume the form of periodic- 
ab are parodies of form, because they imitate only the outward 
form of the original, while parodies like the Hebrew Eptstoiae 
Obscuromm VirorMn and the Talmudic imitations of Kalonymos 
and others are parodies of sense, because they not only imitate 
the diction and style of the original, but also reproduce the train 
of thought and method of reasoning peculiar to that original. 

Closely allied to parody are the forms known as travesty, 
burlesque and mock-heroic- The distinction between these forms 
briefly stated is that parody keeps the form but changes the 
subject of the original, travesty keeps the subject but changes 
the form, while burlesque holds itself neither to form nor to 
subject, but is content with a general resemblance to whatever 
it may imitate. A mock-heroic is a parody that treats a trivial 
subject in a pompous manner. 

Few parodies imitate each and every phrase of the original 
Most of them imitate only the general features of tlie style. But 
it is essential that all parodies should appear spontaneous. A 
parody must catch the ring of the original It must emphasize 
its mannerisms and peculiarities, its catchwords and favorite 
tricks of style, so as to strike the ear with the very echo of 
the original. But imitation of mere externals is not enough. 
The parody must enter into the spirit and reproduce the in- 
tellectual and emotional characteristics of its model It must 
discover occult resemblances in things apparently unlike, it must 
employ contrast and surprise and "must be able to leap lightly 



■ 5 See below p. 50— 51. 



iNTRODUCTION 



xvn 



k 



over the little chasm that separates the ridiculous from the 
sublime" ". 

This ought, therefore, to dispel the notion that parody is all 
the time parasitic. The existence of a parody presupposes, of 
course, the preexistencc of an original, and in cases where the 
parody has no other aim than to ridicule the style of its model, 
the term parasitic may occasionally be applied with some degree 
of justice, but not so where the parodj' is used as a satiric 
weapon, charged with a moral purpose, full of wit and humor, 
keen observation and deep human sympathy. Such parodies 
owe to their models only the outward garb. They are imitative 
only ill form, but original in matter, and often surpass the 
original 

In its indpient stage, however, Hebrew parody was not far 
removed from pure imitation. This may be gathered from the 
fact that some parodies were admitted into the ritual. Had they 
been regarded as an>thing else than imitations this would have 
been impossible. The Hymn for the First Night of Purim, for 
example, which is embodied in the Maljzor Vitri, is only one step 
removed from imitation. It is classed with parodies because it 
dresses a wine-song in the garb of a religious hymn*'. Of the 
same nature is abo Abraham Bedarshi's eulogy of Todros 
Abulafia couched in the language of the Passover Haggadah. 
There is not a trace of humor in it. but the mere fact that a 
religious text is used as a vehicle for personal sentiments gives 
it a tone of playfulness and removes it one step from pure 
imitation'*. Rabbi Emden's Hj'mn for Saturday night'*, written 
ag<unst the followers of Shabbethai Zebi, ma>' be said to be on 
the border between imitation and parody. For while it was 
written in all earnestness and with full belief in the efficacy of 
prayer, it has that touch of personal invective which strongly 
reminds us of the parodist Imitation may therefore be regarded 



» VW. p. 16— 17- 



• Se« Sit IT'S fB^B, Alton* 1745. fol- 4061 



Sec below p. 4— S- 
la; alio VtOO ICO, Amilerdvn 175S, 



xvm 



INTRODUCTION 



as a prototype from which parody evolved by degrees, the 
process of evolution being that the imitators first passed from 
serious to playful imitation, and then from playful to humorous 
and satiric. As soon as imitation imbibed the spirit of satire, 
parody sprang into being. 

Hebrew parody is therefore not so base bom as parody in 
the general literature of tht middle ages. The latter is said to 
have originated from the desire to pull down the ancient models 
from their high pedestals'". Such is not the case with Hebrew 
parody. It did not spring from the desire to disparage, but 
rather from the wish to emulate- In fact, no Hebrew parody 
written before the middle of tlie eighteenth century, ever aimed 
at ridiculing the text of the original. And even such parodies 
of latter days as the Hebrew Epistolae Obscurorutn Virortint, 
wliich do ridicule the st>'le of their models, direct their ridicule 
at corrupt stylists not at classics. 

On the other hand, the close relationship which exists between 
parody and imitation has led many to mistake imitation for 
parody. To avoid such misunderstanding the distinction between 
these two literary forms must once more be emphasized here. 
Imitation assimilates both the style and the tone of the model, 
whereas parody, though closely following the style and the 
diction of the original, assumes a tone of playfulness altogether 
foreign to that original. To put it more briefly, an imitation 
may be distinguished from a parody by the absence of humor. 
This will justify the exclusion from this work of all imitations 
which lack this important ingredient", 

The range of Jewish parody is as wide as the range of 
general parody. The Jewish parodist has invaded every de- 



«> See H. SeiineeEar 



GttekkhU I 



GrolfikiH Salir 



: Stiasibnrg i S94, 



re KatienetUon's J-^^^K Klati »^nn mvi* niBD 
d nuiin r3oe keii.t mi.T moo published in avn 
Hent imilations of the sly!e of the MUlmab, but 
essays >nd have nothing in coduddd with our theme. At 
fulare time the author expects to publiih hil bibliography of pure 
I, which Dombers already about 150 titlei. 



" Such, for eiamplc, 
published in t^QHBri 1SS7, 
1886, No. 47- Both are e 



INTRODUCTION 



XL\ 



I 



partment of literature and every walk of life. He has drawn 
upon the various phases of Jewish life for his subject matter 
and upon the various forms of Jewish literature for his models. 
It is no exaggeration to say that Jewish parody contains the 
entire Jewish literature in miniature. It would indeed be easy 
to make a collection of parodies representing the Bible, Talmud, 
Midrash, Liturgy, Zohar, Codes, Responsa and Homilies. Even 
dictionaries and newspapers, marriage and divorce formulae, 
amulets and anathemas have served the parodist as models. 
And not content with Jewish models, he often went in search 
of foreign models, in consequence of which we have parodies 
of Hippocrates, of Shakespere, of Goethe, of Schiller, of Heine, 
and of numerous folk-songs of the various nations among whom 
the Jews lived and wrote. 

It is equally no exaggeration to say that almost all the great 
movements in modern Jewish history are reflected in Jewish 
parody. Hasidisra, Reform Judaism, Socialism, Zionism and many 
minor phases of Jewish thought — all have brought forth their own 
parodists. Satiric parody is one of those branches of literature 
which spring directly from contemporary history, and in tracing 
the history of parody in Jewish literature, we may be sure to 
light upon many phases of Jewish life and Jewish thought which 
bave hitlierto remained unobserved by the diligent searcher after 
dry facts and neglected by those who have an eye only for 
the serious. 

On tlie other hand, tlic study of this branch of Jewish liter- 
ature will also reveal tlie serious side of Jewish humor. It will 
sbow that beneath the playfulness of Jewish satire an under- 
current of sadness is always present. Tears and laughter lie 
very closely together in Jewish humor, and the Jewish parodist 
is not always a mere clown, but more often he is a preacher 
disguised in the garb of a jester. Like general parody Jewish 
parody has also a moral aim. "It is opposed to every kind of 
untruth, to pretence, to bombast, to hypocrisy"**. 



> QHortttfy Review, 1, c. p. 1J9. 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



To say, however, that Jewish parody has exerted great in- 
fluence on the evolution of Jewish morals or Jewish thought 
would be to exaggerate its importance beyond all reason. The 
early parodists, it must be admitted, had no other aim tlian to 
amuse, and those of later years who tried to criticise and in- 
struct succeeded but rarely in bringing about the desired result. 
Now and then some of them may have enhanced the general 
progress towards enlightenment, but for the greater part, the 
fate of the parodists was the fate of all humorists — not to be 
taken seriously. People laughed at their jokes, enjoyed their 
wit and sarcasm, but continued in their own old ways just the 
same. The only parody that made itself strongly felt was Joseph 
Perl's Reveaier of Secrets, and even this remarkable satire 
produced results of a doubtful nature 'J. 

But even if parody had no other aim than to amuse it would 
need no further apology for its existence. To amuse cleverly 
and intelligently is an aim high enough for any branch of belles- 
lettres. Many of the Rabbis, however, did not look upon it from 
this point of view. The general sentiment among them was 
against parody. In their opinion, parody degraded the original, 
especially when tlie original was a religious text. Even pure 
imitation of sacred texts was regarded by some as sacrilegious. 
The Gaon Saadia, for instance, was attacked by his opponents 
for imitating the Biblical style and providing his imitations with 
vowel points and accents. They made these imitations the 
ground for the absurd charge that he aspired to the role of 
Prophet'*. Some eight centuries later, Moses }:Iayyim Luzzatto 
brought upon himself the wrath of the zealots by imitating the 
Book of Psalms"^ These, however, were exceptional instances. 
The general attitude of the Rabbis towards pure imitation was 
more lenient. But wherever the imitation might cast the least 
shade of disrespect upon the original the Rabbis were generally 



«3 See below p. 71—73. 

>4 Sec Haikavf, Sludirn and MiUhtilUHgm. voL 5, p. 160—164. 
=S See Aimanii, ^n'DI w6in, Lemberg 1879, p. 49; F. Rottutein, D'n^M TIJ 
p. 39; A. M. Ivahui, IBiwi 0"n n»0 'ai, p. 9. 



INTRODOCnON 



XXI 



Rabbi Judah Hasid ofRegcnsburg forbade anyoae 
lildren to sleep with melodies that were used in reli- 
', while a much older authority considered it 
sofui even to recite the Song of Songs as if it were a mere 
love song, or to read it to the tune of the Book of Lamen- 
tations''. AH through tlic middle ages the Rabbis looked askance 
at humorous compositions'", and evt;n those who were themselves 
writing in a lighter vein condemned anything that savored of 
sensuality". But it was in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies that parody was singled out for especial condemnatioa 
This was due to the wide-spread popularity of the Masseklutk 
Purim of the XVIItli century, firsl published in Cracow and 
then in SulzbachJ". Men like Samuel Aboab^', Moses Wengrowi' 
and Moses Piazza^' were shocked at the liberty which the 
parodists took with the Talmudic texts. Strange to sa)' there 
was even a Karaite who objected to Talmudic parody^, and 
more surprising perhaps is the fact that some of the parodists 
themselves, or at least the copyists, advised people to read their 
productions only on festive occasions^*. In our own times, the 
protest against parody has not altogether been hushed. Not 
only conservative Rabbis, but even men who belong to the 
pn^ressive wing have come out openly against this branch of 
literature -J*. 

»* See irrorn TBO, Frankfurt \. M. 1714, S 138. 
\ »T See wrnm ■Ten n^3 rooo, chap, i : i'03 ^KBnll Q'von yvi piOB •mpn., 
I.m "Tan p3 TDi 1^3 111 "m . . . o^iii nn kod uota xic f«DB «nipn jsi -a\ 

r •■ See r'll TITB inhf, ch«p. 307, % 16; Meit Poperi. JW IWTIKD i. v, TUXth. 

*t See B"!'*,-! inao. chap. 63; H. Brody, n>r«w pno, p. 34. 47—48. 60 
(liae 6 ^m below) and 81— Sj. 

J" See below Part n, chip. 7. s' 'JWDW T3T No. 193. 

;* [ninpn] nsro nea va, Berlin 1701. Compue alio }. Kohen-Zcdek, lUt 
rrnn p. jo^ J' rtnow miK Leghoni 17S6. foi. 31. 

H See UUralU'hlaU d. Or,, vol. 4. p. S9. 

)3 See below p. 119 (line 31 from above) and p. 174 (line lo (rotn helow). 

f' See Judab Nabmah, 7*a D-m -noa, Salonici 1S93, p. 55; L. Schotnu, 

ffr«, »ol. 1. p. 138. note i; R. Brainio. »n'D» "as lio^ncn nn'jirt in rfWTT, 

f«l.4, p. 185; nrnrc mw in r''^"' '903, No. 17- For opinions favorable lo 

I parody tee A. B. Gottlober. ^uSino IT ^3 Warsaw 1890, voL 1, p. 1*3 — 114; 



1 



xxn 



INTRODUCTION 



Antagonism to parody, however, is by no means characteristic 
of the Jews. The Catholic clergy were even more hostile to it. 
As early as the thirteenth century the Council of Treves forbade 
clerks and students to parody certain parts of the Mass, and 
in 1517, Pope Leo X issued a Bull against the Epistolae Ob' 
icuronim Vironmi as the "work of perverse writers who have 
lost all fear of God and of man"^'. It is not within the pro- 
vince of this study to deal with the individual restrictions which 
the church put upon parody. Suffice it to say, that both Rabbi 
and Priest have protested against it, because it has put to pro- 
fane use that which is sacred and holy in the minds and hearts 
of the pious. Parody of religious texts, in their opinion, dissi- 
pates hallowed associations, offends ancient belief and is an 
attempt to degrade rather than to elevate. He who uses tlie 
Holy Writ with disrespect brings evil into the world. "For", 
— so runs an ancient Baraita — "the Torah puts on a sack and 
appears before the Holy One. blessed be He, and says unto 
Him: 'Lord of the Universe, Thy children have made me like 
unto a harp upon which scoffers p!ay'"i'. 

All these charges against parody, however, are groundless. 
"There are certain mirrors, Heine said, so constructed that they 
would present even Apollo as a caricature. But we laugh at 
the caricature, not at the god "J'. It is rather false religion from 
which parody removes tlie mask. "It defends true religion by 
attacking that which counterfeits it . . . Its iconoclasm destroys 
only spurious gods''^"- Its ridicule is a touchstone for excellence 
and a test of truth. And in spite of its occasional lapses into 
the commonplace, the general excellence of parody has reached 
a height which demands the attention of the literary world. 



A. B. Lebeniohn, nilttttl nCd, p. 283; A. S. Melamed, •f'ya'n voL 40, No. 834; 

B. Kalhansohn, rtllT3in IBD p. 60; J. S. Olschwing, P'Vcn 1869, No. ja; 
P. Rudcnnann, (nDipn) yra T,T\^V Warsaw 1878. 

il A. S. Martin, On Paroiiy, p, 10, [3. 

J* TaU Bab, Sanhtdrin, foL loia. Compare dso note 27 above. 

» Hiveloct Ellia, Tht Neai Sfinl, p. 71. id Qaattrly Revitm. 1. c. 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



PART I 
HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

CHAPTER I 

THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

Parody, satire's most powerful weapon, though of hoary anti- 
quity in Qassic literature*, is not so ancient in Hebrew litera- 
ture. While the Bible abounds in various forms of satire*, it 
does not contain a single example of parody -J. Nor is this 
form of satire to be found in the apocryphal literature, even if 
we choose to regard imitation as a species of parody. For 
only that kind of imitation can be said to border on parody, 
which ridicules the original, or treats it in a spirit of playfulness. 
But the apocryphal literature, though largely imitative, aims 
neither at playfulness nor at ridicule. On the contrary, it holds 
the original in high esteem. 

In the Talmud, we would naturally expect to find the art of 
parody adequately represented. For the ancient rabbis had a 

s "Those who attribute to Homer the anthorship of the 'Battle of the NGce 
and Frogs' credit the first great poet with being his own parodist'' (A. S. Martin, 
On Parody, N. Y. 1896 p. l). Hipponax of Ephesus (fl. in the 6th centB.C) 
is said to be the inventor of this art, others make Hegemon of Thasos (fl. in 
5th centB.C) the first parodist. 

« See J. Chotzner, Humor and Irony 0/ the Bible, Harrow 1 883; Marion D. 
Shatter, WU and Humor of the Bible. Boston 1893. 

J Notwithstanding the contention of S. Rubin (D'^DSn nSin, Vienna 1880, 
p. %\ that Prov. IX 13 — 18 is a parody of the first six verses of the same 
chapter. The foolish woman, he says, uses the words of Wisdom: "Whoso 
is simple let him torn in hither etc." But this seems far fetched and in- 
ssffident to overthrow my assertion. 

1 



2 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

keen sense of humor, and often manifested it in the course of 
their educational and religious work*. Some of them, for in- 
stance, were in the habit of prefacing their lectures whh humorous 
remarks*, others brought their native wit into play in their 
religious controversies with the Sadducces and the Minim*, 
while those who were conversant with Roman matters satirized 
the tyranny and the profligacy of the Caesars. Withal, there 
is in the Talmud very little that may be called pure parody, 
and even the number of its travesties is too small to merit 
more than passing notice. In the few instances, where the 
rabbis travestied the subtleties of the schools, they did so at 
the risk of bringing reproach and ill-favor upon themselves'. 
The Talmudists were fond of puns and conceits, especially 
etymological puns'. They also indulged in what may be 
called Imaginary compositions, as for instance, the Edict of 
Haman and the Prayers of Mordecai and Esther^. But as no 
one will allow the term parody to take on so broad a meaning 
as to embrace these forms of literature, we must not look for 
the beginning of parody until we reach a much later period in 
the history of Jewish satire '". 

4 On this lubjeot see: H. Adler, yaiiisk Wit aad Humor: The Ninttictilk 
Century, Mch- 1893; A. Kohul, WiV, f/umor and Anttdstt m Talmud and 
^draik: Amrrican Hrbrno, vol. 3&, no. 13; vol. 17 nos. 1— S; L. Low, DU Lebciti- 
oiler in liir jUdisckm IMeratur. Siegedin 1876, p. 395 — 300, 3^6 — 351, 

i T«L Bab, Tcaa 30b, beginning KnVo io« . . . nnci "BpD ;iam *n -a 

' A. KohuC, 1. c., gives all the references to the Talmud on this subject. 
7 Tal. Bib. mmB 37a beg.; ^-v»-\ -w 1^ irw -D 'aio \ahi ;t>3>d km the 

answer to this impertinent question was KnOW l^ff ^ap IH '^1 Blp IK; XVO IU3 
ajb, beg.! . . nnX iVjT fl'QT '1 -tn the sequel to this is 'SB fTOT '3^^ impM 

mma, 

« See Low, 1. c. p. 349; Tal. Bab. nap 77I1, TIJ 31b, 

9 See Midrasb Rabba. Either S cra«^ ITS' 31B -ffan hi D«, and S "^K"' 
•me iK a'oni iro«; sec also below Part II, S n, sect. x. C— L 

>° One geouine example of parody, however, is found in the Talmud 
Vemshalmi (Ned. VI, S). It is related there, that tbe deputation, which came 
from Palestine to urge upon Ilananiah, nephew of Rabbi Joshua, to sobmit lo 
the authority of the PolcstiniMi Saohednn, publicl]^ parodied Scriptural passages. 
One of them sabstituled "Hananiah" for "the Lord" in "These are the feastt 
of the Lord" (Lev. xKiiL 4}. Another recited "Oat of Babjlonia shkU go forth 



^B deal 

K 



I. THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 3 

In the period following the completion of the Talmud, the 
Halakha was predominant in all the schools, and pushed all 
lighter literature to tlie background. And though the rise of 
Karaism, in the middle of the eighth century, brought a good 
deal of satire and polemics into Jewish literature, parody was 
:glected by Rabbinite as well as by Karaite. At least no trace 
[■of it has as yet been found among the literary relics of that 



It is only in the twelfth century, that we first meet with 
parody in Jewish literature. Those, therefore, who see in parody 
a sign of literary decay, will find their theory shaken by this 
fact For the twelfth century was the golden age in Jewish 
Uterature, having such authors as Judah ha-Lcvi, Abraham and 
Moses Ibn Ezra, Maimonides and I;Iarizi among its represen- 
tative men- 

Early in the twelfth century, Abraham Ibn Ezra penned his 
famous epigrams, a number of which have an element of parody 
io them, in so far as they echo some well known texts". He 
was also the first to write in the mock-heroic style, a literary 
fonn closely allied to parody- PCs poem Cottctming the Flies 






die Law, and the word of tlie Lord boia Ncbv-Pekod" iultad of "Oat oF 
Son" and "Irom Jcnualein" (Isa. iL 3). FroC L. Gtnzberg called my attenlion 
to anothei paasAge in Tal, Yer, [Pes. chxpler III, 7) which is a genuioe parody. 
It it told lb«e. thai Rabbi Abbahu &ent his son Haninab [o study at Tiberiai. 
Tbe latter, however, engaged in cbaritabte work and neglected his study. Hjs 
father Ihetenpon reprimanded him laying; "»t-C(A ynn^W ^TD^ Q-Tap \tt *rscsf\ 
paiodying Exodui kit. 11. 

a S. nntker, in describing the poetry of Moies Daiii the Kamie, laT*: 
113 ^\nrn intjin mji cnjp o-Tsn im-n p dj t3 in (mimp "Oip^ p. 46) 

of the Kuaitic lilecaliue in general he says: TTthrSi TV ncs inSVl p 

T» BJ orrsro nunj) j-a niis^ cmpn iVwi ibv wm .Drr-cnoi nn arhv 
mm niSOTl "';n ^B (ibid. Preface p. a— 3)[ but 10 judge from the specimen* 
Iren by him [AiJ. p, 73— T4) ttete were no parodies among ibeie salirei. 
is there, to my knowledge, any paiudy against tbe Karaites in the Rabbinic 
ejeepting a few biting puns such ai Thy Jt^l H\*^ Ti- 1= 1^1 lljf nln, 
a pajody of Job rii, 9, directed against Ibc Kaiaitei Anan and Saol, and 
rtijiV enure WH O'lnpn, a parody of vnwie I'KP ITip l^"' (TaL Bab. Moed 
¥stn. >6a). 

u See D. Kobn'i ed. of Abraham Ibn E«ii's poetry iWaiaaw 1894), ttA. I 
MM. 4—6, aa, 6ai loL n pt. 1 p. 60—63. 



4 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JE\\1SH UTEBiATURE 

is written in this style, and such is its intrinsic merit, that even 
a prose translation preserves a great deal of the original force. 

CONCKRSING TKR FLIES U 
"To whom shall I run (or help id my trouble, to whom ibnil I compliin 
of the riviging flies thai rob me of my brenth, and like enemies press 
h^rd OB me! They mn across my eyes and brows, and whisper love 
songi in my eacs. I wani to eat my meal alone, but Ihey, like irolvet, 
share it with roe, and drink from my cup of wine as if tbey were invited 
guesU or kin. Tliey spam Ihe poition I allot them of old wine and fal 
of IKmb, but Ihey Ihirst after my wine and hunger after my food. And 
when I invite my fiiends to dine, il is they who sit at Ihe head of the 
Isble. But I hope the wtoler will destroy Ihem with its cold wind and 
■DOW, and rain, eUc I woold despise life on their account". 

It was probably in the same century, that Menahem ben 
AaronM wrote the Hymn for the Night of Pitrhn, which was 
embodied in the Mahsor Vitry'*. It parodies the Hymn for 
the First Night of Passover by Meir ben Isaac"*, imitating 
it more in form than in diction ''. The parodist, apparently 

IJ D'2ai:i in aid. vol. I no. 13. 

14 So little is known of the author, that it is impossible to say with 
certainty when he lived. Though the "Mahior Vitry wu begun in the life 
time of Raihi (cire. iloo), it continued to receive additions many years later" 
{Einlfiiung a. RegisUr aim Mackior Vilry p. 172, aJ$0 Gross, GalUs yudrnta, 
p. 196). But, according to Dr. Berliner {Bintiilung, p. 173), the addition of 
Eliezer ben Aaron [Maliior Vitry p. 6oo) would be the latest, if he \% tbe safne 
man who flounsbcd in the time of MeirAbulafia (iiSo — 1244). This points to 
one thing, that by 1244 Menai^em's hymn was already included in the Mahior 
Vitry. Zuni, again, includes Menahem among Ihe poets who flourished between 
1140 and 1300 {ZJIgescJi, p. 453, 485). We may, therefore, meet him half 
way and accept 1140 as possibly the earliest, while keeping 1144 as the latest 
landmark in the life of Menaliem. Still, it seems (o me, that we can safely assign 
him to the twelfth century, i. c. nearer Ihe original compilers, because his hymn 
il not marked as an addition, though it is true that not all additions are so 
indicated (FJnlnlung p. 173; MonaludiriJI vol. 46, p. 578, no. 1 57). 

>S Vl p™ p DWO "1 TIMIOB tnini ysa (Maljsor Vitry, Berlin, 1893—1897, 
p. 583-584). 

'6 Zuni {Lilgesth. p, 73) counts this poem among the anonymous. See 
Berliner, EMtiOtng p. iSo. 

•7 The original, not contained in the printed Mahior Vitry but found in 
the Bodleiftn ms. no. 1100 fol. 63 et sqq. (EiiilnniHg p. \io), consists of the 
following divisions: I) nsn ^B IfW D"«B» i"i, a) Tf}*>T\ m Kin cniBB W, 

3) Dime i^3H ,noe, 4) vpnt pw d«4 nSnn ,noD, s) k^" P° cnt» ^h, 



1. THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 5 

■bas no Other aim than to dress a wine-song in the garb of a 
religious hymn. The burden of the song is, that on Purim one 
must throw off all care and anxiety. "This night [of I'urim] is 
a night for drunkards, a night for wine drinking and rejoicing... 
On this night all creation is intoxicated , . , and woe betide the 
man, who should put forth his hand for the bitter water. The 
day of Purim is a day of feasting and drinking and merry- 
making'"*. But in order to make our happiness complete, we 
I must remember the needy, and share our luxuries with those 
^wbat are in want of them'». 

^V About the year uoo, Joseph Zabara composed his satires on 
^^Miysidans and women*", which contain a number of parodies. 
^^Bwch as the four recipes to cure fever and other maladies, and 
^Bme prayer of the henpecked husband ". It is also likely, that 
H Zabara had before him a Hebrew translation of the Aphorisms 
of Hippocrates, and that the FAj'siciaiis' Aphorisms, in its entirety, 
^^ is a parody of the work of Hippocrates". 
^L This brings us to the thirteenth century, and the first to 
^Bsttract our attention by his parodies is Judah H^rizi'^. He 

6) T^yhV miJ unp W'7, 7) Tn.n» atb \sae » V. Tbe third port contains twenty. 
two TCTses, forming in theii second words an acrostic ol the stpbabet- All 
these Tersei begin with the word mc, and end alternately with noC in -Kn 
ud not in 13'3, the one deicHbing the Passover of the past, the other the 
PtMover of the future. In tile French Ritual, however, they all tenninale 
with the ttords riDB in -VZ (Zuni, Lilg. p. 85). The parody contains forty-five 
itnuBS, the first two and the lost two consisting of four verses each, the 



* 



9 'fb is changed to 0"il3O 'r'} 
c which begins with the twenty- 



■ my edition of Zabara's three 



lemaining ones, only of rhyming couplet: 
ud fiBB jn "n'3 to oniB in ^^3, The ai 
fifth *erse goes only as fur as the letter 

<> Slanzai 1—3, 10. 

>9 Staniu 21, 23. 

"• For a full treatment of these satin 
Mlircs TVahTt t^v. N. Y. 1904- 80, 32 p, 

" "pna Twi -o-a 11pm -wit ,pTDi moiirer ha" iH./. p. ai— 2z; -rhwi -wi" 
, , m»nn rw moD id ■!» »ra . . , iwn ra "n i^, iiiJ. p. 31- 
•' Oi/. p. 7. 

>i Though bom in 1 165, Hariii began his Tahkemoni during his tr*f eU 

Egypt, and since be arrived in Egypt after the death of M^monides (ia<H), 

the Tahkemoni belongs to the Ihliteenth century [Sec TaJiitmnni, ed. Komioka, 



p. ix, I 



ix> 



6 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATORE 

changed parody from a mere literary toy into an instrument 
of satire. FTis extensive travels brought the whole panorama 
of Jewish life under his observation, and enabled him, in his 
itineraries, to criticize the follies and foibles of his contemporaries. 
His great skill lies in drawing a vivid picture in few words. He 
sketches the outline boldly, emphasizes with a few strokes of 
the pen some peculiar characteristics and leaves the imagination 
to complete the rest His art, therefore, reminds us of carica- 
ture, Tiiis is best exemplified in the twenty-fourth chapter of 
the Tahkcmoni'*, which treats of the religious life of the Jewish 
community in the city of Mosul'*. With a few masterly touches 
he succeeds in making the community live before us, but every- 
thing is subordinated to its religious phase. After telling us, in 
as few words as possible, of the extent, beautj- and wealth of 
the city, he takes us into the synagogue, where the people are 
gathered for devotion. There we come into tlie presence of the 
yazzan, the man that leads the congregation in prayer, who is 
the central figure, and the main object of his satire. He examines 
him minutely. His hat, his beard, his dress, his gait, everything 
is noted, all of which is calculated to impress us with his dig- 
nity and to make the subsequent ridicule stronger by contrast. 
And the ridicule is brought about by means of parody. For, 
the Hazzan, though dignified and imposing in appearance, proves 
to be so ignorant, that he stumbles over the most ordinary 
prayers, confusing vowels and skipping consonants, making the 
most absurd medley of the simplest sentence. Thus, for example, 
instead of "He who covers the heavens with clouds {Pi. 
cxivii, 8)", he reads "He who covers the heavens with clothes"**, 
and so on. 

In the tenth chapter of the Talfkenwni, Harizi chooses the 
mock-heroic for the vehicle of his satire. His object seems to 
be to decry the religious custom of killing fowl on the morning 

'4 Talitemoni ed. Kambka, p. 220 "VlHimi vans» 11BD1 .vnl^Dm 111* rr^". 
»5 Jiid. p. XXXV. 

j6 ■■n-tia a-ae noSDfl :1DK ,tnai D'SW ncson aipMl" The other parodies 
do not lend themselvet to transUtion. 



t THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 7 

efore the Day of Atonement. But not content with branding 
this custom a. stupid superstition, he brings the rooster, the 
traditional scapegoat on these occasions, on the scene to plead 
his own cause. From the top of the synagogue, whither it has 
fled for safety, the rooster harangues a big crowd, and denounces 
man's ingratitude, "Have I not served mankind faithfully ?"— asks 

fe rooster — "Have I not roused them for prayer in the morn- 
j and entertained them with my voice in the day, and have 
not brought forth a whole brood of young fowl for their 
pleasure? Besides, what good can come from killing me now, 
that I am old and lean? The healthy cannot relish my tough 
flesh, and the sick will only die sooner if they taste it." Such 
is the Sermon of the Rooster, couched in the language of the 
Prophets''. 

Equally clever and humorous is his mock-heroic poem: The 

Ant and the Flea*^, which was undoubtedly inspired by 

Abraham Ibn Ezra's poem on the flies. l:Iarizi was the first 

to parody a whole Biblical narrative**. In telling how he came 

to write tlie Tattkemoni, he parodies the story which Eliezer 

the servant of Abraham told to Laban {Genesis xxiv, 42—48), 

applying metaphorically the virtues of Rebekah to the Hebrew 

language, and Eliczer's conduct to his own efforts in the cause 

^^if Hebrew literature^. He is also to be credited with the 

^Hfet paUnode, a literary form closely allied to parody, an example 

^Be which is the eighth chapter of the Tahl'emoni^^. 

Another poet-parodist of the thirteenth century was Judah 
ben Isaac Ibn Shabbethai, a native of Toledo, or Burgos. Tluee 
satires are known by him, in each one of which he showed 






»T [Vji-in mi^nl beg, minn -vs/f, ft» -btii •'>* irtw (ibid- p. 105—107). 
•» fmriBn tw ntean v*] ihid. ch, 4, p. 46—54- 

*9 pModies of £ing1e Biblicil sentencei are already found in eirliei lilera- 
, the paiodiei in Tal. Yeru. mentioned in note 10 above. For simple 
in the wrttines of Abraham Ibn Eiia, see K. Albrecht, StuJim tu 
Diiktungtn Abrahams ben Etta. ZDMG, vo!. 57, p. 4al— 473i "Iso Leipiig, 
1903. 8". S3 p, 

» Ta^kemoni, ed. K, p. 8— 9, beg.: ..,\ST. S« QW »3K1, 

ji ".Tnu nmtt r*"^ nnn"r3i jmir nii« i^ma" ibid. ch. a, p. 84. 



8 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

his skill as a parodist. His first satire, entitled The Gift of 
yudahi\ was written in 1208^), and in the fashion of the 
day was dedicated to Abraham Alfakar, in order to obtain 

J' n"W2n HJW rmn- nniD Ed. pr. i. 1. e- ». [ConBtaaiinopIe, cite t543ii 
Salonick, ciic. 1600-, also in Ashkennzi't O'lp) DDB (Frnnkfon a/M. 1S54), foL 
I— la. The phrase "Wo man- Hater" [B'»)n H3W] should be construed as a 
second title, not ai au adjective phrase relating to Judah. That this phrase 
has only an apposjtional meaning can be seen fiom the opening lines of 
Bedorshi'i d'bj aniit: p min' ~i 'jnjn ■^■hxh njop nns TTsHn asira nrun" 
"□"Vl tt]W riH-tp >1^n -vtrax and again fiom the closing paragraph of the 
sane satire WW D'Binn p bith min' «in . , . *Kra» p min" ij n«2 n»»is»m" 
"DVl^ (See below doIc 35). Tbe word intiDS has undoubtedly been omitted 
here before Klllf, and in that case the word FlTn need not assume the meaning 
of DUOn as suggested by Stein Schneider {LclUrbode, XII p. 67 note 36). 

n The nnmeious doubts raised about the dale of composilion of this satire 
make the following lengthy discussion indispensable. Id the ed. o( 1854 
(f. 12 a), the year l2lS is given as the date of compotilion (VVnl D'S^K rui3'W3 
nlpO^ Drri3((S ,.i1B omS nr'n ,niaffl O'lasn rwtO) and this is corroborated by 
the Ktlhihah (f. 8 b), which is dated 1217 {BBM D'l)'!« nn^K2 , , . roBl T3"Q 
;mm Q'SSIsn mHt:). Bnt in a us. copy of this satire, which Halbeistam 
described in Kobalt's TllKr' (VII p. 33 et sqq.) the year IJoS is mentioned 
in two places as the date of composition, with the additional date 1135 
("Tilpo^ Drm«V nivn niionH n'Wttn wkd sun D-Diiit miH;" ibid, p. ly, ram" 
"DTSJ iinoo 'a 11m cr mam o-iinw luwai ,nnni (t^i aro) niicn □"»» »*»</. 
p. 37), The date 1108 is further strenEthened by the fact, that the D'»3 mw, 
a satire in defense of women, which was eiptessly written against the satin 
of Ibn Shabbethoi, was eampleted in mo (iniT, VH p. 34). In addition to this, 
Halberstam pointed out another passage in the ms. which shows that Ibn 
Shabbethai made the liist draft of this satire when he was twenty years old, and 
then re-wrote it twenty years later, .rvrnpn nil .rrms' 'h -«i n» B-iBW p" 
.'TTmna rsin 11331 .a-rois ^Dum »]iMsai .rrwcn n-wiitn ruwai {ibid, aid.). 
Taking all these points into consideration, Halberstam justly decided, that the 
satire went through three revisions. It was first drafted, when tbe author was 
twenty years old [118S], then re-written when he was forty years, and that 
was in l2oS. the date found in the ms., and finally in 1225 the reply to 
Hayyim Ibn Sanihun was added (111W f*W. p. 34). This is the best reconci- 
liation of all the contradictory statements. The only remaining difiicalty is the 
date [317, found in the Kilhuimh; bnt in the face of the previous discre- 
pancies, we may safely assume, that if this part of the ms. were examined, we 
would find the Kftkabah dated 1207 instead of 1217. (The ms. is now 
in the Montefiore Library. See Cat. HirsihftU, No. 458), For some inexpli- 
cable reason, David Katifmann ipSlt. gel. Am. 18S5 p. 441), and after him 
Ste ins chn eider [Lilterbode, XII p. 73J, assumed thai l3oS was the year in 
which Ibn Shabbethai made tbe lirst draft of his satire, and since the second 
version was written twenty yean later they were obliged to emendate 1335 




I. THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



his patronageit. The construction that has generally been put 
upon this satire is, that it was directed against women and 
marriage. That it was so regarded even in the thirteenth 
century, can be seen from the fact that two satires in defense 
of women were written in that century as a direct reply to it^*. 
Undoubtedly it was the appositional title (B1?in RiVP = Woman 
Hater) that created this impression. But there is internal evi- 
dence in tiie satire to prove that Ibn Shabbethai did not take 
the part of the misogj'nist, and that his satire is as much 
directed against the woman-hater as against women. The motif 
of the satire is plainly and unequivocally stated in the opening 



f 



"Take thU book, which telli tbe itory of a man, whose soul wu cough) 
in the nares or a woman. I will telt in it his sorrowa and his iCmggtci, 
•nd I will make his tribulations a. bj-word, lo that men shall not lake lo 
Ui« side paths but keep (a the middle of the load of life. 1 will gallier 
nen of nndetslanding and men of mora! character, and lift np my voice 
in the Bssembly and say: 'Go ye men in a straight line, for all climbing 
ends in going downward.'..." 

Evidently this satire is directed against those who go to ex- 
tremes. It is both a warning to the misogynist and a protest 
against hasty marriage. This view is further strengthened by 
the character and fate of the hero of the story, a brief de- 
scription of which may be given here. Zerah promises his 
father TahkemoniJ' never to marry, and afterwards leads an 

into I118. Thi«, of course, brought about still greater confusion, and led Stein- 
■cfaneider to exclaim: "Ich weiss hier keinen Ausweg" [iiiJ. p, Jt). 

i* rmrr nmo ed. lS;4 p. ub— lla; Erich uad Gruber, vol. 2S p. 434 
\'V, VII p. 34; UttirMf, XII p. 68. 

is The first satire OTPl miB (The Help of Women, or The Hall for Women) 
■u written bj one Isaac in laio. It was lirsl published with an introduction 
byUalbentam in Kobik'» Jl-flT VII p. 33— 61 (see ^%a Liliniodi, XII p. 63— 65). 
The second satire Q'Vl snw (The Woman Lover) wu wHilen by Jedaiab 
Stdutbi in his eigbteenlh year, i- e. in 1198. It was fir^t published by Nen- 
bwer in JtAtUchn/i aim yoim Giiurltlag dis Dr. L. Zhhi (Berlin, 18S4) 
f. I— 19. See alio D. Kaufmaon, Gil/, gel. Ant. 1885 p. 436—447; t-'l'fiedf, 
«W. 67—69. 

* rrmt' wsa, ed. 1854 p. L 

a For this reason the book was alio named mi IK (Ziini, irtDfl cod. 11; 
■0. 7: Neubauet, Cat. no. igSo.t, and -Hearts (mi. M&nchen no. 336). It wai 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

open crusade against marriage. Alarmed at his triumphs, the 
women plan his downfali. One of them, Cozbi, vows to bring 
this about with the aid of her liusband, Sheker. Finding Zerah 
proof against all persuasion, thej' induce a beautiful woman to 
flatter him and tempt him into love. The scheme proves 
successful. In spite of his public remonstrances against marriage, 
Zerah falls a victim to the graces of the beautiful tempter, and 
asks her hand in marriage. The Kethvbah, or marriage con- 
tract, is drawn up by Cozbi and Sheker, and the hour of 
marriage Is nearing. But at the last moment, the beautiful 
woman disappears, and an ugly, garrulous, ill-tempered hag 
disguises and takes her place and becomes the lawful wife of 
Zerah. Cozbi and Sheker return in triumph to announce their 
victory, and Zerah is left to the mercy of his ill-tempered 
companion, This, evidently, is not only a satire on women, 
but also a reproach to those who despise them. The hero is 
not put up as a paragon of virtue, but ratlier as an object 
lesson to the woman-hater i'. 

In point of style, the satire shows the influence of the Bible 
and the mediaeval romances. The love scene between Zerah 
and the fair woman is in true romantic fashion, each lover ex- 
pressing the admiration of the other in injpassioned \'ersesi9. 
On the other hand, the scene of Zerah's humiliation is completely 
Job-like in its setting. Like Job, he is visited by three friends 
who come to console liim, and like Job, he listens patiently to 
their eloquence, while his salvation is brought about in a manner 
altogether unexpected. 

In this satire parody is used to advantage in two instances. 
When Cozbi sets out on her errand of vengeance, she offers 
a prayer to "Him who implanted the burning passion in the 



il»o confused with Ihe Tahkimeiti of Judah Hariri (Sleinscbneider, nilBB 
Hvnv p. 159). 

3S Immanuel in liis third Mahberctli (pwin tbva) lalinzes the woman who 
shuns ihe society of men- Hei fa.te is even worse than that of the woman-hater. 

39 .-rrtrr mio ed. 1854 f. 7b— Sb. 



I. THE BEGDmWCS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE II 

hearts of the daughters of Eve"*", which is couched in good 
bturgical style, and again, when the marriage is to be con- 
sumated, the Kelhubah, or Jewish marriage contract, is parodied 
in a unique way. The text of the Kethubah is paraphrased, 
each clause of tlic original being followed by one or more clauses 
rhyming witli it, setting forth the awful plight of the ill-paired 
couple. In other words, the original serves as a frame-work to 
the parody* '- 

The second satire of Ibn Shabbethai b his Dialogue Between 
Wisdom and Wealth''*, written in 1214'J. The subject of 
the Dialogue is as follows: Peleg and Joktan, twin brothers, 
are disputing the relative merits of wisdom and wealth. One 
considers wisdom, the other wealth, the most potent power in 
life**. They come before Todros Abulafia (the father of the 
antt-Maimonist Meir Abulafia) to ask his opinion. Peleg pro- 
duces an affidavit, signed bj- Jeroboam ben Ncbat and Elisha 
ben Abujah, that learning is of no avail, and Joktan produces 
a similar document, signed by Joseph the son of Jacob and 
Solomon tlie son of David, declaring wisdom to be the source 
of life. Each one tries to invalidate the testimony of the other. 
WTicrcupon the judge pronounces his decision, that wisdom 
and wealth are tlie two central pillars of society, and that 
neither one by itself could uphold the social frame. This decision 
is couched tn the legal form of a Pesak Diit^K And though 
there is no special merit in the parody, it nervcrtheless deserves 

•» [nwT ro ■na rton] beg. ! . . . 10 *i ib 01^ run ,iORrri "ao Wewi 
{fkid. r. 6 b). 

41 [miroa mul beg.; ... me ran vih ram ,ra»a "raia {HtJ. £ 8b— 9«). 

« ...^z^ -fra npn ito ... -iwrm noann nsn^o Con*t 15*3 (?) [ifip.J; 
reptisled in ■111.TI fScn ^3. Warsav 1SS4 p. 116—130. 

U Thii U »e«a fiom the aflid>*Its, ooe of which it ligned 10'U .TW 
Trprm *bA ite oihet -rs'pnn p-Da mswa. 

»* "rwip fnro m\r -m idik nn ,:ijip nosnn "pre •sxk* m" (j*tf. ed. w»r- 

MW. p. 119). 

•A -K* m ... Drrjp inn -^ni iwirni ^wn . . . -SB^ p aanoa map ip [»c" 
tA . . . np'jn p DnV 1-110 jip-BD -ta pn p nifu .'Vp rh-a -oiti nn -bw rfiia 
•TTrt 131 .tti na TiaV -min tnH ^ai ^ta {ibid. p. 110). Thi» puiagc ii ttms- 
faMd inlo G«raiwi bjr A. Geigct ^idiicht Dichtungtn, Leipiig 1856, p. 39k 



17 HISTORY OF PARODY W JEWISH LITERATURE 

to be mentioned as the first of its kind, while the Dialogue 
as a whole gains in interest, when we compare it with similar 
satires in the general literature of the middle ages. Thus, while 
the Tractatiis Garsiae ThoL-tani cationici dt- Albino et Rustic 
exposes the corruption of the Papal court in the time of Urban II, 
and shows how Pope, Cardinal and Monk were blinded by the 
sparkle of silver and tlie glitter of gold {Albinus et Rufinus)'*, 
the Dialogue holds up a Talmudist as the impartial judge of 
the merits of wisdom and wealth. 

The third satire of Ibn Shabbethai is polemic in character. 
That he had enemies who tried to belittle his literarj' work, 
is already apparent from the epilogue to the Gifl of fudak*'', 
in which he repudiates the charge of plagiarism, brought against 
him by Hayyim Ibn Samhun. Hut from the third satire, The 
Writ of Excommunication''^, it appears, that five prominent 
men of Saragossa'' denounced him publicly*', and destroyed 
a book of his, which seems to have been a history of the great 
men of his day s'. Embittered by this persecution, he turned 

t* See Sthneeeans, Gesch. d. GroUskeH Satire [StraQburg 1894), p. 69. 

47 Ed. 1854, f. iia— lab. 

*8 miiTl nilin "QT still in ms., formiDE the third fascicle of cai. 1980 
in the Bodleian (Nenbauer, Cat. 1980, 3, t, 53-64)- The full inscription rcadi 
as foUowj; D-sn tiiiB wmw 13 rmrT' -t mn iDon ^p3 td" iwk -nim Thixn nn 
nODp-iD (ppO bvh^ -la "inK mren in] inf^. The words in brackets ate written 
in the ms. above tbe line, and Neubauer (1. c.) oicribes them to Samion 
Modan. An exict copy of this satire was mide (or me by Rei. Moses H. Segal 
of Oxford, and Mr. A. Cowley was kind enough to consult with him in the 
deciphering of several difficult passages. 

49 The five men named in the ms. are as follows: 1) H»icm flS^riB DISK 
...Mre iBD Kin binn aii nipesai n ,Vai^ (f. 56a); a) aino rm p zratn 
...TtSKi *itS -avsn ,^3n' imi ban m,i ^yh riahv nflDQ(f. sSb); 3) 3(ru.Ti».Ti 
...rmaa prvr i^ptre fpv ,nhT jtS iii iph ,n^w.inf. 59b); 4} ,^inn ]pia vrani 
...DBn is Tpon pina ... miinu nta^B? ,nmiD nfico pw .^Inp" wiDDa(f. 6o»); 
5) *enu*uiK i»0D»;ninsa tkb tkoq ji^d ,-a «^ -a ,-QMm ypem [(. 60b), 

S" On C S4b we read as follows: 1DVn nnir TOt . . . niw JW 'ijiB D'^IH yi 
TtrtiTf VM bv n»V 1lr31 ... pn, and again on f. 61b as follows: 

-iBo WO >^i ni 1KW iai 'ja 

.TBiom omnni inuni yin'm 

H Thi* fact ii stated Ln two placet On f. 540 we read: n-Pilbt itim 



[ I. THE BEGINNINGS OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 1 3 



t his t 



s and fought them v 



1 their 



veapon — denun- 
"ciation. He opens the satire with an account of his grievances 
against these five men and their accomplices, and follows it up 
with a spirited description of tlie character of his principal 
opponents, in which all the inveighing and piquant epithets at 
his command arc used unsparingly. He is most severe on 
Abraham ben Samuel Lobel (^"31^), the secretarj' of the com- 
munity. He charges him with forger)', bribery, and extortion. 
If this man be present at a wedding, says our satirist, the 
marriage is sure to turn out a failure. If he pray for the sick, 
ihej' are sure to die; if he pray for rain in a dry season, there 
is sure to be 3 drought in the land, and woe to the departed 
sou! at whose funeral this man should deliver tlie oration, for 
then God will surely be severe in his judgment- With the other 
four men he is more lenient, but he includes them all in his 
ban, which is a poetic paraphrase of the formula current in 
the middle ages", and closes the satire with a parody of the 
Requiems^, assigning the souls of all his opponents to ever- 
lasting perdition. 

Carried away by liis temper, Ibn Shabbeth^ is at times coarse 
in his denunciation. On the other hand, though the parodies 
lack the poetic beauty found in tlie remainder of his satire, his 
graceful style and felicitous rhyme save them from being as 
dull as the later parodies of this particular t>'pe. His is the 
first and undoubtedly the cleverest parody of the E.\communi- 
cation and the Requiem*'. 

oA n-n Rii ,Trwrti rnijrt n'n ibd imwi . . . mpaa nsp isj* ...y-inrt b>»ih\t 
(Coapuiy] Pt't^a "iiTDn . . . iTwiti i3ira Taw iwn .mum lisw dbti mn'^ ,«iib 
, . . B"3^."n yimn "iRn-i . , . o-a-Bini o'liiBsni . . . Disarm o'Tcnn and igun 
aw £ ssh— 56a: BiTinii -ur n:in no" hi'} nppi . , . iiin tntv on» vm. 

i' The parody, eiicnding from f. 6j» lo 6ib, begioi u follows; mtJ2 
•[Vip -Otm ffV. a. Dinn riBU in n-n nrrrw of Rabbi Aaton of Liinel (Beilin 
190*, p. 503—504). 

a ranrai naspn l.eg. : nmm ynt rmm bj.t) (f. Cja— 64a). 
54 Here may b« given a lew timpl« parodies found In tbe latires of Ibp 
bbetbai : 
I) ••vn "Vi WH ■Vm" (mw mm ed. 1854 f. 3b) parodiM Micha »ii. 6. 
3) "TDrr ^H TVni 'n pni" (Md. t. 9b) parodie* EccL i», 8. 



M 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



Another point worth dwelling upon and of special interest to 
the student of folk-lore is his reference to the imaginary boms 
of a cuckold**, which is perhaps the earliest instance in Hebrew 
literature**. This proves at least, that this popular superstition 
of the Greeks, which, tlirougli Italian literature, has become the 
common property of all European people, was already in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century familiar to the Jews. 

Thus, parody had its beginning in the early part of the 
twelfth century, and, with the single exception of Menahem ben 
Aaron's hymn, all parodies of this period sprang from Spanish 

3) Speakine of uatiinely gray hair, he siyi: ,m«D Vipi ,WV fa^ni" 
"Q'lai H301 D'TlnW inn [iHJ. f. ion), parodying Tal. Bab. Befa, lob. 
Again, wishing to cmphasiie the fact, that no one takes his tveallh witb him 
to the grave, he styi: 

.u^'s- «^ am ,ii^«i' i>n«o nrui «i ,n',nn rhwi iSBi "msi .fi'fi'n laj nin- dk" 
'■"13)^ iD'3 inii Tn3 1^ TKfnnEf 'di ,'ii3h'? )1?i31 ^3 n'r warn »ti33i 
psnum .-roann ranhn ed. Warsaw p. 119), parodying Tal Bab. Shabbath 1531. 

In the article J^ami^ in the 7rtii//^ Eneycbpedia, I hastily assumed that the 
parodies of the Requiem iirst came into vogue io the iSth century. 

iS In speaking of Jo»eph ben Isaac Benveniste flTWl rton '131, fol, 59 b), 

jHoip nn nriBB nuio np*? itus ,r"i3n^ ui'irrw Hnr ,n»JS33 pns' yippo hdV 
,i"np BUT 'npi ,mp aiiai jV^w lijii ,v3pp loonii ,v^5 ntni ,rTBwV iS -wi 

".ii'npiB' nasn t»k-io -in uii mms^ 'nn nun 
The closing line alludes In the Islb Benediciion; nriP" pp mWB ""K3. 
5^ There is one passage io the TaJmad, where the idea of itnpidity U ex- 
pressed by the word "homed" : lOK ^0» nO rrb 110K rrV2 mn K^ ... n'J>o i»a" 
"Kill-ip «^H KJljBn IK^ n-S nOK Kiuon in^ (Tal. Bab. Kidd. as a), which Jastrow 
(Dkliimary, s. v. Hn'^3) renders "thy name ought not to be Hamnuni bnt Kar- 
nnna, i. e. homed or stupid". Bui, in addition to the fact that the etymology 
of this word is doubtful, it has no reference to woman's unfaithfulness. There 
ii, bowever, a passage in the cn miTlK of R. Aaron of Lnnel (cited by 
Lniiatto in D-rrr niB, I p. 3), where "homed" is used in the seme of cuckold. 
It reads al follows: lOlK nil ,ip03 TaT\ -WK lOlK HI . . , BK^IO "U lismff ThuV 

'^l■lp nmp •»« -»w nil ,niii nxip -noti, Kobut (Dioa iiis s. v. Kiu-yj. over- 
looking the context, inteipreted the word p'^p to mean stupid, which msliei 
the passage untnlelligible. Dr. J. Z. Laulerbach called my atlentioii to Che 
foUowing passage in Isaac ibn Sahulah's 'lia^pn ^va (Fcankf. a/0. iSoo fol. aS a) 
'I'le -llj pp '3 VlBn Tonn JT Kil", which likewise has reference to a roan 
who was betrayed by his wife. Compare also Lftlrrboje, XII. p, 54 line 4 
from below and p. 79 line 3 fiom above. 




. In the century that elapsed between the epigrams of Ibn Ezra 
and the satires of Ibn Shabbethai, parody grew and developed, 
although it did not attain to a distinct place in literature. The 
poet and the satirist used it occasionally for effect, but did not 
cultivate it as an art. With the parodies of Ibn Shabbethai, 
moreover, we practically reach the concluding chapter in the 
histor>' of Jewish parody in Spain, For the parody of Todros 
ben Joseph Abulafia (1234 — 1304), written about 1291 in reply 
to Abraham Bedarshi's eulog)', is known only by name*', and 
Isaac Pulgar's travesty of a Pt-sak Din in his Dialogue between 
the Theologian and the Pliilosopker^^, written about a century 
after Ibn Shabbethai's similar parody, is not significant enough 
to be regarded as a continuation of the Spanish parody of the 
thirteenth centurj'. During the next seven decades the art of 
parody was neglected, and when it began again to flourish, it did 

rno longer in the Iberian Peninsula but in Provence and in Italy. 



CHAPTER 11 

PARODY IN PROVENCE AND IN ITALY IN THE 
FOURTEENTH CENTURY 



Parody was first developed into a distinct branch of literature 
Provence and in Italy. Traces of it are already found 
in Provence as early as the twelfth century. The hymn of 
Mcnahem ben Aaron, who undoubtedly was a native of Southern 
France, is an example. In the tliirtecnth centurj-, we find an 
anonymous parody of the A^iuirotli^ of Rabbi Elijah ha- 
Zaken *, also a wine-song, which Prof. Schechter regards as 

n See bdow p, 17, doIc 10. 

1* [p pDB] beg. : . . . B'^SVen ITTiaVI IItSk in lul ifllKyfal D> 'JltKI tKti 
(Atbknui. W^f en. Fnmkfuit ^VL 1854, L 18ft— 19a). See alio G. Beluco, 
/mot Pitbar't Sufpurl ^ Iht Rtligien |J. Q. R. XVII, z£— 5& Eipeclalljr p. 39 
not. 1^ 

> "Ml nrr roK pl'a" DIIBS nrvnK Cat. Kaiiinavia. 18S4 No. 96. 

= See LiitL i. Orienti. 1850 No». 4, S. 7. S, 10; J. Boienberg, T 'OTID yzx? 

vnr^ B-iiw p. ss— 73- 



l6 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

"one of the jolliest and wildest parodies for the feast ofPurim''^, 
preserved in a Mahzor* by a French copyist of the name of 
Benjamin (fl. circ. 1276), and the satiric utterances of the Zohar 
against the Talmud couched in the form of homiliess. 

But the first important attempt at parody in France dates 
from the last decade of the tliirteenth century. When Todroa 
ben Joseph Abulafia, nephew of Meir Abulafia, came in 1290 
to Bayonne in the retinue of Sancho IV*, the Jews of France 
took occasion to honor him, and Abraham Bedarshi in a 
rhymed prose epistle told him how deeply his co-religionists 
admired and esteemed him as statesman and maecenas of 
Hebrew letters', The epistle called forth an epigram on the 
part of Abulafia* and brought about a warm friendship 
between the statesman and the scholar. Later, Bedarshi 
addressed to him another eulogy in the form of a parody on 

i S. Schecbtei, Sludifi in j/itilaiim. Philadelphia 1896 p. 265. 

4 Cat. Britiik Mtnum, Add. 11639. 

5 M. H. Landau«r wos the firtt to detect the anti-Talmadic spirit of the 
Rdya Mchemcna {firlfnl, 184S. coL 570— 571). Enlarging upon the theory 
ofl^ndauer, Graeli (f wrA. Vn^, 440— 441) cited additional attacks of the Zohar 
on the Talmud, the Elrongeit of which is the foilowing: masa Drr-n nK 1TW1" 
,(«n'"i3 «n ■riK'i rniajj t33\ .wia^n inia o'la^ai ,Tsini ^pa loina .B-enpa nrp 
■'n«m tn now DfmaP ^a rs (Zohar. Genwis 27a; alio Num. isja with slight 
Tariations). The other saliric passages in the Zohar are as follows; Genesis, 
27b— 28a, beg.: nitwi m; LeTilicns, gSa, beg.: 3"^ '3 V\*; Numbers, ajia, 
beg,: IIBS IP Hip "3; Deuteronomy, 279b, beg.! ,,,)Ad rf* ...B'T WlB. 

<t Graeti, GeKk. VTI', p. 188. 

7 The whole correipondence, under the title: V\\b "WTia D.TaW 3V1 3n3" 
""iSn 011TW) was edited by Mordecai Thama in hi< tp3 nvaso (Amst. 1765), 
f 23I1 — 26a. The first letter of Bedaishi beginning pK XlOTt is also found 
in Polak's ed. of Bedarshi's n-Jan Omn, Atosterdam 1865. 

8 The brCTily of the epigram permits quotation (t]Da rracil f. 23b): 
en.T 'B ? ai '■-■a mm •\'\'v ■ = '!a'n iiaji -a^ >^3ijj> t»" .'^J ' "=1?; "'"d "P'"" 
nintviit Ten nua 'n»a ? ""a-j -a ipit \» 'Sij -d -^iv '3 ,■ faipi i^'i-ea ■•5i,E> 

."ai '"5 nan» is '^a's npwi -a ,m'n 
[« Ct -niff T^J a-W Ps. 104,34. '' Cf. '^K JlffiS 13^ m a-ij> Jer. 30,21, c Cf. 
D"Dn ^a"D i-OB aS. 17,20. <" Cf. nai mnr 'o is. 51, 10. ' Cf. v» aiE9 n'-ii 
1^ mnnmni i S. is, 5. f cf. aip 'iao nnan miB Ecc. 9, 18, t Cf. tbp trtwa ^31 
fwn Is. 40, 12. l> Cf. -p"! IIB 31 -iiV. Jer. Sl> 36- ' = c !■ = d. The mean- 
Ing of the closing verse i( that the little stream is in love with the large 
expanse of water, ai "0 is to be constmed with -p\. 



U. PARODY IN PROVENCE AND IN ITALY 



J7 



a part of the Passover Haggadah'. Pleased with the novelty 
the parody, the Spanish statesman emulated his friend and 
iwered him in the same strain, carrying the parody forward 
im the pront where Bedarshi left off". In answer to this, 
larshi once more took up the strain of the Haggadah and 
led the parody still further", closing with a parody of the 
lusaph Prayer". 

Though these epistles have nothing of tlie humorous or satiric 
them, they belong to the literature of parodies, because of 
their playfulness in imitating the ritual. They bubble over with 
praise of the man, and turn the religious hymns into compliments. 
The parody of Abulafia is no longer in existence, but judging 
from liis epigrams, it is safe to say, that it would have ranked 
with the best of its kind. 

It was also in the last decade of the thirteenth century, that 
Immanuel of Rome began to write his satires'^. As a parodist, 
Inunanuel occupies a unique position in Hebrew literature. We 
leave off reading his satires with the impression of having enjoyed 
\y parodies on Biblical as well as Talmudical passages, and 
there is but little in all his writings that can truly be called 

9 [minn in ^b i^in nn vn mftiBO nrio] {iM. f. 24a). After ■ short 
introduction in thymed pioic, the ptrody begins: nCH iDn \OKJ yytta ip^ mu" 
-p •aw rd iinp'i mfl is followed by l»n i^ rinm ni'sifo nasi iim ip« nW 
". . . y^ lui ^-ii 1113 aior n'Ji non ijiett D^n •hn ,ij"n 'Sj, parodying in 
ay Tcrtes the Piyul ir^s OlpC^ n2\0 n'jVB nas a( the Fuiovei HaggBdnh. 

in Hij. t 15b: rtiaiS am ir^jra -isiin svt tien nnx o'ltf o'D' j-po 'n'\" 
3-n Hti K'-vtoi 3in inn ivh t^n ivon ^p ^Vipnn^ omnj in h-bw i33jn ij'oin 
"ntnaero ^wo 17 rmbhna ^-nnij nn« to ib tfivn hbrtn yvn. 

[■■IW noB] (liii/.). The parody ii introduced by the following remuk 
not iinpi T^.T nt ^p kw 03 nm to k inoj enn noon in inn m\nn sninai" 
ncen ^i:p nn»( onnnju 'Ied. Ii then begins: noano "Bp «r ,c>iso odd 
riDC, puodyioi; in 13 veriet the Piyot; '^TK □lis nDD 
'nmp^ riTlJ ,D"ffp D'lnx in^n mn nCD ,D-tSBri WS- tonnd in the PMSovet 
ti££&dih according to the ritn*! ofPmvcnce |See Edetrouio, ycR ~aip. [5 — 16; 
BedMihi, foearajn sin no. i»l> This is followed by; 1^ BlflM ...101^ nn 
^71^ Timii i^a-n iw . . . pin 'j; nuan nivh mh ^lt ,')i']ni "sV '■op. 

i-amnn -smji ,ijmna mw 



^^^leave t 






' ['pio rtsn] I 






I , inana rrn uu'wm , . . u'fwvw n«D u"ii u-stun -jbd . 
; ■) Sm Bemlcld, IDM-TUi IV p. 34 note 1. 



iS 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



parody. To do him justice, we should say that there is a 
thread of parody running through the entire web of his satires, 
which gives us this impression, And, perhaps, if this thread 
were drawn oat, it might be woven into a cloth of its own — a 
Biblical Parody, But here we can deal only with what is before 
us in complete form, and of such there are only two in all his 
satires. The one is a eulogy, so written that by a few changes 
in spelling, or even by merely separating some words into their 
component syllables, it is easily turned into a lampoon '*. In 
other words, it is a palinode; and, as such, is one of the best 
of its kind in Hebrew literature. The other is what the poet 
calls The Jesting Questions^'', which were put to him by a 
company of sixty jesters, who had heard of his caustic wit and 
effervescent humor. As the humor of these questions and ans- 
wers is mainly derived from the fact, that most of them distort 
the meaning of some Biblical or Talmudic text, we have in them 
the earliest examples of exegetic parody. Few of these questions 
and answers lend themselves to translation without numerous 
explanations. By way of illustration, however, the attempt is 
made here to render the first dialogue into English, reproducing 
also its manner of rhyming, 

"The fint man approached &nd said: 

'I am puuled in every way, for I found Ibe contrary of wbnt I was taught 
in my day. I haTC it by tradition, that Mt. Sinai was the place, wheie 
God garc the Law to out race. And now, from a booli venerable trith 
yclrs, the "Law was given in Shusban" it appears'i*. 

'Nny', saidi, 'Sinai alone saw tbe revelation orthc divine law. But Si wan 
was the time of year, and "Shosban" ibould be read here>7. That U, 
in [he month in which Ibc lily is everywhere found, did our people hew 



M n^ipi nsia d-jb "» n^i .n^^won ns'ion (rnanb, No. XI, ed. Lemberg, 
p. 86). 

ij [mWinnn n^Kon] cf. Ecd. ii, i; "^ima -man pirart". See mano No, ja 
(ed. Lcmberg, 1870, p. 175—180). 

■'<• This has reference to Esther, iii, 15: "\VVB^ nim mm" in which the 
word m (decree) 11 intenlionaJly misinterpreted as .Tiw (law). 

1 The aniwer allows the false interpretation of m to sland, and in addiliob, 
chuiges the word l|^tf, the name of Persia's capital into \^, a lily. 



the L«cd'E ibunderiog sound, and Ihcrerorc i 
temples be drest'"'^. 



i best most our 



Immanuel, tiierefore, should be regarded as the father of 
cxcgetic parody, and one of its best masters, although he did 
not cultivate it sufficiently and left it in its infancy. 

It was not until the middle of the first half of tlie fourteenth 
century, that parody became a distinct branch of Hebrew liter- 
ature. Between 1319 and 1332 three parodies were written 
which raised this form of satire into an arL In the Massekketk 
Plaint of Kalonymos ben Kalonymos, and the anonymous 
Sepkir Habakbuk ha-Nad/ti and Megillath Sflharim parody at- 
tained to an individuality of its own''. Whatever else they 
may have accomplished, they certainly made parody to be 
recognized as an art, worth cultivating for its own sake. For 
the first time men of such great renown as Kalonymos and 
Levi ben Gershon ventured to deal with the Talmud playfully". 
The numerous anecdotes and various customs that cluster about 
the jolly season of Purim are related in the solemn language 
of the Tannaim and Amoraim. That it was in no way meant 
as a disparagement of the original, need hardly be said. None 
but the obdurate fanatic could fail to see the humor of it The 
Masseklietk I^urim concludes with the following words: 

_ "Wherefoie docs this bBd close with the chapter, 'We Aie Not to Re«d' 
(pp 7H]? Because we ore not lo read this treatise except when it is 
oeitbcr daj nor night. For it was wiitlen in mere fun, to amuse people 
on Pnrim. He who reads this treatise is none the worse for it than ■X he 
read books on medicine, and similar topics, which prore bene&cial to the 
body and harmless to the soul"". 

irly, we find in the Megillath Setharim, that "wherever 



y ■■ TU* haa reference lo the custom o( decorating the synagogue with 
wtn on the fewt of Pentecost 

>9 For the bibliography and (he question of authorship of these three parodies, 
« hdow Pan n, chapter 1. 
o Paiodici of single Talmudic expressioDs are found in earlier literature, 
& g. those of Ibn Shabbethai cited abo»e in cha^j. 1, note J*. 

»' See closing paras^fh of MiKitkkflh PuHm beg.: WlSBBr B'Sm .lO'Jl 
pip \* pTKl (cniB roOD ed. Venice, f. JS^) 



20 HISTORY 01' PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

the name of the deity is mentioned in it, no sacredness should 

be attached to the name". And again: 

"Whttt is meant by Ihf Scroll of Secrecy tMegillWli Setharim]? Tranilile 
it the Scroll of Puriro. But wliy did they cbJI il the Scroll of Secrecy? 



u>d did ti 



spinl 






of old liandcd it down in secret to their pnpiU 
make il known [o ftny one unless he was poisessed by s good 
ider the influence of wjne''^!. 



These parodies, therefore, meant nothing more than that the 
Talmud, like an;- other great work of literature, had to pay the 
penalty for its popularity. Still, the more conservative element 
were indignant, and looked upon these parodies as vile profan- 
ations. Their antipathy for this class of literature in general 
was perhaps intensified by passages like the following: 

"Rabbi Abrahnm was wont to siy; 'I have ■ iradittoti from my great 
Erandparents, that whoever hu no share in the pleasures of this life will 
have no share in the pleaiurei of the future life; but he who enjoys thil 
life, will likewise enjoy the life to coilie"'>i. 

Again, 

"Children are laught on Purim. What are Ihey taught? To fight one 
another ... so thai, if they live to see Ihe days of the Messiah, they will 
be skilled in the tactics of war and «ill fight the battles of the Lord" '5. 

Otherwise, the satire of the Massekketh Purim is inoffensive. 
It ridicules the drunkard and the glutton »*, laughs at the 
raiser'', and reproaches the idler" and the professional 
mendicant's; but nowhere is the state of society attacked in 
as wholesale a manner as in the Touch Stone ^. Occasionally 

" See D'nno rhia ed. Venice, f. 4b: iniDD m lai lia *ai to» 'n la-i \T1" 

's.iVi i\T\ rnn TB03 airun 'n b: "ais ip pow "do fata »■« 'oo »'« ii'Ta ynian 

."j'lv (tnina ini'anse^ nop iinj 

'3 Mi. f, 4a, beg.: Onro rhi'a 'KQ, 

'I 'B Va ed. V. f. 23b, beg.; >l^aipa Ifl Dn"Q« -m n-OlBS Kiiia. 

»s Ibid. f. 30b (chap. i"iip I'K), beg.! Tainii Piffti-nn ."ino. 

'" liid. f. 17a (chap, -nua ntlKS), beg.: O'Saon riK I'K'atS; t 2Zb (cll^^. 

VBpn), beg.; in» niiK whi -i* V^n -1 idk; f. 24a, beg.: -ai hv \-if neit 
... 1" inpwo Ti'm pwm p S;d iV I'n-ao vn d'iibi d-mb ^ar pns' "3i3 xva 

'7 JMd. chap, -nfta intta i. 17b, beg.: isBpa piBi -pia io» 'o «>in; chap. 
T»p,T f, aib, beg.: IMp 'IT ^jf vhy nod. 

■■ /<W. chap. J'Tip l^K f. 31b, beg.: niW ^M WWT >JH. 

*9 Jiiii. chap, n-ina nn»3 f. 17a. beg.; o-it's'an Spi. 
3" ina pH Cremona, 1557. 



'we meet with a grotesque passage, as the story of the glutton, 
who do9ed his clothes and dived into a bowl of soup to look 
for his portion of raeatJ'. We also leani in passing some 
customs connected with tlie feast of Purim of which no mention 
is found anywhere else. We read, for instance, that people 
rode on horseback through the streets with pine branches 
in their hands^', or made merry round a puppet represent- 
ing Haman, which was set on an elevation amidst shouts 
of vengeance and blowing of trumpets. This custom was 
Ira, which is the Italian for vengeance^J. The custom 



W:^. 



ed. V. chip, iwn f, lab, beg.: "mn fnw "fvtn 'JH S^n '^ iiw. 
y Ibid. cb»p. B'Tie f. i8b. beg.: c-Mna DiDn Sj a"'* un, 

a Jbid. ch«p, fViTy f, 343: '«0 . . . D"11B3 [Ira] KTK fWfi ITO n'l'D Ijn 

3pjr 'i n*ui -iwuiff "orh "ui -m'? n-ni j'ne >d Hf t\»\ pn ni-.it 'anno ai ion in>« 
1W]W pns' 's-a I'o-ia >3-i rii '/I'tti 'in ion nnau -ai .uTit vh* rr» «Tp'n ^k 
Bin ifyfra wi 'ibS wjiats 'ja %3 [r^T'l VO'P' 1^" ""T T""^ D't»3 imom ni'ii 
nm VTf*. ni'K lom inj ^ipa ppisi n'jvaa inn. In coniBning Di»t to metn 
pgppet, I follow Gudemann (Gcsch. vol. 2, p. ill). For the meniing of Tli, 
I •m indebted to Prof. C. L. Sp«tania of Columbis Uni<en>ty. 

Here reference maj' be made lo the virious cu-stomi of commemorWing &e 
downfftllof HunoD, prevalent at one time or another. In the Talmudic andGaotlic 
periods, it wu the custom among the liabylonisn Jews to bum Himan in effigf. 
Thil wai long ago known from a pasiage in the Atakh s. v. ifltt but Utdf bu 
been confirmed by a Gaonic Retponium from the Geniia, recovered by Prof. 
I, Cinjberg (JQR. XVI, p. 65J), which reads as follows: ^z o'j'jn [Sa^a] ]:njn" 
Itnjr nwrt ovsi n-a- ntron .^p3-;H in-mii Sp nniK j-'Jini pn: nm I'wip omnan 
rpfnw na'ao n-iinan I'loip tt-nn .TiisrT n« nawS r'''''oi IP" ^P ^"o (T*^SJ 
.".-nn mtn nj^ bkh im j'jBipi v^"^^" ""-"^ 1^^ i^''^'' r^S^o d'^'' v^^ I'l-omi 
Prat Gincberg remarki, that "the purpose of the ring ii not staled by tha 
GaoD, but it may be awumcd, that the effigy vrat luipended from it" ifHi. 
p. 651)1 "1^ therefore concludes, that the proper reading is I'^BIIV as in th* 
GcniiB fragment and not -^Pfve 01 ■fr/ne as in the Amkh {^id., iNd.). To me. 
hovcver, the Gaonic passage leems clearly lo ladicate. that the ring was used 
by lite young men as a meani of twinging over the boniirei and for (bis reason 
Ac reading poipn .-n J-^m-JP of the Arnkh is more preferable. According to 
CkMny'a account (nWDC.T nDD, St. Petersburg 1884, p- 191 — 19»), buroiiifi 
Haman in effigy is still cuilomary among the Jews of Kulais (Cancasta). The 
only divergence from the old custom is that it is not done pabUdy. The 
manner of doing it is described by the traveller as follows; "On Forim, when 
Ibe men retntn home from [rtadingl the Scroll [of Either in the synagogEc], 
the women prepare a black piece of wood in the kitchen by the fire. When 
dw man come* into the room he asks Us wife what it is, and she tays I1 



22 MSTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LtTERATORE 

of giving Purim gifts to children was Just then introduced into 
the Jewish community of Rome^. Dances and games, chiefly 
the game of chess, were usual forms of amusement J '. As to 
eating and drinking, Kalonymos enumerates twentj'-seven dishes 
for the day of Purim^, and gives a recipe for the drink, 
which the Greeks called Otttomeli^T. Occasionally, he betrays 



ii Hunui'. At once tlie man gets angry and begins to screun at hii wiftt 
that she should bum it. After kicking it Ihej all throw it into the 6re", (This 
pass^e was brought to my attention by Prof. Giniberg.) In European coua- 
Iriu, especially in Provence and in Italy, the more prcvniling cuslom wai to 
trace the name or image of Haman on wood or ilone, and then to strike the 
object until Che name or image was elTaced (See D"n TWrr* of Rabbi Aaron 
of Lund, norence 1750, f. laia, No. 41 beg.: JlDliBl Ji]ll'31'TB3 IJnJs nnl 
ynz-i no by it 33 by 11 fB'pai jort orrbji i'ir\3i D'lan "pibn O'ljian D'rpiSs 
, , . apT Q'piin Cd. See alio Abudraham, s. D'llB mban). 

To-day the custom is to rattle luid tramp in the synagogue every time 
the name a( Haman is mentioned in the course of readiog the Book of 
Esther (Comp. n « ^1^B \rhv No. 690; J. Reifmann, D'liBa jnrr fiKlT 3njD in TIBA 
II, March 18th, 1858, p. 4a; Low, Lrbrnsalicr p. 297. For the origin of thi» 
superstitions custom comp. GGdemann, Gach, d. EnUhnngsviesens I p. 307 

a 't 'BO ed. V. chap, pip T« f. agb— 30a, beg.: KOn vrt DiTn. 

3s JiiJ. chap. D*iifi f. aSb; njnisa iriK DipD "r'H*! 'la iia'on Tijmw '31 ■mW 

[Sacchiere = Chess-board] 'TppD nrl« imp T,T D'ni03 DW D'pm» TUB "On 
WO n'CpO ibdlS . . . [-nupO-K] >nBlpD-«3 •« TKmi3 ■« mK"2ip3 '« Kl'Ml «bi 

.". , . wia n3i' D'Kfi.ni nab o'm«n inS itut «"iib3 nbino nspob 

36 JM. chap. 11K3 int(3 f. 1911 nniJID 'I'O npmm "1»I> IOK '3Tle 31 ««l" 

,'ViBiiBi ,nw"bim ,-avp iib«i tiniEa Driwjrt dhk 3"n obisi "rD3 nansb nam 
ira ,'as im ,b'K -lea .iK'rn'w ii'io'si ,iiM(pB /bisBunoi /-p-SiBniBi ,D"p"pi 
,'JDKB /^Biw ,D'''i3'i3 ,b(la^ ,"i\n 1P3 ,D'ii' nca ,i'biinfi ipa .I'mit ipa .■"orr 
".'jipnpni ,'inpB;ii ,'i3'Lbn on'bp iB'Din Kjn ,-8"S"jiiopi ,'3l"iip ,7^10 ,-3"t» 
In a ms. note, possibly an autograpli of Joseph Almanzi, bound with the copy 
of Massekhilh Purim, ed. V., of Columbia University, five of the dishes are ei- 
plained in Italian, vii.: "DWp = "frilare chose e gustose colla radicc odora- 
tissimodelcaito"; 'blBllB^ "tortiedne"; "p^lCllO = "Corte"; IK^ITW = "focanie 
coUa infamo"; 'l^P"^p = "gelatine". 1 give here the Italian speUing and Eng- 
lish equivalents of the remaining dishes as follows: 'bnoVID = (Mostacciuoli) 
— pastries; IBKpB = (Tocchelto) = ragout; "IBiK =(Anatre) =ducks; "IDItB — 
(Kasani) — pheasants; 'STlB = (Perdici => Peroici) = partridges; ^AlB = 
(Folage) =^ moor-heni, or young turkeys; T'^lp i= (Culaccio) = pauncb o( 
•irmiBp — (Cotornici) = qaails; -inpo = (Maccheroni) 



7 IHd. chap. ■ 



for mr"blD see Tal. Bab. Pes. 74a, and for ]'3D'3 Keth. 17b. 
lib. Cf. Tal. Bab. Abodah Zaiah, 30a. 



IL PARODY IN PROVENCE AND IN ITALY 



23 



a knowledge of hygiene^*. He also takes the opportunit>' of 
praising the Italian women for cleanliness^?, and offers an 
explanation for the practice of usury prevalent in his daj" 
throughout Western Europe*'. 

The heterogeneit)' of the contents of the Massekhelh Purini 
does not detract from its merits as a parody of the Talmud. 
For it copies the original not only in style and diction, but 
also in the manner of bringing together dissimilar subjects into 
one discussion; and the skill with which the ancient texts are 
imitated tells how tlioroughly saturated the author was with 
Talmudic lore. In the opening chapter it parodies the first 
chapter of the treatise SItekalim, but it soon passes to other 
Talmudic passages, and is for this reason more of a travesty of 
the Talmudic style than a parody of any particular Talmudic 
I Text. 

No less clever and skilful is the MegUlalh Setltarim of Levi 
1 Gershon. It opens with a parody of the first Mishna of 
i giving the Drunkard's Chain of Tradition, as the original 
Etiie chain of Jewish tradition: 

■ received ibe L«wu rmm Kirmi4i uid handed it down 
to Noaho, and Nonii bonded it down to Lol<5, and Lot to tbe brother* 
of Joseph**, and they handed it down to Nabal Ihc Carmelitet?, and 
he to Ben-hadad4\ and Ben-hadad I0 lielshaiiar49, and Belshaiiar to 
Ahasnerua S", and Ahasuenis to Rubbi Bibi"j'. 

M Aid, chap, -nm iniia f. 19b, soa-b. 

» Had. Hid, r. 20a. 

4" iHd. chap. Tiip !•« {. 33a: Sniff- y\ia •'j'd '1.t . . . b-iid3 n-a-o i-iVd i*»" 
[f*] 'iiff 'iDO «St S«iw v^x^ "i" ■''oi iniB 11' Hv nit'^D'ttai Saaa %» 
fit nir^o'm ^33 'ji ^a» iimnna po irnmm I'ti'MMs* o-a-oi nvva wh xr 
i"in Sp vh* i:oD'f no Vp. 
t< A playful combination o( the name of the Prophet Habakuk and the 
ird iatiui meaning bottle. 

The Law of the Drunkard. 
U The Vineyard. 

M Noah waa iicsl to plant a vineyard and get dmnk (Gen. U. ll). The 
OIha men mentioned funher were all accotding to Biblical narrative addicted 
t« drink, 

U Genetii tix. 33. 46 MJ. xtiii. 34. 47 1 Sam. axr. 3d. 

4* t Kin(^ ax. 16. 19 Daniel v. 1. 5° Esther i. 10. 

SI That is Rabbi Dninkaid. Comp. Latin "bibeie". 




^^Bnrd 



24 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTEBATURE 



It has a number of clever puns and exegetic parodies, and its 
style approaches that of the Haiakhic Midrash. Renan and 
Neubauer think "it possible, that Levi [ben Gershon] abridged 
the parody of Kalonymos, cutting out the Roman names and 
taking away the local color to adapt it to the community of 
Provence" ''. This assertion, however, is without foundation 

S' Lis Ectmains Juiji Fr. p. Z55. I coUecl bete in full for the first tiine 
the Roman names altnded to by ReiiaJi. The numbers following the names 
indicate the chapters and the paees of the Maisekhtth Purim, ed. V., in 
whioh they occur for Ihe first rime (See also VogeUlein and Kieeer. Gesih. d. 
Juden in A'om. vol. I p. 443): 

Abraham Rossi (QIIH) son of Kabbi Shabbethai, n, 13 b. 
Amram, 1, iSb. 
Antoninus, IV, 33 b. 

Bath Sheba the wife of Kabbi Shabbelhai, the head of the communily (Dinci, 
II, 21 a. Tbis name occurs alio in the following pauage: VStff r03 •\WltS\" 

B" 'naei -ai lom 'nao -ai n^ mini . . , nnis -ijQ .nrs-p onEn ^raw 'an n»n 
KWi '32 "30 papi mm inS oiti n-i^M ip nn» f-.ipi nnn .iitiff) "3i n'n'O pn 
"unyS mw *h [ibU/. 23b]. By changing tlie two words n'lb"l ip into ff^JTlp^ 
Graetx concludes, that Ibis Bath Sbeba was the daughter of a Cardinal {Ctuk. 
^'tI, p. 264). Aside from the absurdity of this supposition, that 1 Cardiaal'i 
daughter (sic !) was the wife of a "Pamas" it is difficult 10 understand why 
the fact should be put in the month of her own husband, and what bearing 
it has on the subject under discussion. Still, all later writers on Kalonymoi 
blindly follow Graeti in this respect (See Vogelslein and Kieger 1. c). Even 
Steinschneider after refusing to accept the hypothesis of Graets (hrb. Bill. 
XIII, p. 2) teems (□ acquiesce in it later, because the reading D'^lT^p is actu- 
ally foand in a Halbrrsiam ms. of D'llO Tcon [Uutrbode, IX, p. 46I. At any 
rate be does not offer any explanation of this strange term. [The reading 
"ny^mnp" \Monalss. vol. 46, p. 278, N. 14) is only one of the vagaries of the 
scribet, and has no more meaning than ri'^11'<p]. The difficulty, however, 
is easily solved by construing n'l^l lp as a pet name of the wife of the 
"Pamas". It is nothing else than the Italian "core di lenitii", which 
means "the heart, or embodiment of gentleness". Her proverbial gentleness justi- 
fiea, therefore, (be dosing words : "11131) r^^ln "^ ""l '33 '^n p3]n fitm wA Dm" 
She was too meek a spirit to do thing* not sanctioned by uiage. 
Ben Mcir, IV, 33 a. 
Benjamin ben Isaac, II, 23 b. 
Benjamin ben Yehiel, m, 2Sa. 

Daniel (1«-TB1^ ILD ir«) HI, 29a. C(. GQdemann, Getch. vol. 2. p. 209, note 6. 
Hillel, the Physician, I, 19a. 
Judafa the Fal ben Yehiel, JV, 34a. 
Kalonymos, IV, 29 b, 
Meir ben Benjamin ben Isaac, II, 244. 



n. PARODY IN PROVENCE AND IN ITALY 2$ 

i not warranted by the contents of the parodies. The very 
plan of the Megillath Setharim proves its independent origin. 
For it is a Talmudic parody in the double sense of the word. 
Like the parody of Kalonymos, it imitates the diction and style 
of the Talmud, but in addition, it also copies the structure of 
the Halakhic Midrash. Just as these Midrashim have the Bible 
for their framework, so does the Megiliatk Setkarim take for 
its framework a Bible of its own — the Seplur Habakbuk lia- 
Nabkii^. It may also be pointed out, as additional proof of 
the independent origin of the MegUlatk Setharim. that its humor 
is quite different from the Iiumor of the Massekheth Furim. 
The humor of Kalonymos, as we have seen, approaches more 
the grotesque, and his satire is directed against the scum of 
society; the drunkard, the idler, the beggar and the miser. 
The humor of Levi ben Gershon, on the other hand, is a species 
of wit, and his satire is directed against no one in particular. 
On the contrary, he occasionally laughs at himself, and is the 
target of his own jokes^. He delights in exegctical parodies^, 

Menahcfn ben Benjimin, II, 34b. 

Uewdecw. I, 19 a. 

NihniHii, Phyitcian scd Apothecary, III, i8b. 

Na^Iom, I, lox. 

Nalbu Rossi (m«), IV, 33b, 

Niniin h«-Leti, IV, 34a. 

PuiMkh, I, 164. 

R^ttuam, 1, iSa. 

Shabbclhal Punai, II, 11 a. Simhah, II, I4*- 

Sinan ihc Drunlcud, III, 18 b. 

Tabcal. U, 13 a. Graeii, L c, lecs in Uii* naroc a lefereace to ImnanucL 

Tatphoo, II, 31a. 

Tlieo4(»us, (Dimn) of Rome, IV, J9b. 

Ye^iel the Fat. IV, 33 b. 

VchicI ben Uaac, IV, joi. 

Vomtobh. I. t9b. 

Zcdekiah of the fimily of Anaw, IV, igb. 

M See belov Put. n, chapter I, % III, note %. 

M For example, comp. Mfgillaih SfiAaHm (ed. V. chap. T.* Ba3]»B f. ijb): 
fva Vb '51 nww v'rs law nrrr im "jar i5> 'jb s'Si niw parodying Tal. Bab. 

B^>a Bathra, 134a, beg.: , , . bims p jniV '^t l-^F 1*^)1. 

H F«r example, mirh ^sS MVirem (I Chr«iiielei isix, 1 1} U ioMipreled to 



HISTORY OF FAKODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

in puns** and in anachronisms". Kalonymos is fond of coining 
names to fit the subject under discussion. Thus, he has Rabbi 
Idler, Rabbi Beggar, Rabbi Miser take part in tlie discussions, 
each defending his own particular habits'. Levi ben Gershon, 
on the other hand, mostly uses his own name "Levi" and a 
few names from the Talmud. 

Another point of interest, found in MegiUatk Setharim, is the 
account of the custom which seems to have been prevalent in 
some localities of Provence, to appoint a master of ceremonies 
for Purim. This personage was dubbed King^'>. What his 
functions were is not stated, except, that on the first day of 
Adar the master of ceremonies invited all liis townsmen to 
his home and handed over his staff of authority to another 
man, who in turn assembled the people to his home and gave 
the staff over to another, and so on, until the staff went the 
round of the community. On the sixteenth day of Adar, the 
staff was returned to the master of ceremonies and the people 
once more gathered in his house*". From such meagre data 

me&D wine, beouie it goes 10 the head {MtgillalA Stlharim, ed. V. ch^i. 
piapan f. 6a}. Again ^jneri »a 'iiii \'» »in D'oa Vine ijod o'i-dV rrn •\voi" 
"B'D3 ^rrD 7«iDT Dims D'j'o^ Ti-n ^LD^ .IB Sp i"n nn i'jiio» iipa tt^x {ibid. Hid. 
i. 6b). Comp. Tai. Bub. Baba Bathra 15b: 7«3D li lOK D-nji n\n 1BD3 V'H" 
"D'B3 ^iriD, and again "Itai 'Iff BTtl \"iT\ JIB «10n n'^5 TDKI \IHa 'Hn >1^ T8II 
. . . nn-Jf 16jS -IDIK 'W» It-IDn ri"ipBbl {Aftgtitalh Selharim {. lOb— 11a). 

* E, g. ^ina nVUff l"n meaning wine that is (ound miied {Hid. f. lib). 

S7 E. g, D'lit n\SD ii'iK omaK D"p» \na [iHd. t. 5 a). 

5^ Thirty-seven such GcUlious names arc found in MaisiMelh J^rim. 
They are as follows: ,pi3n ,pBt ,'Omi ,11111 ,1^11 ,1110 p ,]^Da ,'pl3 .prU ,pi* 

,Bnin ,npw 31 ,i3Bp ,tpi!t ,iiM .i^sjj .i^DF, riDtji ,pio line ,inp^ ,iai3 ,\xf\ 
,l"rB ,iipB ,iBE» ,iBB ,inop ,\vhv ,1131? ,]n3P ,ipniff ,ip3B' ,-9av ,iri3y-i ,n'3nn 
•iB'^nr. 

» Meg. Set., ed. V., f. aa; on'^jj riioii i'3"n ^«1B"B niBTi ;i3 vv Tj ^s" 

■■...l^B. 

60 Meg. Set. chap, im OlalBB f. 13b: 11«3 inK3 11*P 'JS n« IBIO i^n" 

.^n.■^ nT3 pi ,inKV lipo jik iniii n-p "13 ^; n(t joio oim ,opn inw^ iVpB iniji 
n'^-'>n I'inn bjq i-n cm Bnp na ■b'j 'jsn d'ib cie onV I'liB I'yn *n lai om 
IBiBi inn mm iSd^ ^pon n« V3'*^o "'""•^ '^'H' "»«' p'l.iBa .una i»ji two tj 

."CTlfib 03^B 113P'1 lOlKl .1^ Tl' iVpOl V«B' 1SP3 'B? lOtWff 11"? *33 W« 
Here may also be qnoled a poem which Daniel ben Samuel of Rosseti* (Fl- 
in Italy 1492 — 1506) wrote in honor of a young man who was made Purim K-ingi 



n. PARODY IN PROVENCE AND IN ITALV 



27 



it is difficult to draw definite conclusions, but it is not unlikely, 
that this custom, in some way, took its origin from the Feast 
of Fods, or the Carnival, and later gave birth to tlie Purim 
F/ays*' of the 17th century and the Ihtrim Rabbi of more 
modem times*'. 

The Book of Habakbuk the Prophet (Sepher yabakbuk ha- 
Nabhi) is a parody without satiric motive. Joan de Plantevit 
found a cabalistic significance in it, seeing in the name Karmi 
(^T3) an allusion to the Jewish Messiah, and in Been C^K^) to 
the Gentile World'i. But this naivete was already ridiculed 
bj- Bartolocci, who recognized the humor of the book*^. How 
far the author succeeded in being humorous is another question. 
The language of the Prophets is cleverly imitated, but the 
humor is not very pronounced. The Jewish people, says the 
parodist, were divided in their allegiance between the Vineyard 
(Karmi) and the Well (Beeri), an allusion, it would seem, to 
intemperance and abstinence. The Bottle (Baljbuk) was the 
inspired Prophet sent to turn the people to the worship of the 



• .xaitb vrrar\ idb ^pSit d'iib.t *B>a item inn iina by vnn 

■ffj 3131 b'ir.1 1-a -153 1-^0 p-w T'lcM 

115 "an Ts: ^30 ep q'teii rii^y :™ 

lip 'Sh 'S jr loiV D-O' tr-M b: pnw nw S-j 

r«f*i* "^ "ITK —3 nS»D DJ "VS -iPK 

\H0aaiStch. JAt Gatk. «. Wisitiueh. J. JuifHlM.. toU 47 p. «74)- 

•• Sec Lew, IjUnsallft. p. 396—397; Thomas Wright, Ifultay 0/ CariruOirf 
tit JjUratHri and Arl., London, 1S64 p. 107 — aio. 

»• In Ihe Talmud schools, or Vesbiboth of Polind, the Purim RabU ii 
efcoseo Erom the body of the stodenls, uid his function is lo mimic Ihe muter 
of tbc school [n'V Btti), juit as in European and Americiin college*, the 
indent* take ihe Ubeity of ridiculing their pro(euais on Class Day (See 
M. H. Bcntslein, □1^3na Q'&WB TXUt London, 1904, p- 114. where an anecdote 
b told of > Purim RiMi in the Vesbibah of Voloihin). 

^J In his Bibliotheca Rabbinica No. loi he says among other ttuDgi: "Unde 
inipicaTi licet huins libelli Auccorem, Messiae diu et frustca a caecis Hebcaeis 
«^«ctali r^nnm lectii verbis descripsiise. Introduciiur erim saepiisime Dcui 
ote Bakbnk Jodaeos cohortans, ut &rmiter adhaereant impcrio Carmi, id est 
MesSMc, et implacabile bellum geranl adversut Beeri, id est, Reges Gentiles" 
yFLribgiwm RaMmcim, Lodova I644. P- 559}- 

*t Bartoloeci, BtUiBlieni No. loz, roL L p. ^95- 



k 



38 HISTORV OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATORE 

Vineyard, which after many trials he succeeded in accomplishing, 
hinting thereby, that the Jewish people were no ascetics. 

To make the estimate of Kaionj'mos as a parodist complete, 
mention must also be made of one passage in his Touch Stone. 
It occurs in that humorous part of the satire, where the con- 
trast is drawn between the easy life of the Jewish girl and the 
burdensome existence of the Jewish boy. The Jewish girl, says 
the satirist, has few worries and still fewer duties, while the boy 
is made to feel the burden of his religion from his very infanc)\ 
He has six hundred and thirteen precepts to observe, and many 
difficult studies to pursue, while the Jewish girl has only one 
aim in life — to marry well. After lamenting his ill luck of having 
been bom a boy, he strikes out in the style of the old litanies: 

"O Thou, in heaven, onr Sire, 

Thon hast laved our fathers from flood ind from fire; 

The heat of Ur-Kasdim thou hast eooledSj, 

The sperm Bt Dinah Ihou hast ruled S*; 

Has! turned %\.9S into snake, 

And clean hands didst leprous make; 

Ha»l changed Ihc Red Sea info land. 

And the bed of the Jordan into dry sand; 

At thy bidding water gushed from rocky mats; 

O, that Thou wouldsl refashion me a lais. 

Were I hteised with fortune rate, 

I would he a lady free from caie. 

But, alas, it is of no avail 

My bitter fortune to bewail. 

Since my lot in heaven was willed, 

To cbatige it, no one is so skilled. 

Thus, roy burden I'll hear with grace. 

Until I have ran my race. 

And conforming with our belief 

To thank Ibe Lord in jo^ or grief, 

I offer thanka in tpeech faint and woi 



■Praised be Thou, O Lord, thai I n 






*% This has reference to the legend that Abraham was thrown by Nimmd 
into a burning furnace aud came out unhurt. See Tat. Bab. Pes. llSft. 

c^ See Tal. Bab. Beiakholh, 60a. 

^7 ]n3 ^3K ed, Cremona, f. Su; ed. Lemberg, p. 17 beg.: D'laVaV U^aJI 
Q*l:31 rH3 irni;t>^ ts'Cl n'CJIB' J. Chotzner paraphrased the lame pusage 
{y.QM. XHI p. t33J, but the greater part of his rendering ii not foBiul ia 



ra. THE DECLINE OF PARODV 29 

Widl the satires of Kalonymos, parody completed its first 
penod of growth, and entered upon a period of decay that 
lasted almost three centuries. From the middle of the fourteenth 
century to the middle of the seventeenth, there was almost a 
total disappearance of humor from Jewish literature. As the age 
of codes and casuistry, of extreme and unhealthy sedvisiveness, 
it lost all taste for poetry and the beautiful in literature. Romances 
of any kind were condemned, and writings such as Immanuel's 
were put on the Index. In a word, the age was hostile to 
humor in general and especially opposed to the humorous treat- 
ment of sacred texts, 

CHAPTER III 

THE DECLINE OF PARODY FROM THE MIDDLE OF 

THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY TO THE MIDDLE 

OF THE SEVENTEENTH 

During the three centuries, from the middle of the fourteenth 

to the middle of the seventeenth, we search in vain after parodies 

of importance. With few exceptions all the parodies of this 

period are only parts of other compositions. In the fifteenth 

cenlur>' a few. independent parodies are found, but moiit of these 

are ascribed to this period only by conjecture. 

The earliest parody of this period is the work of a Sama- 
ritan Priest', who sets fortli the Messianic doctrine of his sect 
in the style in which the Deluge is described in the Bible 

the ted, sod noct of t^e text it wanting in hii poraphnie. An excellent 
Germin tmulation of the same passage ii given b; Gciger in bii yidisckt 
Ditttangm dir ^aninhtn and ilalitmnhtn Sihdi Lclpiig 1858, p. 55—56. 

■ I un indebted for ■ eop<r of thii parodf 10 Mr. Dtvid Yellin of Jcmtalem, 
who «i|ieett toon to pnblitb it io full. From % private commnnication of bit, 
I lean that the codex ■□ which the parody ii found is in the posieision of 
Ike Samaritan IMcit at Nabtai (Shechem) and contains various inbjocti, most 
of them wriuen (copied?) by Ibrahim b. Is^tk in 1154 of the Htgira (1776). 
Tb« *»me Pbinebu it wriuen in Arabic at the top of the parody, from which 
Hr, Vellin condades that tbe aulbor was Pbinebu ben Abitha, ■ Samaritan 
Frietl who was bom about 1376 and died in 14*0 (See ynoiik Em. X, 679b}. 



30 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

(Genesis vi. 13 — viii. ii)». The period called by the Samaritans 
nniiC, during which the Jews are supposed to suffer divdne dis- 
pleasure, is the Deluge, and the Messiah, called by them Talitb 
(2nn), is Noah the Righteous. The period of Panuta, according 
to the parodist, began in the year 3000 after creation ^ ; and will 
last 2944 years, when the Divine presence will again reveal itsel! 
on Mount Gerizim and righteousness will rule the earth*. 

Next in point of time is a group of parodies found in each 
of three manuscripts of the first half of the fifteenth century^. 
Who the author was cannot be ascertained, but that he was a 
native of Provence is quite certain from the frequent use which 
he makes of the Provengal language*. The first of these 
parodies consists of a series of thirty-two ResQlutimts, or By-laws 
(Haskamoth), pertaining to the Purim-King. The opening reso- 
lution is, that this King, being the ruler over the Vineyard 
Community, is to be regarded tlie supreme ruler of all potent- 
ates'. The next resolution demands, tJiat the Purim King 
should place all other kings under a solemn oath to observe the 
Laws of the Prophet Bakbuk (The Prophet of the Bottle). The 
other resolutions deal with the various fines and assessments 



» The p»rody begins: n« ntfpn noisj) ,n31B -|^ nPJI ann.T ^K D'H^K iMtl" 
Dv n'ffcm naiwn tiv ii« ^nn dt ni«D vhv nm« ncvn lew nn . . . naw;! 
". . . D'liBin Di'i Knp 'KiptJ 'n npin ;is3w .nam nai ninaw and closes; jm" 
nK 'n 1133 vhti- Bnn^ inna iiBtcin ennai . , . nmi<n 'iB ^j» n'«Bnn i^p -a 'rn 

,"piiw ^3 

J The ten retds: "finn Vj rrn nniiD Viaoi niw vxb* nwua -ni", but I 
TCntuie to read D'B^K nttrVn, because tbis woald about correspond to the 
downfall of Samatia, which look place in 723 B. C. (3038 A. M.). The date 
generally accepled as the beginning of the TOWit is (he time of Eli and [he 
diiappeaiance uf the Tabernacle (See Jc-jfisk Enc. vol. X, 674 a). 

1 The text reads: D'jniKi p3i»i nw ri«o i»»ni nic D'Eii« nruB Viae wi" 
aw'i i-inn JO Donm itonn ^a-i nnown ru-jiB nao-i nmiB "b- 1!B"i . . . nsB 
". , . nnpn "iiin ^j) «nn') inna 'WKin wina n)-;t?n mm pmn ^5 O'pnsn. The 
abbreviation ■IJIfi for cnj "in is common in the Samaritan Bible (See ibid, 
vol, V p. 631a). 

5 See below Part II, chapter i, % II, sections 1, 2, 3. 

^ Ihid. chapter H Sect. 1 no, 34, where five sentences in Provencal are dted. 
Other Provencal words used in the "Resolutions" arc WBitta (Resolution no. I 
IKrtlB (Resolution no. 26), *ltMO^p and 'njls^p (Resolution no. 30J. '~ 

7 See md. ibid. no. I. 



ni. THE DECLINE OF PARODY 3 1 

imposed upon the community for the benefit of the king. The 
resolutions are preceded by an anathema on those who dis- 
regard them* and followed by a benediction on those who 
observe them*. Contrar>' to our expectations, they do not help 
us to discover what the functions of the Piirim King were. 
The second of these parodies is a wine-song in the form of a 
hymn'", and the third and last of these parodies is a fragment 
of a Talmudic travesty", which adds this much to our know- 
ledge about the Purim King, that it was his duty to entertain 
his townspeople with music and serve them with refreshments 
during his reign. 

Further mention of the Purim King is found in an anony- 
mous Massekheth Purim. which was perhaps written in Provence 
during the fifteenth century". According to this Talmudic 
travesty, every Jewish town elected a l^triin King a montii be- 
fore Purim and invested him with full power over the lives and 
property of his subjects'^. The most interesting feature of this 
parody, however, is that it gives a Biblical origin for the game 
of dice. 

"Rabbi Shiggfton [Lunatic] laid: 'Bebold I am almoil MTCnty year* 
old asil 1 waa nevet privileged to understand why dice should be played 
on Purim until Rabbi Badai JFiction] expounded Ithe passage in Esther 
ii, TJ\: "The Jews otilajoed and took upon Item" [nn-Vj B'Un'rl ^apl IB'pJ. 
tlere^ap i» writieo inslead of (iap. This [strange spelling] is to iodieatc 
Ihc spots on the i\i sides of the die in their pioper Order. Hirek poinb 
to the side wiih one spot, Sheva lo the one with two spots, Kibbuf lo 
the three spots, the Kibbu; and the Hirek to Ihe four spots, the Ktbbuj 
add the She>i lo the live spots, and the Kibbui, Hirek and Sheva to ihe 
tide with lix )polt"'M. 
In the same passage mention is also made of the game of 
cards [nniM pint?], the game of chess (TCTnK] and a game of 
TaHes [miH^n pinp], which is undoubtedly the game of Back- 
gammon 'K The parody closes witli an imitation of the i^adMsh 
which turns the Prayer for the Dead into a eulogy of good 
living. 



> IM. section 5- 

t au. 1 nnre "3 pne. 



32 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JE'WISH LITERATURE 



The next parody of the fifteenth century is found in Matta- 
thiah's Faithlessness of Time'*', a satire on those who relinquish 
study for the sake of worldly gain. Though begun in tlie year 
1430, this satire, which is also in the nature of an autobiography. 
was still in the process of composition in 1450". In well 
chosen phrases the autlior tells of the poverty and suffering 
which compelled him to forsake the Torah and of the disappoint- 
ments he met afterwards in search after wealth. One of the 
parodies, found in this satire, is a Certificate of Divorce"^, which 
he gave to the Torah, and the other is a Marriage Contract, 
which Time drew up between him and Old Age'». The former 
has no other merit than that of being perhaps the first and 
only one of its kind in Hebrew literature, the latter is quite 
clever and piquant. 

The last parody of the fifteenth century is a satire on 
Christianit>' by Elijah Hayyim ben Benjamin of Genazzano, in 
the style and metrical form of the hymn Yigdal'". It has been 
embodied in the second part of the polemic work of Uon David 
Nasi, entitled Concession of the Defendant", which was written 



!• IDW rma Ed. Prioc. Thieneen 1560. if. For other editioni, see Zedner, 
Cat. p. 514 and Zuni, Zur Gesri. p. 139 and 301. The ed. piiDC. Med 
by me is found ia the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. The 
author's name occurs in the following passage found on the first page; 
,ni» o'Bi^»a -n'! ikd vdj jn- h^i .iii piwo rhy-n i»k ,n'3B;i jo n-nntj 'T3t 
jnf>n^ ,.TiiB n'Eipa rnno riSacw ,n"»i nusVa ■^tm ^x ,nioKj n'lpn [inKJ^] 'iiifi^ 
(iniH niKSici ^31 ,in3'oi vjibd i-nnVin ,-ma n'nno ^mn ,is«ifinb n^i i-nnn Sp 
mn oVipn "vwh vwih mm wvar.-n .^i»3. 

'? This slitenienl is based on the fallowing tvfO passages ; ll/l-Hl l'3ll nnjrt 
nra 'Brtyn t^ti^ ,rnran d-o^k m-Jc rpm fl-^n-n m-b nne: 'j»3 . . . j'piaw Bi 
...BTJ»ni(f. 12a) and . . . Vn ni'^ DNS' iiiren; ,ra: "1)1 r3» 'iMffB n3M "jraii 
D^lJirir"ia^1»5in'nt<D(f. 16b — 17a). Taking these passages together wilL the 
opening poiisge cited in the preceding note, it becomes evident th«t Ihe 
author Has botn in ijSo; that in 1430, at the age of 50, after 30 yean of 
navel, he began to write hit autobiography, and that he ilill lived in 1450 U 
ttie age of 70. 

'B I'^iin nij«i i"pi3B til (f. 12a). 

'9 . . . nawii .1^ i\\v\h ii3»t"i . . . twiA -^ nwi ina ,ia'o jotn npi (f. i6b— i?*). 

'" hii- ^piraai luica ^-v. beginning; pn vav ,i-ist n^ns'i ra vrfxt 'rw 



]'1 iyi rjrnn Frankfurt a^M. 1S66. 



32 p. Edited by Jacob Saphir 



m. THE DECLINE OF PARODY 



33 



tout 1491. Tlie parody shows great skill of adaptation and 
great power of invective. It reads in part as follows: 

"Lei the dead god cea,sc, and forgoltco be bis memoiy, name and time 
«f ezittcnce. Elemil perdition bequeathed he to every Naiaiite who 

» proclaims hit grealness and bti dominion. 
To emplineii and nothing did he return i wiih the curse of God, the 
Exalted, wat be cmcificd before the eyes of nations, and no one witnessed 



This is harsh and vituperative, indeed, but it must be remem- 
bered that this harshness was bom of persecution. When these 
lines were written thousands of innocent men and women were 
tortured to death in the name of the Church, and hundreds of 
thousands were driven from their homes, torn away from all 
that was dear to them and given a prey to hunger, and cold 
and pestilence — all in the name of the Christian Messiah. 

Parodies definitely known to belong to the sixteenth century 

are only two in number, one by Leon de Modena and one by 

^^^rael Nagara. One of the early Uterary attempts of Modena, 

^^■to 2 satiric dialogue on card playing, entitled Ttirn from Evil". 

^^Htfae fifth chapter of this moral satire, the well known Verses 

^^igainst Gatnfilcrs'K ascribed to Abraham Ibn Ezra'* arc cited, 

and followed by a parody of these verses in defend of the 

gamblers'*. The parody has the form and spirit of the original, 

but is not as clear and forcible. The original points out the evil 

(See colophon on p. 31). It consuti of two parts: -n'^V 3"' r\V^ FSOa H"n 
. . , rto"n:in -n min 'ipp i'" D'-pl) . . . iw ip. 1—16), and «wd vtp tiwc li" a"n 
BTllOK -ViV 'B lonm iprl aav\ -th O'n'iro (p. 16—32), and wax written about 
1491, not in 1430. OS staled On title page (See Steinscbneidcr, '^unV FfT^X) 
p. 336 note 8; //£. 11. p. 85). 

II rU3 m was written by Modena in his fourteenth year (ciic. I5S4) and 
poblisbed anonirmoa&ly by bis friend Abraham ben Solomon l.laber Tob, 
Vemce 1595. It went through many editions under m»ny different titles (Sec 
Libowiu, norm « n and ed. p. 115—116). 

■J inpnin 1U ma So reads the title in Steinschneider, Cat. Bod. no. 354S. In 
raS ^n ^raukfnH a/0. 1794) it u called in one place Q'lpmn lU JI-tD^ 'taA TP 

and in another WXpmn 13J nb' w. 

IM See David Kohn, K^t]) pK a!ra» '31 (Warsaw, 1894)1 *°1- 1> P- 161—161. 

■ [ciprem n3V3 inn] in m -no it it described as ...iwRM ^pn ^>-lV 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UlSRATURE 

that results from gambling, the parody changes the same phrases 

into a panegyric of the gambler. 

"Tbe gEmbler", sa.ys the old satire, "wounds hii own heart soielj. He 
brings desolation upon hii life, and corses upon his name. He iqnuiden 
his money, and sinks derp into lin, and rebels against his Lord in takli^ 
false oaths. He wants to get rich but he ne*er succeeds, though he de- 
ceive his own brother. His days arc bitter. He wandei* from town W 
town and has no place to call his own. He is forever the strolling mendi' 
canl . . . Even the people of his house bate him and make the day of 
bis death a day of rejoicing and sioging". 

In reply to this, the parody points out, that the gambler's 
task is light, and his cup is always full .... His business like 
that of any merchant, is subject to loss and gain, but generaUy 
it has some sweets reserved for the bitter hour. At all events, 
he is not as bad as the profligate who pampers harlots, or the 
man who robs the poor'*. 

Here, then, Modena foreshadowed the attitude he was to 
take later in life toward gambling. Although he advised others 
to retrain from card playing, he was addicted to the pleasures 
of the game from early life. Often he was also forced by 
circumstances to cast his lot with the gambling nobility, and 
therefore strove to annul the anathema which the Rabbis of 
Venice had put upon this social evil (1628). He believed that 
each man was born under a certain star which influenced his 
temperament and habits, and that it was useless to fight 
against this mysterious force''. 

The parody of Nagara belongs to the literature of the mystics, 
and is of that class of poetry, which Dukes, for want of a 
better name, called "Allegorical""*. Already the Prophet Hosca 
(ii, 22) spoke of Israel as being betrothed to Jehovah, and the 
allegoric interpretation of the Song' of Solomon, which sees 
in this idyl the symbolic characterization of God's attitude 

»6 For the texts of the Vtriei Against Gamblers and the parody see below 
Pad. n chapter IIL 

'7 See Geiger, JTUn^ "Tl TlSp fol. l6b. For more details abont Modeoi's 
Altitude toward card playing, see Ubowiti, Kl'Tlla fl"^ and ed. New York 1901, 
chap. VL 

aB See Dukes, Zur Ketaitids, p. 80 — S3. 



m. THE DECLINE OF PARODV 



35 



1 his people Israel, is as old as the beginning of this era. 
But it was the mystics, in their search after adequate expression 
for the manifestations of God's love, who first used metaphors 
that might easily be construed as gross anthropomorphisms, and 
it was this yearning after symbols for the embodiment of religious 
conceptions that brought the Kethubah, or Marriage Contract, 
between Jehovah and Israel into Jewish literature. The hrst 
Kelhtibah of this kind was written by Isaac ben Reuben (xi cent.) 
in the introduction to his Azharofh '» and since his day it has 
had a number of imitations, all of them emphasizing the idea 
that there is a social compact, so to speak, between Jehovah 
and the Jewish people J°. On the daj-, when Jehovah proclaimed 
the Law on Mt Sinai, he took the Jewish people in marriage 
and pledged himself to care for their welfare, and the people 

» return g^^e their pledge to obey the Law. In order to 
ress this idea more vividly, Nagara went a step further 
parodied the very formula of the Jewish marriage 
contract^'. Like Judah ben Shabbethai, he paraphrased the 
amnent formula and used it as a framework for his hymn. 
There is, however, no trace of humor in this hymn. The poet 
is in all earnestness, when he speaks of God as the Groom, 
and of Israel as the Bride. The Torah is the dowry which 
Gtxl gave to Israel on their Wedding-Day, "and all the laws 



, pnb. b; Isrmel b. Hayyim (Vieniu, 
iSjS). 1 find a nut hti 'jrirt mins (foL 164—165) and \ mjraw ^ '3 w"^ "aw3 
((oL 171). both by R. David Fatdo, also an anonynioaJ "JO 01'^ nimn mvu 
WJlMt an ^r (fol. 171) and m!? ]lrta mifin raws (fol. 203), which ii a Lwlino 
tmuUiion of Pu-do't JCetAue,iA for the feul of PentecoiL None of theie 
■te puodiei. 

J" rtram 11* nama wu ar»i published in hit burxr rfrfcn Pt. 3 no. m. 
Venice 1599 — 1600 (See Landshuth, moBn Tiav p. I44, no. M, where it ii 
called TWJV^ naws). In Benjaeob, p, J50, no. 371. it is called '})nv rava. 
Th* parody prefer begint with the »e»eolh verse: Dltnn n« Tilt nawa 1^*3 
. . . IVMnn 3rU3. This hymn hu often been reprinted in the Sephardic ritnol 
mJ aJso ceparately. A pamphlet entitled nofin iva Q'llsim Diun "va 
and pnbliibcd by M. U Mahler (Lemberg, 187S) contains Ihii parody ander the 
tide mjnaert irt nairan ^le, together with three nmilar parodies by Wolf 
t (See below p. 54). 



36 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



which distinguished scholars were in the future to deduce from 
the Law, as well as the Siphra, Siphre, Agada and Tosephta 
are the additional endowment (Tosephetli Kethiibah)", The 
dowry of the Bride, on the other hand, consisted only of 
the promise to make pilgrimages to the Sanctuary, and to bring 
"a knowing heart, ears to listen, and ejes to see". And all 
this was legally attested by Heaven and Earth on the sixth 
day of Sivan, in the Year of tlie World, two thousand four 
hundred and forty- eight. 

Besides these two parodies of whose date we are certain 
there is also a number of parodies, whose style and subject 
matter, as well as the age of the manuscripts in which they 
are found, justify us in ascribing them to the sixteenth century. 
One of these is an anonymous parody in the form of a 
Promissory Note, the first and perhaps the only one of its 
kind in Hebrew literature 3'. In answer to the question why 
the privilege of devouring the whole human race has been 
given to the earth, the legend says, that, when the Lord was 
about to form Adam out of the dust of the earth, the latter 
rose in protest and demanded that Adam be made out of 
heavenly matter. For this reason the Lord gave the earth a 
note promising, that a thousand years from date He would give 
her one hundred men like Adam every day, in return for the 
four ells of ground He took in creating him. The note is dated 
the Sixth Day of Creation, and attested by "Michael, the Angel 
of Wisdom", "Gabriel, the Angel of Power", and "Metatron, the 
Chief Secretary". This familiarity with angels was not one that 
breeds contempt The Mystics had invented a complete system 
of angelology and demonology, and claimed to know the 
functions of every seraph in heaven, and every demon in heU. 



3' iBK KBii m 7^0 Ttt aVip fm'ia^ D'a- noffa wjca nn-nr imp pa. 
The codei in whicli thii puady ii found is deictibed by N. BrfiU, in yoAf 
b&cker fur jUdiseht GrsehUhli und Lillnalur {IX, p. 1— 71). The parody is pirt 
of I'ni^dW «TD p 'D (34 ih fascicle), which differs from Ibe Venice ed. of 1544 
in haling addilional mailer after Ihe question; "Why is the Eigle »tled Naher 
in Hebrew?" with which that edition closes. 



m. THE DECLINE OF PARODY 



37 



t is no wonder, then, that tlie parodist shared their knowledge 
I spoke of angels in terms of intimate friendship. 
The same codex contains also a Purim Sennon on Wine, 
written by a man named Meir, and described by N, Briill as 
^"dn humoristisclier Purim Tractaf'^j. 

^^ To the same group belongs a wine-song, modelled a^er the 
^Bpftnish version of the hymn fia-Mabhdil^*, As this version 
^^ffas already well known in the latter part of the thirteenth 
centur>'is, the parody might have been composed even as early 
as the beginning of the fourteenth century, but its subject 
matter stamps it as a product of the latter part of the sixteenth. 
The following translation preserves the metrical system of the 
original: 

"Here's lo him who flings i&ide 
The cup □( penitence at Purim tide. 
And Sees the hermits with dniDku-dt to bide 
Howling through the night. 

Red vine I priie u meed. 

White wiDe is good in time of need, 

Bnt the watei-dnnker I hale, indeed, 

Ai the dense du-kness of the night; 

I eiy, and tears I shed 
If on water I am fed; 
O, for twenty measures of sparkling red 
To qnench my thirst tO'nighL 



3 nVW '^^ TP D*1)D7 pWn . 



iJ BrUl, yoArtither, iHd. p. 19 no. 3S 1 
alao MfnaUsck. toL 46, p. 377 no- lob. 

M Of this hymn there are three 1 
Ibc Getnan and Poiiih riiuals, one in 
onlg«iBg of the Day of Atonement (Z 
mtt>n TCJ p. 113 no. 30 and p. IJ9 n 

FMyer Book of Jacob Eraden (OtsB n»]) -ipap ^jr lOipn h» : 
1745, Ibl. 406b). The Ihiee versions open with the same verse, but Tar? in 
&e succeeding verses, and the first two have the name Isaac in acrostic, and 
Iketeforc are luppoaed to have one and the same author (See 5. Baer, riiss TTD 
Srw, Rodclbeim, 1868, p. Jia, notes). J. Reifman found this hytnn in an 
dd Spaiuah Maxtor in the mombg prayers for the Day of Aloncmenl (Jin I, 

a It is meoiiooed in "mBTi O to Yomai R, Mordecai died in ijio. 



tlant. One is incorporated in 
e of the Spaniih rituals for the 
Synag. Pa/sif, p. 554; Landshutb. 
j and the third i* found in the 
■tht. Aliona, 



mSTORV OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

Yout praiie, my friends, aload I'll cry 

If ne'er the wine in my cap go dry. 

With brimful jugs of beer we'U By 

To get dronk to-niglil. 

A holy deed I Ceach you, bear! 
Men of wiiiJom incline your eu! 
Keep yoar h 



'Tis ■ 



bad a 



the night. 



Summon courage men of lore 
For Noah's sake, tbe Rigbteout of yore. 
Who planted vineyards, unknown before, 
Ta dritik by day and nighc"]^. 

This wine-song evidently grew out of the custom of making 
the fourth meal on Sabbath an occasion for much feasting and 
carousing. And though this custom has its origin in the Tal- 
mud", it did not take on its Bacchanalian form until the latter 
part of the sixteenth centurj', when the Mystics of the school of 
Isaac Luria made this meal, King Daidd's Feast, as it is called m 
Cabbalistic writings, an important feature in their reli^ous life. 



,'ni) 13^ Djr 0)1 ,'ranK ana i"' 
•ny^ liBKii n^mo ■pmb o'o nrwi 

,n^'^n 'h iip'BD- >^m ,mo n"iBjf -b wan 

lUTi'au p iB'Dir a» ,[?0'p^] on^ ini* lom \i\ 

.n^'^n m msei 'ii« n'trtn i:b no'a op 

,D3iin 10.1 D-oDn .□DHo'jit nwnp 

.nf)'^3 D'awn on '3 ,0D'n3B Dta nja 

,D"on w"ti ni nisia .otiam o-iisi i;itn 

.nV^ai Di-a nnaw^ o-o-ia soi irjt 

The »bo»c hymn is no. 4S on toL 130 of D'aT D'nBOD On'Bl O'Bl'B 'D Ml. 
Q- I78f. Sq. script, which was brought from Tunis by H. Hirsch and is 
now in the library of the Jewish Theologicil Semionry of Americ*. Other 
poemi in ibis ms. having the name Isaac in acrostic arc found on foL 83 
(■oa-m ^n opn nyo" ^'). f"'- 92 (b'"^ T'I' 1'"'' "i==^ i'"" i'»"'> ""'"J' n-o -isi-), 
fol. 94 t'J'plpn aiBl 31D 1") and fo[. 137 (.tbtj jnia '1S1'). A later versiiw of 
the same parody is found in another mi. of tbc Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America (D. S5 p. 5). It has iwo additional vcrsei at the end and \ 
number of variants. None of these, however, are of any great importance. 

37 Tal. Bab. Sab. tigb: ...TOB 'misa unSv DIM yXi" ol^iyV. 



i 



m. THE DECLINE OF PARODY 



39 



(Jb the first half of the seventeenth century, we find the 
dist trespassing for the first time upon the sacred ground of 
the gfrave yard. For we know at least of three epitaphs on the 
tombstones of Venice thai are liturgical parodies. One, dated 
1616, parodies Adon Olam, and the other two, one of which is 
dated 1624, parody the fir^t mnemonic in the Passover Haggadah. 
It is not unlikely that they are the work of Leon Modcna, as 
he has written quite a large number of epitaphs i*. 

Aside from these the only parody of this period is the Tal- 
mudic travesty of Joshua Abraham ben Simhah CalimanI, 
entitled /i>(W(?w//7« /or the Days of Hanukah^. Written at the 
age of thirteen*", it shows the remarkable precocity of its author, 

3« See A. Berliner, Hibriiuihe Gratickriftm in llaUm, Frankfurt a/M. iSSl, 
noi. 21, 54, S5 and p, 6—7. The firM of these, on accoont of it> brcTitj 
■ad dcveniesi^ may be reptodueed here. 

k^i^ ■ye* tsfjpj \r\* 
Bin) TJ" V3 np Dina 
Kip] -iOtt niB ■>■* 

^ipn nnp 3 'inKi 

•nu TKo iiBTM -irh 
rmn mm n'n »m 
m»6r3 n*n' wni 
(Theie parodies were braaght to nir attention b; Mr. N. S. Llbowiti.) 

» n31in 'O'^ ltliin'12i "^"D. Venice, 1617. 4" 3 f., according lo a copy mad* 
for me by Rev. M. H. Segal of Oxford from tbe Venice cd. in the Bodleian 
libiai}*. Stein Schneider {Cal. Bud. no. 603S) gives 4fr. Tbe booklet openi wilh 
a dedicatory epistle addressed 10 Judah ben Salman de Serve ('1i*l n). The parody 
proper bc^ns on f. Ja with the Miihnab: IBK pill n n31ln ^ pinj pt -fiO-itD 
r[i"5«t Blip low ipns Ti .l'5-3» -in«^, Ihe rest is Gemara closing with the word* 
raun pins to^-t \» twt «i'ip dim wnp ino ov^ pnpi 'sun pira pi: :t ti3 
.nn 151010 Diwj «\'np nsun pins KDffE iin (t'sm ins .itD-i 'didib oiiro »|'i!) 
It ii also provided with Rashi and Tosaphoth. The same parody is also found 
ia a Bodleian ms. (Gi/. iVaibauer. 1006, i\ It is not unlikely, that the nSDB 
•taun, a mi. that came from tbe library of Franco-Mendes into the possession 
ai Sommerhaiuen {iMli!. VIII, 734: X, 789 and XI, iSi) is oniy another copy 
«f the same parody. I an also inclined 10 regard Ihe "•13un res/a mit RascU 
«ad Towfot", mentioned by St eioschn eider in Mimatiicknj'i, 4;. p. j68, no. »j, 
«* bol another copy o( Ihe same. 

1" Tbe dedicatory epistle closes with Ihe words: ^Ml H^n ^H ru *I3p" 
jwin- nynh y p o-ira i,-'\ noana lop ,0^15^ njS vmajA jiij nv;iS nme- 
ri" iwD^itp nnD»T'i» n^i.Ti mnn n'nS p o-Toit. 



40 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

but it is without great merit otherwise. It imitates the style 
of the Talmud with some success, but it has no intrinsic wit 
or humor. On the other hand, the abundant use of such fictitious 
names as Ra66i Glutton and the like is probably due to the 
influence of the Massekkelh Ptirim of Kalon)'mos. 

This brings the third period in the history of Jewish parody 
to a close. In the second half of the seventeenth century 
parody began to show signs of revival, and from that day it 
has continued to grow until it has attained to a distinct rank 
in Hebrew belles-lettres of the nineteenth century. 



CHAPTER tV 

THE REVIVAL OF PARODY FROM THE MIDDLE OF 

THE SEVENTEETH CENTURY TO THE CLOSE 

OF THE EIGHTEENTH 

The revival in the art of parody began in the last quarter 

of the seventeenth century. What seems to be the earliest 

parody of the period, dates from the year 1679. It bears no 

title, but it imitates the st}'le of Letters of Credentials, and 

concerns itself with the feud between two factions. It may 

perhaps have reference to some political or communal events 

of that period, but the enigmatic language in which it is couched 

defies all interpretation'. 

To the same period may also be ascribed a parody of 
an AJtnoner's Credentials, entitled The Humorous Letter for 
Purim', addressed to the "might)' in drink", asking them to 



> For the text of the parod<p see below Put 11, chapter IV. 

« D"Ht^ -S^n irao "So schtieb Schorr ant den Riickeii der HS." (Sl«n- 
ichneidet, Lttltrbodt. VII, p. ii, no. 77), Ms, Paper, Ital, eurs. Q. i f. (not 3 BL, 
M Steinschneidcr, ibid.). Thii ms. is part of a codex which was fonacrljr 
in the pos*ession of I. .S. Regglo, but is now in the Bodleian Library (See N»u- 
bftuer. Cat. no. 2221, 14). The statement "jetit N. 24, Stiiclt 10 in dec BodL" 
{Lellirb,, ibid.) is evidently a misprint According to a copy made for me bjr 
Rev. M. H. Segal of Oxford, the Letter begiDS witb the words ]" nnpK VJIM 
•Wb in" im ine or nis n'm isb rT«3tiJi, foUowed by % long euphemistic title, 
beg.! aSijB IBM aniaan non hurw "C^« 'pki O'wjh ds^s »npj d'ktk b:^. 



41 

Ktend their hospitality to the bearer, for whose name a blank 
"space is left in the body of the letter. To all appearances, 
this parody has no historic significance, nor does it have ex- 
ceptional literary merit. 

It was, however, during the same period, that one of the 
most important parodies in Hebrew literature was written. In 
1680, Jonah Rapa, probably a native, or resident of Vercelli, 
wrote a satire on Christianity in the form of the Passover 
Haggadah, which has come down to us in a number of manu- 
scripts, some bearing the peculiar title of PUput Zcman Zetnanim 
Zemanfhtm, and some the title of Haggadah of Jonah Ra/>a>. 

The parody begins by exposing to ridicule some of the cus- 
toms prevalent in Catholic countries during Christmas, New 
Year's Day, Carnival, Lent and Easter. It even goes into 
dctai] in describing the Church ceremonials on Palm Sunday, 
Holy Week, and Good Friday. Incidentally, it decries the blood 
accusation, and points out the absurdity of it. Gradually, how- 
ever, the parody develops into a satire on Christianitj' and its 
dogmas. Here it assumes first the nature of a polemic on the 
New Testament, and then branches out into a general denun- 
ciation of the Christian faith, treating of such matters as the 
divinitj- of Christ, liis miraculous conception and birth, his human 
attributes and physical weakness, the crucifixion and die Trinity. 
Baptism, the cucharist, confession, Papal dispensation, the worship 
of the Virgm at the numerous shrines and the healing power 
attributed to relics also receive the attention of the satirist 
The parody then closes with a narrative of events tliat transpired 
in Vercelli and Rome', 

The minuteness and vividness with which the religious cere- 
and carnival excesses are described, show that the 



Ii ii tigned by DH^ n-an Dwrun mvp m .n-iia id ttao W" ai ,«'iMiDO bob 31. 
The mi. U not older ihan ib« iStb. century, became ihe preceding mt. of 
Ibe «aine codex w« copied in 1769 (See Neubsuer, CiJ. col. 767). 

i For faibliograpby uid the qaestion as lo Ibe due and •uihoribip of ihe 
pwodjr ice below Put U, chapter V. 

I For tb« Bpecilic deicription of Ibe conlcnU lee liiJ., icetion 6. 



43 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



author not only had a very intimate knowledge of the rites ot 
the Catholic Church and the customs of the Catholic world, 
but that he must have seen and watched them with his own 
eyes. Nay more, we are even tempted to speculate, that at 
one time he must have participated in them, and that he wrote 
the satire on his return to Judaism after an involuntary coa- 
version. This, of course, is mere speculation; but it gains 
additional credence from the harshness of man)' of his utterances. 
His knowledge of the New Testament is in keeping witli his 
knowledge of Christian ceremonies. And though all, but two, 
of the New Testament passages which he controverts were 
already treated by Isaac ben Abraham Troki in his Support 
of Fait h^, there is no reason to suspect him of plagiarism. 
His wide knowledge of Church history and of all matters 
pertaining to Christianity precludes such a suspicion. At all 
events, his treatment is in every respect original, even if his 
arguments are not. 

In his satire, he prefers to strike out right from the shoulder. 
Take, for instance, his exposure of the Carnival, which reads 
in part as follows: 

"In those days no lamcntBtion is heard, sortow ind grief lake to Higbt. 
No one asks for anything but plenty o( wine and food. No sound is heud 

but tbal of sirtnged instrument and pipes, timbrels, haips and psalteries 

The wise man is sought in those days, but he is not there; the prudeDt 
cannot be found. Men of inlclligenEe and knowledge are searched from 
one end of Ihc earth to the other, but theii place is unknown. The moral 
man — even his shadou' is gone. Orators and poets have run away and 
joined the scoffers. The pious have become impiuus, the shrewd hare 
lost their senses in drink. . . Judges hare gone wrong, honest men turned 
defaulters. Princes cheat and magisliatcs keep themselvES in biding. ■ ." 
Evidently, his satire tacks that subtle irony which made Profiat 
Duran's Epistle so powerful, and at the same time gained for 
it such great popularity. Undoubtedly, it is due to this direct- 
ness and plainness of speech, that the parody has never yet 
seen the light of day. 



5 For a list of the New Testament pottages contrttveited i 
snd parallel references tu the Hhsiik Emtinah, see ihid., s 
lection 8, Extract B. 



the puody. 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



43 



I 



The anonymous and still unpublished parody entitled The 
Order of Passover and its Law*", which very likely belongs to 
this period, is a satire on imprudent marriages, a favorite theme 
in Mediaeval Hebrew literature. It relates how a notorious 
misei and woman-hater fell in love with a shrew, and how 
miserable his life was after marriage. It is, therefore, similar 
to Ibn Shabbethai's satire, but its plot is imperfectly developed, 
and the whole narrative can at best be regarded only as a chain 
of disconnected incidents. There is very little of historic interest 
in the parody, save the few remarks from which we gather, 
that it was customary for men to give their betrothed precious 
pfts of jewelry and fineries, and that people were accustomed 
to spend lavishl)' on wedding receptions. Here is what one of 
the wise men in the story says to the miser to dissuade him 
from marrying: 

"listen my friend Uld let me w&m 70U right here ag«in>t the fate of 
tbe mui tbat tikes a wife, be she ugly or beautiful ... A slave setliDg 
hinuelf for > lt»f of bread 1 call him, who takei a wife to satisfy his 
pleasure. On her account he will have lo eal unleavened bread and bitter 
herbi in batte and in sorrow, with a liemb!ing heart and longing eyei 
and a pining loal. . . Bui I have (argotleo to preface this, chat iirsl of 
all, before they will say lo you 'Come and take posseision' il will be joui 
duty to drive away all your present ideels. . , All men must visit their 
betrothed twice a day, and lometimea forty. They must play and joke 
with tbein and spend the time in vain pleasures and wild prankl as wifli 
■ dear ion or a playfnl child. . . If you do so, you will be happy, and 
jon will know peace in your home; if not, do not come nesr her bouse, 
for her anget is of longer duration than her caresses. Above all, take 
ore, that at the beginning of yoar couilihip you give her eat-ringi, either 
new or antique in style, crowns, golden bells and pomegrenates, neckUcet 
and tmkleti, cauU lod turbans, ankle chains, sashes and rings, pendants, 
veils and covers for the hand, belts, mantles and more things of this 
kind. . . . These arc some of the duties of the roan who is betrothed. 
The lav holds good for all, and it has come down to us from distant 
generations" 1. 
Interesting from another point of view is also the following 
passage, in which the miser's excuse for uncharitableness is 
e^qiressed in terms not altogether unfamiliar to our ears: 

» For the bibliography and the question as to the authorship of this parody 
■ce iHd. chapter VI. 

I For the Hebrew text, lee Aid., extract A. 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LTTERATURE 



"When he gsre a coin 
■ayiiiE: 'Wby doit thou 
laborer ii sweet; go, the 
own hands. Thy hands t 
By joat lives, all of yoa 
If you had in your poi 
sqnander it. Do jou perl 
as it did for Ihoie who i 



IS alms to a poor man, he shouted at him 
it Tith thy hands folded? The sleep of the 
, till the earlb and live bj ihe labor of thine 
e not bound, nor are thy feet put inlo fetters. 
lie poor, because yon boM your bands akimbo. 
ession all the gold of /'nrzayim , you would 
ipi wait for manna to come down from heaven, 
;t of Egypt, or for ihe earth to bring forth 



white bread and garments of fine wool, colored and embroidered, 
jroD wait for God to open windows in heaven!'"^. 

As a parody, this work is certainly one of the cleverest', 
and as a satire, it would likewise have ranked with the best in 
Hebrew literature, if not for one characteristic which detracts 
a good deal from its merit. It abounds in too many profane 
and vulgar expressions. And while this characteristic is not un- 
common in the literature of the middle ages, it nevertheless 
becomes inexcusable, when it is overdone. 

All the preceding parodies, however, since they have never 
been published, cannot be said to have perceptibly influenced 
the progress made in this branch of literature. The true revival 
of parody must be attributed to such works as have seen the 
light of day. It is, therefore, a noteworthy incident, that just as 
in the first period of its growth parody reached its culminating 
point in the Massekhtth I^trim of Kalonymos, so it began its 
revival in the latter part of the seventeenth century with a new 
parody of the same name and character. Tlie MassekheHi 
Purim of the seventeenth century, however, is not only of un- 
known authorship, but in its fifth and final version, it is the 
composite work of several authors '". Like some popular legend 
that grows in variety of incident and narrative as it is carried 
down the stream of generations, so this Talmudic travesty grew 



B For the Hebrew text, see ibid., extract B. 

9 Besides imitating the PaisOTer Haggadah from beginning to end, it also 
has 24 of its paragraphs end with the names of the 24 chapters of the "Tractate 
Shabbalh" as a sort of frame-work. Tbis is whit led Fiankel to describe it in 
his Cat. S (llusiatyn 1904) p. 68, no. 1020 as: DmiDO O'TBl nlB' rH'^B" 
"nSB 71300 'plD IIDD. 

'° For proof of this theory, see below PL II ch^it. VII, where the bibliography 
and the question as to the aathorship of this parody are discDised at length. 



I 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 45 

in matter and changed in form as it passed from one ambitious 
copjn'st to another. In its earliest version, this parody is more 
Midrashic than Talmudic in character. There is very little of 
the Halakhic element in it, while the Agadic preponderates. In 
the second version, however, it not only grows in substance, 
but also assumes a different form. It preserves its Agadic 
aspect, and in addition assumes also the Halakhic. It has the 
true ring of Talmudic argumentation, though its diction is not 
archaic as it should be. The third version is but a slight 
tnodification of the second, and the fourth is an inexact copy 
of the third. But the fifth and last version again presents a 
radical change in substance and form. In it, the element of 
Agada is much reduced, and the Halakhic passages much 
amplified. The arguments are put more compactlj-, the language 
is more concise, and the diction approaches nearer to the 
diction of the Babylonian Talmud. In addition, it is also aug- 
mented with parodies of the tliree best known Talmudic com- 
mentaries, namely, Rashi, Tosaphoth, and the Novellae of Rabbi 
Samuel Edels. This version, made by a number of Polish 
Batiurim in the beginning of the eighteenth century", caught 

^thc fancy of the people. Though it was not published until 
1814, it roust have been copied and circulated quite extensively. 
It has certainly superseded the Massekheth Purim of Kalonjinos 
in popularity, and to-day, is by far the most widely known 
parody- 
In the first version, the parody has only one theme — the 
praise of wine. 

"Skid Rabbi Bakbnk (bottle): "Whoiotvcr drinkt wine on Porim. «id 

bccoDiH u inloKicaled u Noah the Righteous, vill b« protected the reit 

of the year fiom the evil effects of bad water. Vou ma; leam this from 

Noah the Kighleoas. For when the deluge came and drovncd the whole 

world, eveo the giants, there remained no one In the world, excepting 

_ Noah, his wife and children and thoie who were with him in the ark, 

L aU becaoie he was deitined to plant a TineTattl and bcctidie inloiicated 

■ on Porim- . .'"n. 

' ■> See Latrrbodi, IX, p. 49. 

•■ tms mwo (Cracow, XVn th. cen 

vu sm. 



See below Part U, chapter 




HISTORY OF PARODY IIC JEWISH UTERATORE 

"Rabbi Hamrin (wine dealer) taid : 'Whjr did the eyes of Iiiac oni fore- 
father grow dim sooner than those ot any other Patriarch ? Because all 
his life he busied hitnself with nothing but digging wells, as it is lold in 
the Pentateuch, and never planted even one vineyard, . .'"'i. 
The same note runs throtigh the whole parody. It is one 
long eulogy of wine and those who drink it to excess on Purim. 
In all the later versions, however, the parody broadens out, 
and by means of Talmudic methods deduces from the Bible a 
number of fantastic laws for Purim, retaining all the while the 
seriousness of tone for which the Talmudic discussions are 
noted. In the manner of the first Mishnah of Pesahim. the 
parody begins: 

"Misbnab. On the eve of the foarteentb (of Adar), water shooM be 
leaicbed and remored Irom houses and from coDrtyards. All places where 

water it not usually kepi need not be searched. Gemara. Where 

is the Biblical authority (or this law? It is found in the Scriptures "So 
Shalt thou put the bad away from the midst of thee' (Deut, xiii, 6\ and 
nothing is bad but water; for it is wrillen 'the water is bad' (a Kings, 

ii. i9r-4. 

In the same humorous strain it is deduced from the Bible, 
that on Purim we must avoid passing a stream'*, and, if rain 
fall, must remain indoors'". Occasionally the humor turns into 
the grotesque, as in the following instances; 

"When Rabbi llamran drank wine on Purim and a drop fell on the 
ground, he fell on his koees and licked it off with the dust and all"<I. 

"When Rabbi Shakmn (drunkard) went to sleep on (he ni^t of Pnrioi, 

be suspended a bag of uine over his head, from which the wine diipped 

through a puncture into his mouth" i^. 

It has a number of excellent exegetical parodies '', and 

the homitetics of the Talmud are likewise cleverly imitated**. 

'3 Hid. iUd. 

M cmSB TloVn p 0"11D raon, Warsaw 1885, f. 2 a. In somewhat modified 
form in Mai's ed., coL 179; and in Blogg's ed. (1884), p. L 

'S In Mai's ed., coL 187; Blogg's, p. 7; '13W 'in p 'B 'DO f. 3a. 

16 In Mai's ed., ibid.; Blogg's ed,, ikd.; TW •^r\ p 'B Va f. 3b. 

'7 In Mai's ed., col. 183; Blogg's ed,, p. 6. In 13W ^r p 'B 'DO this pas- 
■age is nut found. The same is found in the Cracow ed. f. 3 a. 

la In Mai's ed., col. 185; Blogg's ed., p. 6; not found in IW 'Sn p 'B 'ED, 
In the Cracow ed. f. 3b. 

>9 For eiample, see Mai's ed., coL 213; Blogg's cd., p. 15; BT'n p C"I3 [.8 a. 

ao In Mai'i ed., coL aoi, beg. D'HBS 1" Tf-rmz 'fVfTtan "n H'lfl; Blogg's e<L( 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



47 



the most humorous feature of this parody is undoubtedly 
the relation which it establishes, in Talmudic fashion, between 
well known historic events and the day of Purim. Thus, the 
Deluge came upon the earth, because that generation drank 
water on Purim". The night on which Lot was intoxicated 
by bis daughters {Genesis, xix, 33), was Purim", and so was 
the day on which Esau sold liis birtliright to Jacob 'J, and 
the day on which Joseph made himself known to his brothers". 
Similarly, tlie da)' on which Miriam, the sister of Moses, died 
was Purim; for since it is said: "and there was no water 
for the congregation" {Numbers, xx, 2), it must have been 
Purim'*. The generation that died in the desert will have no 
share in the future world, because they drank water on Purim"; 
and. finally, the day on which Sisera fled to Jael's tent {Jtuiges 
tv, 17) was Purim, and she killed him, because he asked for 
water''. 

To sum up, this parody is a fair specimen of scholastic wit. 
Thought not fancy, subtlety, not imagination, pervade it. Its 
humor does not flow from the spring of life, as true humor 
should. It is the work of recluses, who have no eye for the 
real, no sense for the tangible. It is the product of a school 
that delighted in play on words, and attached as much import- 
ance to names of things as to things themselves. 

Qoscly associated with the preceding parody, both in printed 
copies and in manuscripts, are a number of wine-songs, in 
tbe form of hymns, the theme of which is, that on Purim it is 



fL Hi o-'n p nme "do f. 61, beg. a-yita i" n-TW Wmn ^3 i"n alio Mai's 

wL, wl- J05, beg. pl3p3 ai n^n»3 TTl; Blogg's ed., p, is; '^fl JB D'llfi "00 

T3» f. 6b, beg. jiDin' niTBn •; a'nsT -n'a i"n» t'h. 

II In Hu'i ed.. col. iSl; Blogg's ed„ p. y, nol found in VTi ]D 'D 'DC. 

» Id Hti's <d., cgl. 199; Blogg'i ed.. p. lo; VT\ p D"DD f. 4b, 

'i in Mai's ed., col 199; Blogg's ed., p. II; not found in 0"n 'p B"DB. 

»4 [n Mai's ed., col. 103; Blogg's ed., p, n — 12; not found in Tnlir p B'TS 



5 la Kat*a ed., col. 207; Blogg's ed., p. [3; n 
* In M«'* ed., eol. iSi; aol found in Blogg's 
r In Mv'i ed-, col. 183; Blogg's ed., p, 5—6; 






in wr p B"D. 

n 0"n p e"a. 
■B f. ab. 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

our duty to drown our sorrows in wine and song, abstain from 
all manual work and do nothing but dance and carouse, give 
full freedom to our expressions and indulge even in profane 
language, — in a word, we may let folly rule the day'*. 

From these we pass on to the parodies of the eighteenth 
century. Early in that century the Burlesque Testament, or 
the parody of the Ethical Will, and the parody of the Requiem 
came a good deal into vogue. The Ethical Will figured so 
prominently in Jewish literature of the middle ages's, that the 
parodist could not but encounter it in his search after literal)' 
models, while the parody of the Requiem, though logically it 
should have followed the Will as the next and final episode in 
the human drama, really preceded it by a few centuries, as 
can be seen from the parody of Judah ben Isaac Ibn Shab- 
bethaiJ". 

What seems to be the earliest effort in this line is a collection 
of parodies by David Raphael Polido, published in 1703 under 
the title of Commemoration of Purim^'. Haman is described 
as lingering in prison, awaiting execution. Meanwhile he calls 
his family to his side and reads them his Testament In lan- 
guage which parodies in part the Blessing of Jacob (Gen. xlix) 
and in part the Ten Commandments, Haman admonishes his 
children to live peacefully among themselves, and to unite in 
their hatred against the Jews. He also advises them to have 
no mercy on the poor, to abstain from the practice of charity, 
because it is profitless, to threaten their creditors with violence 
if they importune, and on the other hand, to give their debtors 
no rest if they refuse to pay promptly, Finally, he urges them 
not to steal from the poor, because they possess little that is 
worth stealing. Such, according to the parodist, are the Ethics 
of Haman. 

The liturgic parody, which in this collection follows the 



ja See below Part II, chapter VUl. 

*9 See I. Abrahams, yewiih Elhical mib {y.Q.R. lU, p. 436 -484). 

y See above p. 13 noles 53 and 54. 

3< See below Part U, chapter IX, S 1. 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



49 



K 

I 
] 
I 
pare 

^^•u 



But^sqM Testament is hardly worth the name of literature. 
It consists of curses and maledictions hurled at the head of 
Hainan, the symbolic enemy and oppressor of the Jewish people. 
The several parodies of the Requiem, with which the collection 
closes, are no better- They all abound in word play, but are 
sadly deficient in ideas. Euphony is mistaken for thought, and 
paronomasia for humor. The one passage in the book, which 
may be called humorous, is where Haman requests his family 
to pension the parodist, that he may buy new clothes every 
Furim. We can see, as it were, the face of the poor, shabby 
scribbler brighten up as he labors over his puns, amused at 
his ingenuity in telting people what he needed without asking 
them for it. 

Similar to Polido's parody, not only in name but also in 

otents, is the Book for the Commemoration of Purim^' by 
M' C — i. of Modena, which is perhaps the pseudonym of Ma- 
ilachai Colomi, who flourished in that town in \'}?>\^i. It is 
mitten in the Aramaic dialect and is an attempt to present 
Haman's downfall in dramatic form. The parody draws a good 
deal upon the Midrash and the largjtm SAeni of the Book of 
Esther. And though its literary execution, as a whole, is not 
much better than that of Polido's parody, some of the individual 
parodies embodied in the Burlesque Testament are better tlian 
the rest. Such for instance, are the Epitaph on Haman's Tomb 
the Lamentatioti of Hamani*. 

On the whole, however, it must be admitted, that from a 
fterary point of view all these parodies are very poor. They 
represent the efforts of mediocre minds, and are not only void 
of the brilliancy of original invention, but are abo without the 
lustre of clever imitation. 

To the early period of the eighteenth century belongs also 
what may be considered the earliest specimen of Yiddish parody. 



J* See Md, J n. 

U S«e Manatmhri/t, tS99> p. 105—106; Keub. CaJ. 1 
p. 338: yeauA £«(., I\', iSo. 

M See below Pi. U, cbap. IX S n no. 1. 



1379; D-n rmjin 



so 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 



It has been embodied in a Yiddish Purim Play, the earliest 
printed copy of which appeared in Frankfurt in 1708, under 
the title: Ein sclwn neu Achaschwerosch Spiel^K Recently, 
there appeared Dus Pirimspieh^, which is a new version of 
the Yiddish Purim Play, based on the collation of two copies, 
independently drawn up by two professional Purim Players, both 
of which point to a more ancient source. 

The parodies found in these versions of the Purim Play arc 
very quaint, and deserve to be reproduced on that account 
alone, but they defy all ei^brts at translation. In one of these, 
Mordccai is represented as the Father Confessor to Queen 
Vashti. Before she is led away by the executioner, Mordecai 
comes to administer the last rites. "Repeat the Confessional 
after rae" — he says — "word for word", and thereupon he 
recites the blessing which Jacob pronounced upon the cluldreo 
of Joseph (Gen. xlviii, 16), but ever>- word of that passage is 
so translated — or rather mistranslated — into Yiddish, that as 
a result, we have 3 string of nonsensical phrases extremely 
funny, though in parts somewhat vulgar. 

Again, Mordecai appears in the character of a ShadkhaH, 
or professional match-maker, on which occasion the Jewish 
marriage formula is parodied in quite a witty fashion. There 
is also a pra)'er by Esther, which is a clever imitation ol the 
style of the Tefyinnof/i, and in Schudt's edition of the Purim 
Play there is also a funny, but vulgar parody of the 6V///(t)/A". 

In connection with the parodies in the Yiddish Purim Plays, 
mention must also be made of the Kiddush le-Purhn, or the 
parody of the formula of the blessing over the wine, with which 
these performances always wound up A It is similar in 
character to the English "To m-o' -Bedlam", or the French "Coq- 
k-l-'ane"3', but its construction is peculiar to itself. It is 

JS See Schudt, yidisehi MerckwHrdigkciun, III (Franltfurt 1714). P- aoa— MJ 
j6 See Granwold, MiUhdbiHgcn der Gestlhchaft fur judischt Volkskutidi. XDt 
p. 4— a8. The coUtdon w« made wid ediled by Dr. S. Weiuenberg. 
J7 For Ike texts of all these parodies see below Fait 11, chapter X, 
3» See Granwald, ibid., p. 3. 
» See Tb. Wright, History af CaHcaAirr, p. 773. 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



formed by attaching to one Biblical phrase, ending with a 
certain word, another which begins with the same word, con- 
tinuing the same process through a long rigmarole of meaningless 
phrases taken from all parts of the Bible, One of the cleverest 
of these parodies was published together with Dus HrimspUl 
mentioned above *". Like the plaj' itself this liturgjc parody 
ver)' likely had its origin in the early part of the eighteenth 
centur}', and is a product of Jewish foik-lore in Poland and 
Ijthuania. where many versions of it are current among the 
students in the Yeshiboth. 

The second quarter of tlie eighteenth centur)', as far as our 
knowledge goes, was barren of parodies". But from the middle 
of that centurj' they begin to appear more frequently and con- 
tinue to increase in numbers without any further interruption. 
In 1750, or thereabouts, Samuel Mendes de SoUa. Rabbi of the 
Jewish congregation at Curai;oa, composed a parody of the 
Passover Haggadah", and about the year 1756 Raphael Jehiel 
Sangiiinetti preached a sermon before a religious society in 
^^lorenzuola in which he used the rules of the Italian game of 
^^^tsttte to illustrate his ethical teachings *J. The sermon as 

^B *" Gronw«ld, ibid., p. 3& nmoi ffnp beg.: Dlarn msBTn 1^3'i -CTSm 01- 
. . . inpii me .tk o'^dw rm»c ^-j nio nia; ^U3 tmooo and dosing wiih 
nr» n'33 jo« Vipnp nnK -p-a -nmi ino mcna .... nrtooi mn» ."wn diltS 
(rtiTJ rrjip Thn\ npTm. 

KPeiliSps Ihe onlf ucepliOD to this is the satire on Chrisliinity in (he 
and metrical fonn of the ^jata. Q^U yn», ibe first two verses of which 
s follows: 
R-ai HI' WK ^3 1031 

U foBDd on fol. gSb ol Joshua Segre'E l^n OPK, a. ms. writteD in the 
decade of the eighteenth century, now in the librarj' uf the Jeviith 
logical Seminary of America. The ms. wis bought from D. Frinfcel 
(See his Trxx\ "h:/ •run Hmiatyn 1906, p. ij— I5t. 

4» "Orden de la .\g»da que ic peade deiir en la noche dc Puriuj. 13 IT. 
i'' Mi. Travestie de la Utnrgie pascal pour la f£te de Hatnan" (Roesl, Ou. 
mtr 'airrlkvalltn SummliiH^ htbtiisrhrr u. /iJii(At* Buthtt u. Handnkrifttn. 
.ABHlerdam, 187O1 p. 83, no. I4<H). See alto G. A. Kohut, Early Jeauh Liltra- 
mrt in Ammra ( rublicalians of .K. J. H. S., »ol. 3, p. I4I, no. 1? and p. 1 18). 



l^amn Ebrii4.li Di i. 



\ il Giuoi-a Jil TmttU. 



b BO. 46S of the Halbentam collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary 



52 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

such has little merit, but the twenty-six paragraphs into which 
it is divided, each headed by one of the rules of the game, are 
of considerable interest'*. This parody is perhaps the only 
instance in which a trivial subject has been turned into the 
service of a serious discussion. 

Later in the century-, Isaac ben Raphael Luzzatto (1/30 — 
i8o3)«. a younger brother of the well-known poet, Ephraim 
Luzzatto, wrote a satire in the form of a Talmudic parody 
entitled Massekhetk Dcrekk Eres*^. The author is known to 
have had in mind his own native village, San-Daniel del Friuli, 
when he penned this satire''. It presents quite a different 
picture of Italian Jewish life than that given by Kalonymos in 
Massekheth Purim. The men are uncharitable and the women 
uncleanly. They are all uncouth in dress and vulgar in their 
manners. Gossip is rampant and hospitality is unknown. In 

of America. 4° <}i. Cuisire ItaL script. Tbe Ms. has no Hebrew title, but 
Rabbinovici, who formerly owned il, gave the following erroneous description 
of it: "-ime cp pinsn -a-n ^5 ijjBiwp.n pins Hi nrim n"i3i ^«18B' 'la lan' 
(Cat. RRbbinovici, No. VIU (1885). p. 87. no. 33; cited »lso by Sleinschneider 
in Sionalss. vol. 47. p. [76. note 1). Whil !ed Rabbinovici lo mislike Ravcnni 
for the author of the parody was the fact, that the name of Ravenna at the 
end of his letter of approbatian is written in larger characters than the authot'i. 
To clear the reader's mind of al! doubt on the subject, I reproduce here the 
author's introduclion in condensed form: . . . nD3n nipip Ipt S» .nDTpiT' 
lioi ... 113^ 'fiKsoj lo'j^ nc TTH DVD . . , vHi ni'iiin n"i:i ^ixvav mims: 
yaiiS Bill nipp^ nnn 'nini] biiii . . . dts 'palp man »'n nemp rran nn"n 
•\\vh 'jnnwj nn mm . , , run orns -ni . . . n)M ni» 'la t'bj pi . . . rninn 
pi xi-div .nirt nflptii . . . nD-iiDani ii,iin •o'D"nBn pins 'jji pmn nwij (iO'^] 
•nnj pS . . . 'jina enip anp^ . . , 'apu -a^ . . . m m-n Dsin -300 o-wpao ^'V- 
tjnajjn n»33 «s»i . . . nBptt nis- ya* liai . . . nD"FO 'Oia rnr niDn'; KaS -aia 
6'x iTD rni '1^ '3 Di" n^xmi'D va i"i« d-w aipa ibk laia intin lapa , . . 

"•B-l'lilD S»X\- ^«B-l -I'psn [516 — 1756] p"D^ la D'p^S nh -iBH. The reply of 
Ravenna is dated more plainly: nl'S"^ m'prin IHJ" l"a 'B'Dia. 

44 The game of Tiesclle M described in this parody is very similar to the 
English game of QuadriUt. Both are played by four persons and (he number 
of cards are forty; the tour tens, nines, and eights being discarded from the 
paclc (See The Hand-Bat^ «/ Games, cd. by Bohn, London 1867. p. ja5 et seq,). 

45 For biographical data, see S. D. Luuatto, ni3H nos. 140, azj, 311, and 
Grfinwkld, Autaiicgrafi^U S. D. Liasatlt't. p. aj et seq. 

4* See beloir Fait II, chapter XL 

47 See TJW TOl. 3, p. 54; !) ~I» nnW p. 786. 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



S3 



one passage the author seems even to accuse the villagers of 
being in complicity with thieves'^. In a community of this 
character, it is not surprising to find the passion for card 
plajing strongly developed'^. Sad as this picture looks, it is 
not altogether without some humorous sides to it. The picture 
of the wives curling the hair of their husbands, and the men 
swarming around the fellow who chanced to don a new coat, 
each passing his opinion on the merits of the work, the value 
of the doth, and the cheapness of the price, is extremely 
amusing s°. 

In 1792 an anonymous travesty of the marriage contract 
appeared in Judeo-Spanish entitled The Marriage Contract of 



i 



■ <■ Thii peculiar lUlcmenI, (oand on f. lib— 13B of the mi, rcftds u Tcllow*: 

nra "^si nu "is k'sdi q'uj '» inn rt'a^ «n o'ra '3b6 inn 21: »"" ;\ rums 
■» ovD -ffliK -i-ht -\ S<fr\v ^ in iV-BM cmaT hv mini »m bsitii ]nrB >niai 
"iTiai o"n33 ■fl".iw:i "»tci ipB paia '';« tt'ani hid x^i nil- m '^t ubo •n'jitB' 
■rnn ^ji -iippai -Tar -a vxit^v ip .n^ni nrow r^p -nnDn ■npa') ■n^3 'jpio waw 
"(an ii'a ^B aij Kirr ra on^ 'man, 

M One of the gimci, described in the third chapter (Ms. f. :3k — b), 
retemblci in maay points tlie English gune of Bta^. In both games nines 
and pairs ire faTOrite cards [.Ttann ^«1 nrwm ^«t]. and the person who first 
makes up the cards in hii hand thirty- one wins the third stake in Bia^;. and 
in the Italian gome declares it at once linm QMc6v Klipi I'^ms IK pmj. See 
Tkt Hand-Bivk ff Gamei, ed. by Bohn. London 1867. p. 333 et seq. The 
description of the game as given in the manuscript is a^ follows: 
tj'i^Dia iD'O Dri TOipi nonn ^«i nKBrn."t i»t niDJiison m"j3 I'pnua" .3 niro 
jnip rn inar ]'P"r^' ■i">" cpiis mpi i-'sno ik pwo tbod.i Sj lap .p-an^ na 
t»b;i P ■» 1^ nVip lua ■» li^ n'n .joiff no bj tsdidi dt3 i*ii» '"opit nonn nil 
.jjaci init ,»Bm irk ,irt«n inn ,nn«i intt niio irn -pi 
jj-wn rpma ni^ m i^op -e^ ,oibj' m^w i3'?3i niipn nn I'piu i'" ■> 
irti rvn-i rwon w np3iK Vmi iS n-n uS rrann nn inp» nnii3 TVfa k'Wo 
Abji ^11 fD» 13 wioi i'T3n 13 ip"iin .TBBDn ^5 lapr ii»i oaoi .vr-a 
wm mnii ipnai oJoits rrm 1^ n-n «Vi njorn nK Hipr iniia nppo aim .vmjd 
."I'lB^ pnb T3yi DiDi ^Vo lb n"ni ,.ienni nrom n'psiw rT3 nvw 
^" Ms. f. i3bt fnmp »ti;i is-a ,B*B'n nin3W3 lAii ijwn r» T'ratea i*n" 
na nop vbji niniii loipa htikti *;iww ip laiSn bi*aa «V [piii] win nipro ip»i< 
.13 I'^ariDO ban I'n-W -13 D'a-O inipo »id3 btr n'prp ib r-w •» .V3V'f 
pwn .TT 1)3 nis3 1BW m ,vbiB3 o'sjiji njia d'»t !)3n nn "ua li w *mti 
ipi*a mrw lom m ,>jiSb oipiso wmB tbiii mi ,'jiSb mpoo m toi tow ni .irnTW 
rw% i«n nm in b.t6 tk iiroiro reupne Tian nin ,Sra »vir tow mi 

." nrFpn ^ai 



L 



54 



HISTORV OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



the Daughter of Haman^', and in the following year, Isaac 
Israel of Hamburg wrote a satire on the professional match- 
maker in tlie form of a parody 5'. 

Of much greater importance than these is the Laws for 
Creditor and Debtor, written by Zachariah Pugliese in 1791 or 
1795*3. It parodies the Code of Maimonides, but it is not a 
satire. It is rather a guide for pawnbrokers and money-lenders, 
giving in a very lucid and entertaining style, a full exposition 
of the rules and regulations which men of this calling should 
follow. ASi possible emergencies are considered. It also gives 
a detailed description of the intricate system of bookkeeping 
employed in the trade, all of which goes to prove the importance 
of tiie money-lender and the respect in which he was held 
among the Jews of those daj's. 

The man who comes next under observation as parodist is 
Wolf ben David Buchner of Brodj-. With no aptitude for poetic 
art, this wandering bookseller and scribe attempted to imitate 
Gabirol, yaiizi and Bedarshis', and in his day his untasteful 
verses had considerable vogue. His technical turn of mind 
prevented him from seeing the beautiful and sublime in poetr>', 
and showed him only the artificial side of it. He mistook 
artifice for art. and wrote poems of tedious length, whose only 
peculiarity is, that they are made up of words, each of which 
begins with a certain letter of the Alphabet, or consists of a 
fixed number of letters. In one of these productions ^s, he 
inserted tliree parodies, one of the Contract of Betrothal^'', one 

s' lan 'T nn-K Th n rtawa (In iT^ooip ns'ti'^K nS aicD w ,nm;B "d^p 'o. 
Leghorn 1792, f. ai— 26), Another "Kethubah de Haman jJKnri", beg.; p^3 
n^BRl n^^p in>B3 ,-iO ia fonnd in a ms. in Widdin (Bulgaria) described by 
M. Grtnwald in Jii. Lilil. XXIH (1894), p. Iga. It i», bowerer, a mucli 
liter parody. 

i» pnS' n'V Ms. Cancoly 235. See Lrtlrrhode, XII, p. 65, no, 8. 

SJ See below Part II, chapter XII. 

.M See my article on Buchner in yewiih Encyr. vol. m, p, 414 — 415. 

ss n^m 'TEf. Berlin, 1797. 

S* RD6n -ith O'wn la n^nn "i"» (Brunn 1800), f, 10b— 12a, it open* with 
liiee introductory verses, the initiil letters of which form an acrostic Mt, and 
the litial Idlers irD. 



I IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



55 



of the Marriage Contract^'', and one of the Grace recited at 
weddings**. 

In none of these is there much originality. They merely 
emphasize by repetition and greater detail, the idea expressed 
in Nagara's parody of the Marriage Contract. Jehovah is the 
groom, and Israel the bride. The Torah is the dowry and 
Mount Sinai the place where the marriage was contracted. The 
promise of Jehovah is to make Palestine a safe and comfortable 
abode for Israel, and Israel in return promises to remain faith- 
ful to her Lord. In fact, the similarity between the parodies of 
Buchner and that of Nagara is so striking, that late in the 
nineteenth century they were published anew and ascribed to 
Nagara, the editor failing to notice the name of Buchner in the 
acrosticss*. There is, however, one striking difference between 
Buchner's parody of the marriage contract and that of Nagara. 
Buchner uses also the Ten Commandments as a frame work 
for his parody, so that each paragraph of the parody begins 
witli a passage from the marriage contract, and concludes 
with one of tlie commandments. 
^L Another representative of the last part of the eighteenth 
^Kentury, and one who deserves a place among the best of 
™Bterary parodists, is Judah Loeb Bensew of Cracow, His Order 
of Penitential Prayers for Purim^, or, as it is more often called. 
Satire for I^irim'", is a Hymnal for the worshippers of Bacchus, 

S7 nl|n3»n in^ ravtZ {HiJ. (. iik— 13b), ilto preceded by six rene*, 
bftTioe the acrostic p3 SKI. 

s» ^u^a jrao (*^. f. 14). 

!9 inV naw3n itoi ,nipia»n ana o'lnnn d-hiti .noen )m Q'lwiti d'bui to 
. , . 3in^ B"DnvDn b'b»3» cn-ani ^kikt I'a rijnawrr irfy Jiair; jibdu" nijnam 
"WU ^MlV. Edited by Meaahem Luar Mahler (Lcmberg 1S7S. S". la p.). The 
D'liem a'Hir iid and Tizvo i^fiD'Ln are identical with Buchner's Q'MJTi and 
naina, eiccpC thai ibey are lomewhal abridged in Ihli edition. The TTO 
niyurn irb njvon is the only part that belongs to Naganu The C'lUn 
mjnavn ino Q*]l'inH a uodcubledly of lecenl dale, and perhaps a later pro- 
dnetioD of Bncliner. 

to If) nsB inv niB . . . T"iBD'« pnpo an'B I'Vit imo '13 o'nwi mrc'n itd 
pttt. Anon. >. L e. a. [Bieslau ? 1794?] This dale is according to Roest, Cat. 

157, but to Zedner, Cai. p. Sg tbe date ia given t>796?)- *". laC 

e> Sec below Fait H, chapter XIIL 




56 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTER-^TURE 



a Book of Devotion for lovers of wine and muac. In language 
that vividly recalls the characteristics of the Piyutic style, the 
parodist describes the thrilling incidents in the historj-- of Purira*', 
and the tragic end of the ill-fated Haman*J. He depicts in 
glowing colors the manner of celebrating the feast of Purim 
prevalent in his day**, and gives two sketches of the dninkard** 
that are masterpieces of style and humor, and easily compare 
with Immanuel's famous Song on the Cliiff of Drunkards^. 
Satiated and feeling the effects of intoxication, the drunkard 
falls into a penitential mood, and gives expression to his feeling 
in the following manner: 

"How can 1 open my moulh or lift mine ej-e. 
Confused is my tongue (rom the tamnlt of wine, 
AUo ihe light of mine eyes is gone from me, 
I am like one v,'et.pon-wounded" ^7. 

His wine-song'^ is likewise one of the best in Hebrew literature. 
Hebrew poets of all times have occasionally indulged in sound- 
ing the praises of wine: Gabirol*', Moses Ibn Ezra", Harizi" 
and Immanuel^', even Menahem de Lonzano, did not disdain to 
compose a wine-song in honor of Purim'^. But the wine-song 
of Bensew has the additional interesting feature, that it is a 
parody of a religious hymn. And although it is encumbered 
with rhymes and acrostics, and is obliged to follow the original 
poem which it parodies, it nevertheless has an easy style, and 
shows no sign of labor or unusual effort. 

The history of parody in the dghteenth century closes 



. 10, II, 13, 14. 



'BTi T» (nnano, chap. 25). 



6" d"iib'j nrte 

*J Jbid. no. II. 

64 n,d. no.. I. 3, 4, 6, 8, 9. 15. 

«5 Ibid. no*. I, 7. 

6* B"ii;»n iPin 'jp 

67 d*iibS nthn, no. i. 

M Ibid. no. 5. 

^ The poctn "3" m'j33, which h«s been n 

7° IfHnnn "ibd (Berlin, iSSoj chap. i. 

?' 'losnn eh»p. 37. 

7« j'-n nntt ^p it (nniriD, chap. 25). 

;j 1" nnpK vnn. In his inpo miap (Cod 



^ 
t 



IV. THE REVIVAL OF PARODY 



S7 



with a new literary form — the Zohar parody. The New Zohar 
/or Purtmi^ by Tobias Fedcr, though of uncertain date, and 
unearthed more than seven decades after the author's death 
(1817). is undoubtedly one of Feder's youthful productions, and 
therefore belongs to the literature of the eighteenth century. 
In the language and phraseology of the Canon of Cabala, Feder 
sounds the praise of wine. Wine, he says, is the elLxir of life, 
the source of perfect happiness, the power that opens the gates 
of love in heaven and on earth'*. It holds the key to the 
mysteries of the Universe'*, Whoever abstains from it will 
not see the day of resurrection", but he who indulges in it 
freely, will share the good of this world and of the world to 
come". Drawing upon some of the Biblical narratives, the 
parodist continues in the same strain. Wine, he says, brought 
the curse of Noah upon the head of Canaan, and played an 
important part in the episode of Lot's daughters; it procured 
for Jacob the blessing of his fatlier, and brought Haman to his 
ignominious death". 

The Uterar>' execution of the New Zohar for Purim must be 
pronounced excellent, even though we notice in it a lack of 
unity and occasionally meet with repetitions. For, aside from 
the fact, that it was the first attempt to parody the st>!e and 
diction of the Zohar, we must bear in mind that it was most 
likely written at long intervals, which made repetition and loose- 
Dcss of construction almost inevitable. 



i4 . . nnieS vm 'ini '^b□. Edited «itb an introdactioD by M. Tennenbsom 
in Craeber'i nnCDn Itvf., vol. 3, p. i — 15. Reprinted Cracow, 1S90. S". 19 p> 
Cbntaini D'Tiii^ srm im (p. 7—10), «io"no »-sr\ |p. 11—13), lir^in wi^ 
P- >J— 'SJ. *^^ »<m< (p. 15— '7) and nn^'KW nVrjn PTm(p. iS— 19). A ^^». 
ti)p7 of (hit p»rody, with th* title onicb -vn. was made by the poet .\brahain 
B. GoilJober, who added lo it D'*nc;T rruK and ptescoted it to M. Landibere, 
from vhose libTiiy it ullimalety citne into the New York Pablic Libiarf 
"1 Mmaaiekr^. Tol. 46, p. 275, no. 6b). 



n /kJ. ed. CracoT 
7« Ah£ p. 8. 
77 /H^ p IS. 

]• aa. p.i. 

7* /M. p. 13, 15. 



p. 7. 



58 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURB 



There is a free flow of humor in the New Zokar for Pitrini, 
and one is almost tempted to believe, that, in praising the 
drunkard, Feder was. indulging in fun at his own expense. For 
it is well known that he was strongly addicted to drink, and 
that liquor put him in the best mood for writing*". But for 
this very reason, perhaps, his humor is of a low order, and at 
times even vulgar and obscene in its allusions. The poverty 
under which Feder labored all his life seems to have infected 
hb writings. The uncouth habits contracted during a life of 
wandering and begging'' appear occasionally in his works, 
and are especially noticeable in this parody, because it was not 
intended for the public eye, and therefore not purged of its 
objectionable elements. 

However, if we overlook this single objection, we may 
consider the New Zohar for Purim even superior in some 
respects, to most of the parodies of the eighteenth century. 
For, unlike most of them, it shows considerable satiric power. 
It is not mere word play, but the expression of a strong purpose. 
This purpose was to ridicule the wonder working Rabbis of 
the yasidim, who had so abused the system of hermeneutics, 
that the text of the Bible became in their hands an instrument 
of folly and a tool for fraud. Adopting, therefore, the language 
and style of the Zohar, with which these Rabbis were most 
familiar, Feder proceeded to show that he could find a 
text for anything and everything imaginable— obscenit>- not 
excepted. In other words, he proved once more, that 
in citing Scripture, the Devil is never at a loss. The 
New Zohar for Purim, then, in as much as it deals with 
phases of contemporary life, may be regarded as the forerunner 
of the satiric parodj', or the connecting link between the old 
parody and tiie new, between the parody that is merely enter- 
taining and the parody that seeks to correct error and stamp 

*° Isttic Beer Levin«ohn wrote the follow] 
•\vwH 1" VK3 nn« 01 ,pn '3 V;i' ^a airs ,\» v 
"p3T nan St (laiD.l \yaii. Warsaw, iSgo, p. 

«> See Q'-llB^ Bnn Iflt p. 4. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 59 

out avU. For only few of the parodies of the preceding 
centuries have any bearing on contemporary life and might 
have been written in any age and in any land, while the 
parodit^ of the nineteentli century are the direct product ot 
the times, and reflect intellectual movements in general, and 
the progress of Jewish thought in particular. 



PARODY FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY TO THE PRESENT DAY 

With the arrival of the "modem spirit" in the last years of 
the eighteentli century, the satiric sense, after a long state of 
coma, awoke once more to activity among the Jews. The first 
twenty years of the nineteenth century were scarcely gone, when 
the new bom satirists had grown into full strength and prom- 
inence. As Jewish literature in general came into closer intimacy 
with the new life and its problems, Jewish satire likewise assumed 
3 direct bearing on life and reflected the spirit of tlic times. 
In this way the voices of the satirists were raised on all 
important occasions and on all grave questions. And the vehicle 
by which they chose most of the time to convey their messages 
was parody. So extensively was this form used by them, that 
the history of Jewish satire in tlie nineteenth century is virtually 
the history of parody of that period. Thus, we have one group 
of parodies satirizing the extravagancies of the H-isidim, another 
criticizing the stemness of the Talmudists, and a third attacking 
the unbridled radicalism of the advocates of Reforai. Some deal 
with the life of the Jewish immigrant in America, and others 
with the manners, morals, customs and conditions of the Jews 
m Russia. We have parodies of socialistic tendencies and paro- 
dies of nationalistic tendencies. In a word, all social, religious 
and even many of the political questions of the day engaged 
the attention of the parodists and called forth either their ardent 
stijqjort or their vigorous protest. Here, however, there is no 



60 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



attempt at an exhaustive treatment of the works of all the 
parodists of the nineteenth century. The abundance of material, 
as shown by the bibliography that is to follow*, makes it im- 
possible to do anything more than merely indicate the main 
currents into which the stream of parody branched out in the 
last century. 

(A) PARODIES AGAINST THE HASIDIM. 
The earliest parodies of the nineteenth century are directed 
against the yasidic sect and the cult of the Zaddikim, or so 
called pious men. Pure and lolty though the creed of ^asidism, 
as formulated by Israel Ba'alshcm, may have been, it was rapidly 
corrupted after his death. This rapid perversion, according to 
Schechter^ "was due almost exclusively to the dangerous 
and exaggerated development of a single point in his teaching. 
That point, the honour due to the divine in man, was relatively 
a minor article in the original creed. But the later Chassidism 
has given it a distorted and almost exclusive importance wholly 
out of proportion to the grander and more essential features of 
Baalshera's teaching, until the distinctive feature of the Chassidism 
of to-day is an almost idolatrous service of their living leaders 

Eveiy other doctrine of Chassidism was rapidly pushed 

into the background and overlooked. Even the grand and 
fundamental doctrine of Omnipresence in the Creation was 
veiled by the special presence in the Zaddik". This peculiar 
doctrine of the Intermediary soon delivered the yasidim into 
the hands of impostors, who paraded their piety and put a com- 
mercial value on prayer. Discerning the evil that lurked in the 
blind submission of the Hasidim to the will of their false leaders, 
and shocked at the corruption which the false Zaddikim pract- 
iced without let or hindrance, the conservatives as well as the 
progressists resolved to fight this cult of pietists to the bitter 
end. Only, the conservatives still fought with the old and rusty 
weapon of excommunication, while the progressists wielded the 

> See helow Pt n, ch^, XIV- 

■ S. Schccbler, SHuUa in ymtaiim. N. Y. 1896. p. 35—37. 



V. FHOM THE MNETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 6l 

sharper weapons or satire and ridicule. Like David in the camp 
of the Philistines, the satirists threw off the heavy anuor of 
serious disputation, and went forth to meet the false Zaddikim 
with the sling of parody in one hand and the smooth missiles 
of irony in the other. And though the fight lasted long and 
«ctory was at first uncertain, it was soon felt in the camp of 
the Basidim that their heroes were dying and that their idok 
were falling to the ground. 

The first and foremost parody against the I^asidim is the 
Megalkh Temirin, or Ri-vraler d/ SfO-ets, published by Joseph 
Perl of Tarnopo! in 1819^. This satire had so many imitations, 
that it may be said to have introduced a new class of parodies 
into Hebrew literature, which might be called the Hebrew 
Epistolof Obscurorum I'irorum, because of the numerous points 
of similarity between them and the famous Latin satires of 
Uhich von Hutten and his associates. That the satire of the 
Galician Maskil of the nineteenth century was actually modelled 
after tlie work of the German Humanists of the sixteenth is not 
only 3 probability but almost a certainty. What the Epistolac 
Obscurorum i'irorum strove to accomplish agmnst the school-men 
and the monks, the Reviaier of Secrets tried to do against the 
Uasidim and the Zaddikim. Both fought superstition and bigotry 
with merciless severity. Greed, indolence and craftiness were 
common to the mediaeval monk as well as to the modern Zaddik. 
As the Latin epistles were put forward as a correspondence 
between clergymen, so were the Hebrew letters, of which the 
Reveaicr of Secrets is composed, promulgated as a genuine 
correspondence between Hasidim and some of their op- 
ponents. In each case the parody is not of any particular 
text, but of the st)'le and mode of speech peculiar to the people 
ridiculed. The Humanists amused themselves by imitating the 
Kitckftt-lMtin of the monks, the Maskilim by mimicking the 
corrupt Hebrew of the Zaddikim. "1 shall write" — says the author 

) The bibliographicil du« of thii Mid of all other puodiei meDtioned in 
ihit chapter will be found below in Port II, Chatter XIV, nnilet the nsinet 
of the lutlian. 



62 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 



of the Re-veaier of Secrets — "in the language which all the Zad- 
diVim and men of our sect use, and in which was written the 
holy book Praises of the Bcshi*, the holy books of Rabbi 
Nahmans, and especially the holy book of Tales and Anecdotes^ 
and books equally as sacred'," The nature of this style is that 
it pays no heed to grammar, mixes the Hebrew with \'iddish, 
Polish and Russian words indiscriminately, and gives many Yiddish 
idioms in a literal Hebrew translation". This latter characteristic, 
which produces an extremely comic effect, has become the 
distinctive mark of all the imitations of the Megaileh Tetfiirm; 
and those who used it seldom failed to acknowledge their in- 
debtedness to Perl. By a strange coincidence, even tlie cir- 
cumstances attending the publication of the Megalkk Temirin 
were similar to those of the Epistolac Obscurorum Vtrorum. 
Both were accepted as genuine by tlie very people against whom 
they were written. And well may the Hasidim have mistaken 
the work of Perl for the product of one of their own sect, 
because no one knew their life better than Joseph Perl, and very 
few possessed such subtle humor and such imitative skill as he 
did. The character sketches in the Revealer of Secrets were so 
exquisite and so life-like, that many Hasidim, according to a 
contemporary of Perl, were, long after its publication, ashamed 
to appear in public for fear of being pointed out as the originals 
of these sketches'. 

The device by which the numerous letters of the Rcveaier of 



4 er'lTBVT -naBi, Berditchev 1S15. 

i Naliman I). Simhah of Biiulav (b. Oct 9, 1770 — d. 1811), the founder 
of the Husidic sect known as Bralslan/r Nasidim. 

6 p'no'j mtJUO -IIBO s. 1. 1815. 

7 See p'OB n^lO, Lemberg 1879, fol. 61. 

* H is notewotlhy that all these pervericd translations arc found only in 
the letters of the Hasidim as if the parodist had intended to suit the pet- 
Teriion of sljle to the pcrversioo of character. Of the Afty-one idioms found 
in the Megaileh 'femirin, thirty occur in the letters of Seinwil Werhie»ket, 
thirteen in the letters of Selig Ledtsbiber and the remaining eight in the letten 
of five rainor characters. 

9 J. L. Rapoport in Ten 013 vol. 4, p. 45, 



V. FROM THE mNETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 63 

Secrets are held together as in a frame, is well suited to the 
character of the satire. Intended for an audience that was 
brought up to believe in the superhuman powers of the Zaddik, 
the Revtaler of Secrets is given a miraculous origin, Rabtn 
Obadiah ben Pethahiali, for many years the faithful servant of 
the Zaddikiro, in a mysterious encounter with a man whom the 
Besht appointed guardian of the writings of Rabbi Adam, is said 
K to have been presented with a talisman, by means of which he 
I could make himself invisible and traverse many leagues in a 
twinkling. Aided by this wonderful contrivance to annul vision 
and annihilate space, he visited the homes of the Zaddikim, 
observed their iiabits and manner of life, overheard some of 
their secret utterances, obtained some of their confidential cor- 
respondence, and then set himself with religious fidelitj' to record 
the results of his observations in book form, and this he properly 
named the Revealer of Secrets. 

The plot of the Revealer of Secrets, though clever and full 
of interesting incidents and episodes, is nevertheless of little 
importance to us. and may tlierefore be passed over. The real 
merit of the satire lies in its exquisite portrayal of character. 
Perl was not a mere observer, he was an artist With the fertile 
imag^ation of a poet he breathes Ufe and vitality into his 
characters. The Revealer of Secrets is not only a satiric parody, 
it is also a novel; in fact, the first realistic novel in Hebrew, in 
spite of the fact that it lacks the element of Love and the form 
ordinarily given to books of fiction. 
I The Zaddik of Szalin and the Zaddik of Dbhpal are the 
I, principle figures in the fclasidic drama. Around them center all 
the activities, though they themselves never appear in front 
of the foot-lights. In keeping them behind the scenes. Pert 
again showed his knowledge of the peculiarities of the l:lasidic 
mind. To the Hasid the person of the Zaddik is so sacred, that 
he prefers to look at him through a cloud of m>'stcry rather 
than to see him exposed to tlie vulgar eye. For this reason, we 
are permitted to know him only through the eyes of his secre- 
tary. From this functionary we learn, that the Zaddik is infallible. 



64 



mSTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



omniscient and omnipotent". The Zaddlk stands in direct com- 
munion with the powers in heaven, and can bend even the wiD 
of the Almighty". By mere word of mouth he can deprive one 
of life as well as restore the dead". Miracles are ordinal}' 
occurrences with him. The distinction between the two Zaddilpin 
is well drawn. The Zaddik of Szalin is a man of magnetic 
personality, shrewd and entertaining. He holds his adherents by 
his enthusiasm and eloquence. He is clever enough to make 
us doubt the truth of the adage that "no man is a hero to his 
valet-de-chambre", because his own secretary regards him as the 
"King among Zaddikim" ''. "I learned from his talk and his 
anecdotes", says this secretary, "more than could be learned 
from the instruction of other rabbis, and it would not tire rae 
to listen to him for days without eating or drinking"'*. The 
Zaddik of Dishpal, on the other hand, though not as clever, 
knows to bring the masses under his wing. The secret of his 
power lies in his apparent hospitality to strangers '^ It Is an 
hospitality, however, that pays in the end. He, in fact, is the 
richer of the two. 

The secretaries of the two Zaddikim, though less exalted in 
position, are the chief actors in the J.Iaaidic drama, and of the 
two, Selig Letitshiber is by far the more cunning and un- 
scrupulous. He is continually scheming to spread the influence 
of his Zaddik, and never allows anything to stand in his way. 
Theft, bribery and forgery are some of the means he employs 
in gaining his points'*. For him the end always justifies the 
means. He has only one passion — drink — , wliich is as intense as 
his devotion to the Zaddik. Next to his master his closest 
friend is the wine bottle. He looks to it for comfort and for 
joy, in sorrow as well as in gladness. And when at last the 



o See pi3B TfjiB, ed. Lembei£, f. no. 
> Jiia. 8b. » fiui. 19b, 34b. 

i Jbid. Letler I at [he end. 

* Jiid. t. 6 a. '5 fUJ. LeUer 

* /Hit. t. 9b, 11a, 14b, 15 a. 



in 
^Lffith 

early 
of a I 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO TIIE PRESENT 65 

angel of death comes to call him to the land where all the 
mighty in drink have gone before him, be comes in the shape 
of liquor''. 

A still more interesting personality we find in Seinwil Werhievker, 
the intimate friend of Selig. In him are blended the traits of 
the knave and the fool, the coward and the adventurer. He is 
shrewd and at the same time credulous'*; devoted to the Zaddik 
and still dreaming of a time when he would play the role liim- 
self ". Soliish and ungrateful, he does not believe any one would 
do good from sheer kindness". He is vindictive, impulsive and 
has no care for the future". All he wants is good food and 
plenty of drink and tobacco. His millenium is the time when 
all those who are unfriendly to the Hasidim and tlie Zaddil^m 
will be destroyed from off the face of the earth. 

In contrast to these ugly Hasidic types, the author sketched 
equal mastery and skill a number of beautiful characters 
other ranks of the Jewry of his day. Moses FJshel's of 
Nigrad is tlie type of the young Talmudist in Poland in the 
early part of the nineteenth century. Among the Polish Jews 
of a century ago, Talniudic erudition was regarded as the suminum 
H in life, and the rich among them were always glad to give 
daughters in marriage to youn^; men that showed promise 
**>f great scholarship. These young men were relieved from all 
worldly care. The study of the Torah was their task as well 
AS their pleasure, and the synagogue was to them not only the 
House of the Lord, but also the Temple of Fame. Moses Fishel's 
type of this class of young men, and in spite of his 
icss, we tike him for his pure soul, his generous nature 
meekness. Unsophisticated to the point of naivete, he 
idcss shows great independence of thought and firmness 
conviction. It is extremely amusing to watch bis attitude 
Hasidism, when he first encounters it Ke appears to 



)r Bii, Letter 112. 
>» AfA Letter 10. 
<■ /hd. Letters 33, Ji, 61, 




t6 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



us as if one of the Talmudic sages had come to life again and 
were confronted with this hybrid creed of optimism and mystidsm. 
He knows nothing of Cabala in which Hasidism had its origin. 
On reading a few pages from Praises of the Beslit, he naively 
asks one of the Hasidim: "Who is this Besht, man or angel? 
Sometimes he eats, drinks and sleeps like an ordinary man , . . 
at other times he talks to angels and holds converse with the 
dead"." The idolatrous worship of the Zaddik, which is one of 
the chief characteristics of later Hasidism, is utterly repugnant 
to his logical mind, and all efforts of the yasidim to bring him 
into their fold are in vain. "Try to win him over gradually", 
writes the secretary of the Zaddilj to his friend Gershon Koritzer 
in Nigrad, "read with him daily one page from Praises of the 
Besht, but no more, induce him to go with you to your house 
and drink with you , , , contrive that he should take ablutions 
every day, for this is very important, In the bath house he 
will learn many things pertaining to our creed" 'J . . . But Moses 
will not submit to any of these absurdities, and instead of be- 
coming the dupe of Gershon Koritzer, he argues so forcibly 
against the Zaddikim, that Gershon himself is thrown into con- 
sternation about his own faith and fears that he might be misled 
by this naive man who is so utterly ignorant of Hasidism'*. 

The foregoing type, however, is that of a recluse, and to know 
the Talmudists of a century ago adequately, it is also necessary 
to know some representative men among them. With this 
object in view, Peri introduced the Kabbi of Kalne and his 
friend Michael Kahana of Kowen, both as disciples of Elijah 
of Wilna's and as men of affairs. In Kahana, Perl portrayed the 
high minded, courageous scholar fearlessly fighting corruption 
and evil; in the Rabbi of Kalne, he portrayed the same type of 
man struggling under adverse circumstances between prinaple 
and policy. In his heart the Rabbi of Kalne is opposed to the 
Hasidim, but his love for wife and children drive him to act as 



J IhiJ. Letter 51. 
15 Ibid. Letler 76. 



fllOM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 6/ 

one of them. "I have heard", he writes to his friend Kahana, "that 
you always speak against the well known sect in public, but every- 
one is not situated as fortunately as you are. You live in a 
large city among people of culture and education who are loyal 
to you. God has given you great eloquence and a large soulj 
>"ou, indeed, can rise up against the sect. Not so I, who dwell in 
the midst of a people of unclean lips, a people that knows not 
the way of God, a people all whose efforts arc bent upon pro- 
claiming the saintliness of their Zaddik and glorifying him. One 
who would dare oppose them here, be it in ever so mild a way, 
would only risk his life ... . Do not wonder, therefore, that I 
have ingratiated myself into the good will of the Zaddik of 
Szalin . . . Believe me I am endeavoring to become Rabbi in 
>-our city only because there it will be possible for me to throw 
off the unclean garb and show that 1 was forced by circums- 
tances to belie my convictions'"*. That these characters were 
taken from life is beyond any doubt Any one familiar with 
the history of the period could name more than one scholar 
who was placed in the same situation as the Rabbi of Kalne, 
while men like Kahana were alwa)'s to be found among the 
learned laity. 

In the son of Kalman Bissinger, Perl depicted the young 
generation wavering between Rabbinism, with its preponderance 
of laws, and Hasidism, with its legends and wonders, its tan- 
gible Zaddik- worship, its religious fervour and enthusiasm. Youth- 
ful, imaginative and new to the ways of the world, Bissioger's 
son was easily won over by the Hasidim through flattery and 
deceit*', and when he took the decisive step he threw himself 
into the movement with all the enthusiasm of a dreamer. With 
an unsatiabte thirst for the supernatural he drank in all the 
myths about the founder of the sect, and the personality of 
Besht loomed up before him as the most wonderful in the 
history- of the Jews■^ In a fit of credulity, he demanded of 
Ihc ?addiVs secretary some of the relics of Besht, enumerated 



«• an. aid. 



'} ma. Letter 64- 



•» au. Letter 7;. 



68 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



in the book of Praises of tkf Besltt, and the latter palmed off 
on him an old, rusty pipe, found while digging in a well, as 
the very pipe which the Be_sht used". In the end. however, 
the young man realized that he was duped and came back to 
his old ways of living and thinldng^". 

As champion of the Haskalah movement, Perl portrayed his 
ideal of a Maskil, or progressist, in Mordecai Gold, a native of 
Galicia, the seat of Haskalah in the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. Gold went to live with his father-in-law in Szalin, and 
there came in conflict with the ^asidim of Poland''. With a 
delicate touch of irony, Perl put in the moutli of the l;Iasidim 
ail that he wanted us to know about their hated enemy. The 
secretary of the Zaddik of Szalin speaks of him in the following 
characteristic way: "He is handsome, wears long curly hair, 
dresses well . . . and talks quietly ... He has never read any 
of the sacred books of the Zaddikim of our time and is some- 
what demented, because he is scrupulously clean in his attire, 
gives alms even to poor Christians and neither drinks nor 
smokes" . . . i' And Seinwil Werhievker expresses his disgust 
in a similar tone. Gold, on one occasion bought the liquor 
monopoly to enable the small dealers to make larger profits", 
and on another occasion obtained for his towns people the 
right of holding property in their own name 3*, whereupon Sein- 
wil burst out with this tirade: 'Every day he is making more 
friends among the people of the town, and many simple minded 
folk, who always adhered to us, do not even look at me now, 
and have no concern for our sect At times they even make 
merry over us, all on account of this wicked man^' . . . Almost 
all the people, especially those who own houses, have allied 
themselves with this wicked man . . . Only a few who come 
to our house of prayer, the poor and distressed, still remain 
faithful; and some of these even have received favors from the 



»9 Ibid. LeUer* 64. 67. 71. 73. 30 Ibid. LeHer 136. 

1' Ibid. Letter S. J> Ibid. ibid. n Ibid. 31. 

34 Ibid. Letter 101. ll Bid. Letter 93. 



V. FKOU THE NDfETEENTH CENTURY TO TBE PRESENT 69 

wicked Mordccai, for indeed, he helps everyone''^*. To round 
up the picture, Perl completed the story by letting Gold adopt 
the son of Seinwil. when the latter fled the country and left 
his family destitute^'. Evidently, Per! wanted us to know, 
through Mordecal Gold, what his ideal of a Maskil was. That 
there were such noble men among the progressists is well 
proven by Perl's own life. 

By this time the reader must have observed, that in the 
whole tableau of characters, thus far presented, there is not a 
single woman. Was it because tlie woman played so small a 
part in the communal life of the Jews? Perhaps. But it is more 
likely, that Perl did not understand her well enough to draw. 
In the whole satire, there is only one woman, Fredah Reb 
Isaac's, whose character is sketched with some degree of 
completeness, but even she must not be taken as a type. She 
is a poetic exaggeration, if you will, not a picture from life. 
With all her cleverness, culture, kindheartedncss and good 
breeding she turns out to be a worthless creature, false to her 
benefactor, and untrue to her marriage vowJ*. Surely, Peri 
could not have meant to put such a libel on his people by 
presenting her as a type of the Jewish woman. We may, 
therefore, be grateful, that he made no further attempt in this 
direction. 

From the review of the characters in the RneaUr of Sfcrets 
let us proceed to examine how Perl seized on the salient 
characteristics of latter-day };fasidism. Solomon Maimon, who 
lived in the golden age of Zaddikism, has left us, in his auto- 
biography, a graphic account of the solemn assemblies that 
were held at the houses of the Zaddikim on the Sabbath, and has 
also recorded some of the ingenious Biblical interpretations 
generally delivered on those occasions^^. But liis specimens 
are sane compared to those we meet with in later ^asidic writings. 



JB Hid. leltcT rol. J7 IHd. Letter 104. 

J* A^ Letters 1. 4. 10. 15. 61. S6 — S9. 94. 95. 103. 106. 
K See }. C MuTiy, Solomon Mtimon, ui MUobiographir. Boston 18SS. 
p. 163— 170> 



70 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



To get a clear conception of the way Homiletics was corrupted 
by the Zaddikim, one must turn to the parodies of Perl, because 
the counterfeit is more legible than the original. The exag- 
geration in the parody intensifies the peculiarities of the original 
and makes them stand out more prominently. To reproduce 
any of the homiletic parodies here is quite impossible. Let it 
be sufficient to point out, that from such a simple Biblical 
phrase as "Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of a chief house 
among the Simeonites" (Num. xxv, 14), the Zaddik of Szalin, 
according to the parodist, deduced by some entj'mological 
gymnastics, that one who feels temptation coming upon him 
should turn to the Zaddik for he!p*°. 

The yasidic naivete is well illustrated in the following argument 
of Selig Letitshiber: "Nothing in the world exists without faith- 
The bird flies from its nest in quest of food. If it had no faith 
it would not fly, for it has no assurance that it will find food, 
and should better remain quietly in its nest. Why does it fly 
even in rain and cold? But it is faith which gives it the desire 
and strength to fly , . . Now, since even a bird has faith it is 
a thousandfold more obligatory on us to have implicit faith"''. 

The fear of everything that is modern, so characteristic of 
the Hasidim, is briefly indicated in the interpretation which the 
Zaddik of Akla gave to a dream of his. In the dead of night 
an o!d man appeared to him and placed a Hebrew Grammar 
on the top of the sacred books of the Zaddikim. He immediately 
woke and gathered all his followers and exhorted them to praj' 
that the impending evil might be averted, for he looked upon 
the dream as a warning from heaven, that the Progressists would 
get the upper hand*'. 

Lastly, the blind servility of the Hasidim is skilfully depicted 
in the narrative, which tells how the Zaddil; of Szalin celebrated 
the thirty-third day of the Omer^J. The description is so vivid, 



40 /W. f. 66». For otiier homiletic porodiei see f. 24, 27b — 38* uid job. 
1' /iid. f. 39b. 4" Jiiii. 483—493. 

^i Tbi* date coirespondi to tlie iSth day of lyj'ar and ii celebrated as a 
imi-hoUiIa}' (cf. n"M I'V % 493, 3). The cabalist* a(tix:h ipecial iiDportuice 



g eoei 
^^B tbi 



V. FBOU THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 7 1 

that we feel as if the whole rural drama were enacted before 
us. We see the imposing figure of the Zaddik lifted into 
his carriage and the turbulent throng of zealots about him 
wildly scrambling for his bow and arrow, and the din and 
uproar of the whole procession seems still to ring in our ears. 
Nowhere in the whole satire is the humor as rich and the irony 
as keen as in the passage which describes the lottery drawn 
by the violinist and the drummer for the different parts of the 
Zaddik's bow, the former winning the cord and the latter the 
bent wood, each adorning his own instrument with the sacred 
memento*'. 

Perl, therefore, showed his power as a satirist not so much 
by parodjing the diction and style of the yasidim as by parody- 
ing the IJasid himself. Addressing himself to the hiasidim, he 
put himself on their level, entered sympathetically into their 
ideas, and viewed life through their eyes. He imitated their 
speech, feigned their attitude of mind, simulated their love for 
exaggeration and assumed to share their belief in the super- 
natural He argued like the Hasidim, laughed and scolded like 
};;Iasidim. In other words, it is the whole Hasidic atmosphere, 
not one solitary trait, that Perl subjected to ridicule^ 

Let us see now what was the influence that Perl exerted 
on his generation through this satire. The popularity of the 
Rcvealer of Setrtts was unprecedented. We have the testimony 
of Rapoport, that it was read extensively in Galicia and Germany, 
and that many of the Hasidim were ashamed to appear in 
public for fear of being pointed out as one of the characters 
in the ReveaU-r of Sfcu-fs^K But this popularity, according to 
the same critic, did not produce the desired effect. It neither 
checked the growth of false piety-, nor deterred the young 

leration from flocking to the standard of Hasidism, as the 



tbi* day. bewiue of a traditioD cnrrenl among them that Simeon ben 
died thereon- It i* cosloniuj to go to the woodi and plaj with bows 
d UToirt (cf. Jewiib Encyc. IX 399b— 400b). 
t* See TTWS T^fiO l^ltef 45. 
4t See lart Q^ IV, p. 45. 



72 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



author hoped it would. On the contrary, the evil assumed now 
a more sinister aspect than before. Previous to the publication 
of the Rn'ealcr of Secrels most of the Hasidim were at least 
deceived, but now they continued to adhere to the Zaddifcim 
with their eyes open. Thi;ro were many who laughed at the 
Zaddikim and mocked at their teachings, and yet kept up their 
relations with the yasidim, and continued to pray in their places 
of worship, and from time to time made pilgrimages to some 
Zaddik to keep up appearances*'. The cause of this, according 
to Rapoport, was the fact, that, by this time, the Talmudists 
and progressists were no longer above reproach. The struggle 
between Hasidism and Rabbinism lost its religious aspect and 
became a struggle for social supremacy. From a conflict 
of opinions it turned into a fight for power. Therefore, those 
who were yasidim of long standing did all in their power to 
uphold their party, while the young neutral generation, finding 
one party as culpable as the other, followed the line of least 
resistance and joined the Hasidim, with whom outward piety 
counted for more than true scholarship. 

From Rapoport's point of view, therefore, the influence of the 
Revealer of Secrets could not be considered beneficial, for it 
only made the hypocrites more bold and shameless. We, 
however, who are removed from it by the distance of almost a 
century, are more competent to judge its influence. It must be 
admitted now, that by tearing off the mask of holiness from 
the face of impostors, the Revealer of Secrels did more than 
any other written instrument to weaken the power of the Hasidim. 
In Rapoport's time, yasidism was still too strong to show signs 
of decay, but it was already doomed to succumb. It might 
have withstood anathemas indefinitely, but it could not endure 
the lash of ridicule and exposure very long. 

The other well known work of Perl, the Bohen Zaddik, or 
Searcher of the Righteous, which is a satire on the manners 
and morals of the Polish Jews of a century ago, irrespective of 



'f' lUd. p. 48. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 73 

deserves a. good deal of attention as a satire, but 
as a parody it deserves only passing noticu. The only trace 
of parody in it are the six imaginary conversations about the 
MegaUek Temirin written in the peculiar diction of the Mcgatlfh 
'femirin*''. The rest of the satire is couched in a simple and 
vigorous prose, colored here and there with intense pathos, 

The next important parody belonging to the group of epist- 
olary satires on the I;Iasidim, is Didre Zaddikim or Wards of 
ike Just, by Isaac Baer Levinsohn, published in 1S30. It 
consists of a fictitious correspondence between three IJasidim 
about the possible authorship of the Megalleh Tt-mirin. together 
with an imaginary dialogue on the same topic. Among the 
various novel opinions ascribed to the characters in the satire, 
we meet with the highly amusing theory, that the reading of 
books of pious men is beneficial even when the reader does 
not know the meaning of what he reads. It is based on the 
singular hypothesis, that our ideas, like material substances, 
are endowed with the physical properly of heat while lodged 
in the brain, and that in the process of putting our ideas in 
writing the heat becomes latent and the ideas lie cold in the 
written words. The act of reading, however, has the virtue of 
setting the latent heat free and restoring to the cold words the 
heat of the original thought, converting them into a kind of 
psychic vapor, which enters into the mind of the reader even 
as steam of boiling water enters our nostrils**. Extravagant as 
this humour is, it is not unjustifiable. In the writings of the 
Hasidim one can find still greater extravagancies. The diction 
of the satire is genuinely IJasidic, and the few exegitical parodies 
equally excellent. In a word, though less skilled than Perl in 
the art of depicting characters, Levinsohn is nevertheless as 
successful as his Galician friend in bringing into full relief the 
;yncrasics oi the Uasidic mind and the absurdities of Hasidic 
letics. 



succc: 

Hiosy 
^Hoaiili 



*1 See pm im3 Vttg 1S3&. Letten 4—6. 

*) See L B. LeiiiuobD, O-pTS nai VicnoK 1830, Letltr I 



74 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 



In the Emek Rephaim, or the Valliy of the Dead, Iiis second 
important satire on the yasidini, Levinsohn used as a device 
the popular belief tliat people in a hypnotic state could be 
made to tell what transpired in the next world. Tlie satire 
consists of a fictitious correspondence, describring the way in 
which a well known deceased Zaddik was punished in the other 
world as a hypnotic subject saw it- The narrative as a whole 
lacks all artistic embellishment, and reads more like a calendar 
of crimes, but one passage shows the skill of the parodist It 
is where the Zaddik imagines himself restored to life, sitting in 
the midst of his Hasidim at the third Sabbath meal and deliver- 
ing a homily*'. The parody is typically IJasidic in spirit and 
style and reproduces all the ejaculations and intonations of the 
Zaddik, even his grimaces and gesticulations are minutely de- 
picted. The whole speech is exquisitely funny and absurd, but 
for that very reason one must read it in the original to ap- 
preciate its humor. 

About the middle of the nineteenth centurj^ Zaddikism sank 
as low as Mediaevel Monachism. Enriched by large contributions 
for absolution {J^dyon), the Zaddikim began to lead an un- 
healthy life of luxury. They played the part of Princes in 
Israel, and under the pretence of concealing their piety some 
of them indulged in gross immorality and dissipation, without in 
the least undermining the allegiance of their followers. The 
yasidim ivcre easily led to believe, that the Zaddik was above 
the ordinarj- standard of morality and that he could enhance 
the cause of holiness even by transgressing the moral code. 
This phase of Zaddiljism called forth a fresh series of epistolary 
satires in the style of the Mcgallch Tnnirin. 

The anonymous satire: Talks of those Golden Spouts (Si^fh 
hane zanfre dedahabd)^° is directed against Reb Baer Friedman, 
the Zaddik of Leovo, who, in l868, startled the }:lasidic world 



« See D-dCn-pDJ OB tJ-pTS '"QT Odessa 1S67, p. 15 be^. iKfl irOP TIM^ 
1(1.1 iKI 

i° See below Pt. n chap. XIV no. 341. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURV TO THE PRESENT 



75 



by his notorious desertion from the ranks". Tlie satire consists 
of a number of letters written by two old I;iasidini and one 
oewly recruited, covering the period between the Zaddik's refusal 
to receive his I^asldim in audience and the arrival of liis nephew 
Isaas of Bohushs' in Leovo to induce him to retrace his perilous 
step. The correspondence proper is preceded by a letter to 
the editor of the Ha-Shahar, giving the reasons why it should 
be printed in that periodical. Ironically the satirist claims no 
other aim than to make fresh converts to yasidism, by showing 
that a true I^asid need not fast nor pray nor do penance. The 
correspondence, he says, would make it plain, that a I^asid 
need not be learned nor pious, and that one may be steqied 
in vulgar pleasures and still be a Zaddik. 

With the enthusiasm of a novice, the new recruit describes 
in vivid and glowing colors his first impression of the Zaddik's 
home, the jolly good company he finds there, the continual 
carousing in the Zaddik's house of prayer and the tremendous 
ovation given to the Zaddik's nephew on his arrival at Leovo, 
how ever>- one fought and jostled and screamed in the effort 
to kiss his hands or the hem of his garment. The irony, how- 
ever, is strongest in the last letter, which gives the yasid's 
version of what had transpired in the private room, where the 
Zaddik and his nephew met to discuss the situation over their 
pipes and a game of cards. "What shall I tell you, dear 
brother, the S/uk/iimih actually revealed itself there, for the 
room was full of smoke from end to end, as from twenty pipes. 
But it certainly was no smoke, because it was Sabbath, and 
therefore must have been the Sheklniiah in full revelation . . , 
Then I saw them take many pieces of paper that looked like 
tbiets, bearing strange images of female servants, priests. 

It all the ficts in the hUloty of Rabbi Friedman see I^J 3r3D 'va TiW 
Xm, no. 8i mip bip, tlud. no. »7i M. Orenstiin ^DISD milx. Lembefg 1883; 
irm BIpVi Ode«s» 1S691 n^nin noU s. l. iSeS; D-JSTB 'as lOHO Lembetc 
1S69 and D'rOT m3Wn Zotkiew 1869. See alto P. Smoleniky'i poem VUWD,! 
in inBTI vol, I, no. 6, p. 9. 

V le the fifth Lcncr the nam« of the Zaddik ii diiguiicd under the 
fiendoajra W1» -1 and the name of his nephew under CWUOB Vvm ■^ 



76 mSTORy OF PARODY IN piWlSH UTERATURE 

butchers, each one with two heads. Some of these they held 
in their holy hands and some they threw at each other. I do 
not know what all this signified, but I am sure tliere is some 
sublime secret in these tablets. For I have seen how careful 
they were with them and how they counted them many times . . , 
And when I put my ear to the door, I heard many things 
which were unintelligible to me"'^. Here the satire concludes 
with an imaginary dialogue between the uncle and the nephew, 
the former threatening to throw off the mask of piety and enjoy 
the pleasures of life openly and without restraint, and the other 
begging him to desist from such a step for the sake of the 
other Zaddikim. It is a fitting climax in the dramatic life 
of Rabbi Friedman, because all that occurred afterwards was the 
inevitable upshot of this meeting. 

Another parody which has a similar historic background is 
Hith^alluth ha- Yiimka bi-StoUn, or the Revelation of the CiiM 
in Stalin, a satire by Judah Loeb Levin directed against the 
abuses of the Zaddildm of the House of Karlin in general, but 
in particular against the accession of the five-year-old son of 
Rabbi Asher of Karlin into the office of Zaddik in 1873**, 
Besides the facts relating to this particular episode, the satirist 
also gives many stories and anecdotes about the Zaddikim of 
the House of Karlin, some of which he learned orally from 
Moses Aaron Schatzkes's. The chief merit of the satire lies 
in its veiled irony and piquant style. 

Of the remaining epistolary parodies against the I:;Ia^dim 
mention need be made only of Mil/ah dimethika kedubltsha, or 
A Word as siveet as Hotny, an anonymous satire on those who 
invest Hasidism with the dignity of a philosophic system and 
look upon Israel Baalshem as a great religious reformer^*. 

The parodies against Hasidtm, not in the epistolary form, are 
of minor importance, and only a few of them need be mentioned 

sj See inw.T VIH, p. 461—463. 

H l^d. VI, p. as— 44. 

SI See W. Schar, nvim yol. 1, nos. 13—24. 

i* See TTO.1 Vn, p. 383—390, 



V. FRCnC THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT JJ 

* liere, such as N. Goldenberg's Zwei Hasidim, which is an ex- 
tremely ctever parody of Heine's Zwci Grenadiere; Josqih 
Ralbc's HaggadaJi sitel Pcsah, which is an attack on the Galician 
(^{asidim in New York, who brought one of their Zaddikim over 
to the New World in the early nineties of the last century, and 
Sepfii-r ha-7ikkun, which is a satire in the form of Caro's code 
on the I^Iasidic custom of drinldng and making merry in the 
synagogue. Some of the parodies of Linctzky. Kaminer and 
Ddnard are likewise aimed at the Hasidim, and among Erter's 
numerous satires against this sect there is also one Biblical 
travesty, 

fB) PARODIES AGAINST REFORM JUDAISM 
The Reform movement brought forth a considerable number 
of parodies, but not as many as we mi^-ht have expected from 
I'tiie magnitude of the movement. The reason for this may 
\ partly be the fact, that in Germany, the cradle of Reform 
Judaism, Hebrew ceased to be the vehicle of contemporary 
thought as early as the beginning of the nineteenth centur>'. 
It may also be due in part to the fact, that Reform Judaism 
has been more negative than positive in its tendencies. It 
started out with a desire not to construct but to pull down old 
structures. And since satire itself is a force that works more 
for dissolution than construction, it lends itself naturally more 
to constructive phases of thought. The latter reason may also 
account for the fact, that most of the parodies of this class 
are of a polemic nature. Fighting a negative movement is like 
fighting a guerilla war, with no definite fortifications to attack. 
The parodists, therefore, found it easier to direct thdr shafts 
of satire against the leaders of the movement than the movement 
itself. 

The earliest satiric parody of this class is S. D. Luzzatto's 
BiUical imitation, entitled: On the Cities that kai>e gone 
astray {Ai lu'arim ha-niddaholk), written in iSiS, when the 
news reached Italy, that a number of Jewish communities in 
Germany were abolishing the use of Hebrew from the synagogue 



7S 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



services. The next is that of M. Steinschneider on the Rab- 
binical conference held in Frankfurt in 1845. It is entitled: 
Bin Lustspiel in Zivei Aufsiigen, and consists of a series of 
imaginary conversations between the porter of the convention 
hall and a number of Jewish celebrities of ancient and modem 
times, who try in vain to gain entrance into the hall. One of 
these is Judah ha-NasI, who desires to present to the convention 
a prospectus of a timely edition of the Mishnah, in which Seder 
Zeraim, (the Order beginning with a treatise on Benedictions) 
would be substituted by Seder Kelalotli, or a catalogue of terms 
of abuse against the orthodox and the conservatives, and Seder 
Mo'ed (the Order of Festivals) would contain Maisekheth Sonntag, 
a treatise on the observance of Sunday instead of Saturday. 
The radical stand which Samuel Holdheim took in the movement 
brought upon him a vituperative satire from Moses Mendelsohn 
of Hamburg entitled: Tikkun Shabbatli Hadasit, and Judah 
Loeb Nathan attacked the founders of the Reform Temple in 
Hamburg with a parody of the Zohar. 

But the greater number of these parodies were written in 
America, where the Reform movement developed to extreme 
radicalism. The earliest is perhaps M. Scheindling's parody of 
the Ten Commandments, attacking the movement in general 
and the Pittsburg Conference (Nov. 16—18, 1885) in particular. 
Ephraim Deinard, Abraham Kotlar and Gershon Rosenzweig, 
in their parodies on the life of the Jews in America, naturally 
touch again and again on the American phases of Reform. 
The last devotes a whole chapter of his Massekhet/t Arrterka 
to the characteristic differences between the orthodox and the 
Reform Rabbi in America which is complimentao' neither to 
the one nor to the other. Recently, N. Mosessohn published 
A New Version of the Haggadali, for the use of Radical Re- 
fortned Jewry , the severe tone of which provoked sharp criticism 
in the Jewish pressS'. But whatever might be said against its 
harshness of tone, it must be admitted, that it is very dever 



SI See Amirican Hiire-ji April 17, T906. 



I 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 79 

I sldlful. The following specimen, parodying the iietli Psalm, 
tiich forms part of the Passover Haggadah, speaks for itself: 
"OAavti — Rabbi: I am glad when people he»r my eloquence, when 
they giTe ear to my lecfures on the topici of Ihe day, "ihe lypical Jew", 
ot mjr enloEiei on Ihe anworthy dead, or when I consnle tho!e in tronbic, 
Ihongh in my heart I have no feeling for them. 1 even mention the 
name of Cod praying lo save their souls, the eniilcncc of which I 
deny. I ipesk sometimei of God as a gracioui and a righteous one, 
and I do it to pre^eme the limjle one», because when my finances are 
low Ibey are those who shtc uie. My soul tests in surety that tor erety 
time 1 mention God they will pay me with haid caxli. I surely walk 
in the land of the living. They believe every woid I say, even when 
I com(.lain that my salary is insuflicient. My soul is never afflicted by 
the fad that I belong to Che brotherhood who are lian. 

Afa Oj*;i'.— Rabbi : What do I render to my member« for all the 
benefili? 1 make toasts and mention the name of God. With this I 
pay all my peoi'le. I charge very high in case of Ihe death of a pious 
crank. And why not, plea.EC? Am I a servant, the son of a handmaid? ' 
Have I not loosened the bonds of Jndaism? Have I lo sacrifice my 
allieism and call the name of God without remuneration? If I woidd do 
so, how could I meet my debts? In the courts of the temple is my 
Jerusalem. Hallelayah." 

The most skilful parody of this class, however, is without 
doubt TAf Chronicle of the Rabbis by J. P. Solomon, which 
gives a humorous account of a banquet tendered by the New 
York Rabbis to Rabbi Gustav Gottheil in honor of his seventieth 
birthday. It is a satire, in the form of a Biblical travesty, on 
the leading Reform Rabbis of New York in the last decade of 
the nineteenth century, and shows the writer's exquisite sense 
for the diction and style of the Bible. The temptation to quote 
from it is very strong, but the polemic tone of the satire makes 
it undesirable. 



^fa (C) SOOAUSTIC AND REVOLUTIONARY PARODIES 

^FTbe modem socialistic movement with which Jews have 
identified themselves from its very inception, has, of course, 
produced a considerable amount of literature in Yiddish as well 
as in Hebrew. The typical socialistic parodies are marked by 
one or more of three characteristics. They either rail at 
rctigioD, or attack the prevailing economic and political systems, 



8o 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATORE 



or preach materialism, or do all three at once. These charac- 
teristics may be regarded as the indirect result of the reforms 
instituted in the reign of Alexander IL The new life to which 
Rus.sia awoke after the Crimean war and the partial emancipation 
of the Jews inaugurated by the young monarch, brought the 
young Jewish generation into closer touch witli the Russian 
people and Russian literature. The would-be Talmudists 
quickly availed themselves of the opportunity of Rus- 
sianizing themselves and soon came under the influence of 
Dostoyesvsky, Tchernichevsky and other Prophets of Nihilism, 
from whom they acquired the tendency of disregarding all 
authority in -religion, politics and literature, and of viewing life 
from an entirely utilitarian, or materialistic point of view. But 
while the utilitarian tendency showed itself in various branches 
of literature, as for instance in Poetr>-, where the romantic 
school of VVessely and Lebensohn was superceded by the 
realistic school of Gordon, and in Criticism, where Papema and 
Kowner came out openly with the demand that modern Hebrew 
literature should represent modern Jewish life, the irreligious 
tendency, on the other hand, could be detected only in sodalistic 
writings. In no other dqiartment of Jewish literature do we 
find the language of the Bible turned against the sanctity and 
authority of the Bible. 

Exactly when socialistic ideas began to make their appear- 
ance in Jewish literature it is difficult to say, but it probably was 
in 1877. In that year two young Russian revolutionists, Aaron 
Liebermann and Morris Winchevsky, started the publication of 
Ha-Eiiulli ( 'Iruth), with the avowed purpose of preaching 
socialism to the Hebrew reading public. Later, when the Jewish 
exodus from Russia brought large numbers of socialists to Hog- 
land and the United States, socialist newspapers and magazines 
were established in London and New York. The parodist, of 
course, lost no time in putting in his appearance in this field 
of literature as well. In fact, the first Hebrew socialistic maga* 
zine contained also tlie first socialistic parody, the TepkiUatk 
'At Net, or Prayer for the Sins of the Rick, by M. Winchevsky. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 8r 



This Utur^c pared)', however, though a general impeachment 
of the wealthy class, is mild and inoffensive in comparison with 
other socialistic parodies. It merely enumerates the various 
charges which Labor has from time to time brought against 
Capital, but it has neither the sting of the satirist nor the vehe- 
mence of the agitator. Winchevsky seldom displays his irreli- 
gious tendency, unless he be the author of some of those bla- 
sphemous parodies published anonymously under tlie title of 
TephiUait Zakkali^^. He dwells more often on the wrongs of 
the rich and the evils of the existing political and social systems. 
His parody of the thirteen dogmas is a fair example of his 
satire. He takes modem civilization to task for many of its 
shortcomings and expresses in an indirect manner some of the 
aspirations which socialists fondly cherish for their Utopia. 
Here are some of his dogmas, 

"1 believe with perfect fiith, Ihat whoeret profits by the Iftbor of 
his lellovrniBii witboat doing anything for him in return, is a willful 

I believe with perfect faith that 'the poor jhal] never cease out of 
the land' until each man sbill work for the community as much u he 
GUI and the community shall provide each mui with his needs. 

1 believe with perfect fiith, that women will remain the slaves of men. 
or their playthings, ai long as Ihey will depend upon the will of others 
instead of enjoying the fruit of their own tabor. 

I believe with perfect faith, ibat labor and handicraft will be despised 

by all as long as the working men wil! labor to satisfy the appetites of 

the idlers" 19. 

The most forcible illustration of the utilitarian tendency in 

Hebrew literature is found in the Mishaah of Elisfia ben Abu- 

y&h^, an anonymous parody, which rumor ascribes to the author 

of The Sins of Youili'". The skill with which the style of the 

Mishnah is imitated in this satire and the extensive Talmudic 

knowledge displayed therein, would indeed point to a scholar 

of the Lilienblum tj-pe, while the views advocated by the 



3* See below Part U, chap. XIV, eo. 3m- 
» Cf. arpp ^mr nrbr nos. a. 3. 8 and 9 in 
1903. p. 61. 

fc See below Pt. H, chap. XIV. 00. 59. 

*■ U. L. lilleablnm, Wsi niltin Vienna 1876. 



rtai r^Bfi tw •mm Leeds 



laSTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

parodist are certainly not much in discord with those which 
Lilienblum held when he committed the sins of his youth to 
paper. The world, argues the jiarodist, is guided by natural 
laws, and society depends upon production. Therefore, all our 
duties resolve themselves into two: Knowledge of the laws of 
nature and participation in the world's production. He who 
does not produce what is useful and necessary owes the world 
a debt. For this reason women and children must also do 
their share of the world's work. Again, whatever nature her- 
self has implanted in us deserves study, but that which man 
has invented for himself, as language, national customs and 
religious observances, is not worth while troubling about. In 
other words, the whole structure of civilization should, according 
to the parodist, be built out of one substance—material pro- 
gress. 

The most representative socialistic parodist, however, is 
B. Feigenbaum. He is the author of half a dozen clever paro- 
dies, some in Yiddish and some in Hebrew, in nearly every one 
of which wc detect the presence of the three characteristics 
that mark the typical socialistic parodies. In his largest parody, 
The Passover Haggadah According to a New Version he agi- 
tates vehemently against the privileged classes", paints in sombre 
colors the life of the workingmcn*-', and persistently calls upon 
them to unite against the oppression of the task masters**. He 
regards the liberty of the individual as the most potent force 
working for progress^*, accuses religion of being the servant of 
the rich** and proclaims material progress as the God of the 
future*'. His parody of Psalm 113, which he turns into an 
apotheosis of liberty and his parody of Psalm 47, in which he 
calls upon the workingmen to throw off the yoke of religion, 
government and capital, are so characteristic of this class of 
parodies that they may be rendered here into English to show 



<• pm nma -B V» nt 

"^ INd. p. 3. 

« ihij. p, 5. 


ID bm man Genivc 1900. p. 4. 

64 ma. p. 16. 65 liiii. p. 13—15. 
<; f&id. p. ifi — 19. 



r TO THE PRESENT 



the kind of inteUectual food o 



the Jewish workingmen have 
been fed through the medium of the socialistic pamphlets. 

"IIi^UluhH! — Praise, O ye honeil people, praiie the name of Liberty. 
Blesied be [he Dame of Liberty ft-om this linie Toith and forevenoore. 
From Eul to Wett (he name of libertj ii to be ptaised. She baib risen 
high sbovc all nalioiis, unto Ibe heareas lialh ihc icBched. She bath 
uc coded heaven and driven away the Gods, bsth come donni npon 
earth and broken the chains, She raiselh up the friendless out of the 
diut, ihe needy she liftetb up from the dunghill. And lelt them with 
the nobility, with the foremost of the people. The mother, the house 
■rife, the female slave she sets with the men. She tastes of human hap- 
piness and is glad"^. 

"Zamz-Hiuirafi hltnf A'lrrafi — A Psalm for the naked children, O join 

bands all ye peoplei, cdl unto your brethren with a loud voice. 

For Religion. Goveninient and Capital are (he moK high and terrible, 

they are tyrants over all the earth. They subdue people under them, 

•Dd Ihe naiions under (heir feet. Tlicy choose our inheritance for them- 

Mlvei, the fruit of our labor they love — Selah. Awake ye brethren with 

a about, rouse others as with the sound of a trumpet. I.coni knowledge, 

Uatn it, learn righteoasness. learn it. tor they subdue all the earth, 

they grind the poor. Make righteousness role over the nations, place 

justice on their holy throne. Laborers of all nations, gather together. 

To us belong all the treasures. To everyone belongs the world, the 

bciulitul woild"'!''. 

Bold as these utterances are, they appear quite inoffensive 

in comparison witli the brazen blasphemy of the anonymous 

parodies published by the Pioneers of Freedom of Neiv Vork 

under the title of Tephillali Zakkah and by the Anarchistic 

Group of Leeds (England) under the title of Maftsor im TephUiak 

ZaktaJi^. Some of these parodies, it must be admitted, show 

considerable skill in imitation, but the vulgarity with which they 

attack the most sacred traditions, obscures their literary value 

The antipathy which they display towards anything that savors 

of religion is only equalled by tlie insolence which prompted 

their authors to outrage the sensibility of their coreligionists in 

tuming the Day of Atonement into a day of hilarity". On the 



u md. p. 14. 

•9 ct rat rten ta -tma, Leed« 190J, p. 13—15. 

f See below Pt. II, chnp. XIV. no. 394 and 368. 
;> These broadsides were issued by the so-called anarchists 1 
MtM of the annual ball held by them on Ihe Day ol Atonemen 



84 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATUKE 



other hand, it would be unjust to accuse these men of anything 
but radical fanaticism. We are not surprised, however, to find 
that in an anti-socialistic satire parodying the Thirteen Dogmas, 
an over-zealous satirist has stamped these men as the enemies 
of humanity". 



(D) PAK.OD1ES ON THE MANNERS, MOR.\I-S, CUSTOMS AND 
CONDITIONS OF THE JEWS IN RUSSIA. 

By far the greater bulk of the parodies of the nineteenth cen- 
tury belongs to the class of satires on the manners, morals. 
customs and conditions of the Jews in Russia. Since the middle 
of the last century, more than a dozen parodies have appeared 
in book form and about five times as many in contributions to 
periodicals, all dealing with the various phases of Jewish life in 
the land of the Czar. Some of these are of a miscellaneous 
nature, but the greater number of them are devoted to single 
phases of Jewish life, and are as varied in character as the sub- 
ject of which they treat. There are some among them that 
take superstition as an object of satire, others expose luxury 
and card playing, still others turn iheir chastising rod upon the 
unscrupulous merchant and the merciless physician. Some, 
again, treat of the vexatious meat toll, known technically as the 
Basket-Tax, imposed on the Jewish communities since i844''J, 
others deal with the misery of the Talmud Student and the 
Hebrew teacher, while those of more recent years have Anli- 
semitism and Zionism as their theme. In the short space 
that can be allotted to them here, only the most important 
can be discussed, and even these must be treated in a brief 
manner. 

The earliest parody of this class is the Treatise em Poverty 
[MassdkJu-i/i Aniyitth) by Isaac Meir Dick. It is of a miscella- 
neous contents and therefore may well serve as an historic do- 
cument of Jewish life under Nicholas I. Having spent the greater 

7» See below Ft n, chap. XV, no, 16. 
73 See yewisk Encyclopedia II 578 b. 




part of his Ufe in Wilna, the Jewish metropolis of Lithuania, 
Dick had ample opportunity to study the inner life of the Jews 
tn almost all its phases. But while in his Yiddish stories he 
display es a kindly and sympathetic humor, in this satire he 
touches only that which can be censured or condemned. Whether 
it be the physician or the Hasidic Rabbi, the usurer or the 
Hebrew teacher, the Heder or the market place, he dwells only 
on the evil instead of the good that is in them. Some times 
his reproachful mood carries him so far, that he becomL-s almost 
malicious; as for instance, when he lays the charge of gross 
immorality at the door of the Jewish women that engage in 
business". Occasionally we meet with passages that reflect 
the sad hbtoiy of the Jews under Nicholas I. The terrible time 
which the conscription law of 1827 brought upon the Jewish 
population, driving many of them to marry off their children 
before they had reached their teens, is hinted at in the following 
peculiar manner: "They told of Rabbi Shakran, that he was 
one of the great matchmakers of his generation, and that he 
made twice as many matches among children as the number of 
people that went forth from Egypt. In his day it was investi- 
gated from Dan to Beersheba and there was not a boy or girl 
umnarried" 'S. Again in the frequent reference to the ameliorated 
conditions of converted Jews we are reminded of the strong 
measures which Nicholas I took to convert Jews to Christianity, 
The extreme poverty and wretchedness in which the Jews lived 
at that time is pathetically put in the following manner. 

"There is no Cbiisttui whu b» no land and no Christian witboal a 

Utile; his cxiilcnce is sure und his trade is lasting. If he diei hit 

cbildren ioheiit his postessliins and take his place. But nut ■□ it Ihe 

cate of Ihe Jew; he has no land, and he has no trade, and when he 

dies his children go hogging" ^'i. 

So strongly is poverty linked to the Jew that if a Christian 

be ccmverted to Judaism he is sure to become poor at once, 

and vice versa, as soon as a Jew puts on Christian clothes 



1 
1 



H CI L M. Dick rv» raOD Iffilna 1S78, p. 36. 
ji Hid. p. 18, ;* IM. p. 17. 



86 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

he is already on the way to wealth^'. Dick also censures his 
generation for its aversion to the artisan's life, the lack of order 
in communal life and the want of system in the education of 
the young. Parodying a well-known Talmudic Agada he de- 
scribes the metamorphosis of a Jewish child in the following 
way: 

"The Rabbis have tsught, a Jewish boy ifler seven years of age toras 

into a gamin, a gamin after seven years becomes a bridegroom, a bride- 

gToom after seven years becomes a /ater Jamitias, a fater fami-'io! after 

teven years becomes a Hebrew leaoher, a Hebrew teacher after sctcd 

years turns into a malchtnakei, a malchmaker after seven years becomes 

a wedding bard, a wedding bard after seven years becomes an idler, 

and as soon as be becomes an idler he falls a 'burden on the commonity 

until be dies and departs from the world" ;<'. 

With all its severity, however, the Massekketh Aiiiyuth is one 

of the best Talmudic parodies in Hebrew literature. Its harshness 

does not detract from its literary merit, and the two or three 

coarse expressions are lost among the numerous witty remarks 

and clever turns of speech. 

Different in tone as well as in execution are the parodies oi 
Isaac Kaminer. Poetry, doggerel, or by whatsoever name we 
choose to designate his Hturgic parodies, we cannot but admit, 
that they are unique in temperament as well as technique. 
Free from all the chains of prosody, his verses flow with the 
rapidity of a torrent, carrying us onward, ever onward, until 
they break over the precipice of a pun — and we stop for 
breath. Some times his verses sound like the rush of a water- 
fall, always the same rhyme, always the same word at the end 
of every line, and yet never monotonous. And, again, we feel at 
times, that it is not the style as much as the personality that 
captivates us. We feel that he is burning up with an in- 
extinguishable passion for his suffering people, that a sharp 
agony is gnawing at his heart, the agony born of the oppression 
of his race. Even in his harshness we detect the touch of 
pathos, and in his sarcasm there is the softness of pity. And 



V. FROM THE NDIETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 87 



i his ! 



i the I 



^ 



of his subjects narrow. 
He has no mind for anything but the condition of his people. 
Some times it is the iniquity of his own brethren that provol^es 
his anger, but more often it is the wrong they suffer from with- 
out that touches the strings of his heart And the form in 
which he chooses to express his feeling is equally limited. With 
the exception of a few short Talmudic jiarodies, all his satires 
imitate the liturgy. Partly from a desire to elude the Russian 
censor and partly because it harmonizes with the concept of 
parody, he passes most of his satires as Liturgies According to 
till- Rites of the Lost Ten Tribes. Though manj' satirists before 
him have parodied single portions of the liturgy, he was the 
first to attempt a parody of the whole Prayer Book's. And 
while he never fully carried out his plan, still such of his paro- 
dies as Seder Bedikat Hamez. Seder Kafiparot le-Baai Takse, 
Mi-Sidduro s/ic/ Ha-RIBA, and Kinot Mi-Siddurom shel Bene 
Dan justi^* us in the belief, that had he lived longer he might 
have carried out his plan. 

The desire to render some of his parodies into English is 
very strong, but his style baffles all powers of translation. How- 
ever, not to leave the reader entirely unacquainted with his 
satiric stj'le, an effort is made to render one of his parodies of 
a lighter vein. 



"And tbui spBki 
author: Becaosc Ibi 
but euen of the 
but taki 
■ad hail implanted 



.r thi 



The Hebrew Author. 

the Age in vhicb we live to-day to the Hebrew 
<u basi listened to Ibe voice oT thy aoderstanding aad 
of knowledge and bail put forth thy hand and 
e of I^w and ealen, because thou hast done IbU 
le heart wisdom and faith tDgethei, hut studied 
the new books of entighlenment and bast also kept the commandments 
of the Torah, which have become obsolete, and hast not put away the 
old for the new; because thou hail done this, cursed art Ihou above all 
men and above oil inhabitants of the land. Naked aiid buefuoied shall 
Ihoo go, and bread of aflliction shalt Ihou eat, and poems shall thou 
write all the days of thy life. And I will put enmity between thee and 
Ibe Childien of Israel. The IJasidim shall call thee InGdd and the 



7» See Tram VH, p. 38a. 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWTSH LITERATURE 

young Mashilini — credulous. Cursed is Hebrew lileiature for th; sake, 
in toil sbati thou eat of it >11 the days of ihy tiFe; ihame and diigrace 
»hixl! it bring forth lo Ihce and thou shall eal and be foil of the (corn- 
ing of thoie that ate at eaie. In the sweat of ihy face ihilt thou 
publiih books, but bread thou sliatt not gain by tbeni, for the booktellen 
will lake it away. I will ereatly multiply thy wants and thy traubtei, in 



e shall be t< 



leonuDg, 



e by thy pea, and thou 



V thou sbaJt bring forth book*, and thy des 
e. Thoti sbalt not li> 
shall serve literatuie free without compeDiatioo. And it shall come to 
pass when thou sbalt be hungry that thou shalt giow wroth with ui^ci 
and shall curse learning and education and (halt shake iheit yoke from 
olf thy neck. Then shalt thou think and say in haste. It it vun to 
: leamiog, and whal profit is there in searching for it. Id Tiio 
have I grown wise and have refined my soul with wisdom. The earth is 
given to folly, ignorance prosperetb ... So shalt thou curse and wwi 
until thou shalt return to literature and repent. For thou art learned, 
and to learning thou shalt relum"*". 
The parodist to claim our attention next is Joseph Brill of 
Minsk, who may be regarded as one of the foremost satirists 
of the nineteenth century. His first satire, the Mishnahfor Critics 
published in the eighth volume of Ha-Shahar is a guide for lite- 
rary critics. With full knowledge of the mysterious doings of 
the literary Deities, the ])arodist tells the uninitiated of the 
methods generally followed by the critics, the attitude and the 
duties of the editors toward their contributors, the class of books 
that should not be criticised, the proportion of the critique to 
the book criticised, the responsibility of the critic, the right of 
the critic to conceal his identit>', and what class of writings 
pays best Occasionally he throws out some useful suggestions 
to the literary aspirant, as for instance not to be vehement and 
vituperative, not to go against the spirit of the age, nor to trifle 
with others and above all to write in clear idiomatic language. 
He also complains of the superabundance of rhymesters and 
Biblical commentators, and strongly condemns the Higher Criti- 
cism. 

His commentary on the parody partakes of the nature of a 
survey of contemporary journalism, but is free from polemic 
Illustrations of literary traits, both good and bad, are taken from 



N 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 89 

cortemporary periodicals, but the spirit in which this is done 
is candid, impartial and just. In a word, though tliis small 
guide does not give all the necessar>- information about the 
practical side of literary work, it has a most interesting way 
of telling tilings, and is written in a style that b at once 
masterly and remarkable for its resemblance to the style of the 
Mishnah. 

Encouraged by the favorable reception which his first parody 
found io all quarters, Urill determined to try his powers again 
along the same line, and after the lapse of two years produced 
a second parody, The Midrask for Scribes, which was published 
in the tentii and eleventh volumes of Ha-Shai^ar. In tone, style 
and purpose the two parodies are alike, but the scope of the 
second is much larger. In the Midrash, Biill gives an epitomized 
history of Hebrew Journalism from its inception in J784 down 
to his own time. He seizes on the salient features of the more 
important periodicals, and condenses a volume of criticism in a 
phrase or even a word. He not only imitates the diction of 
the Mishnah, but also reproduces its laconic force, its simplicity 
and vigor. 

"The Rabbis tanght"— laji Ihe pwodiil quaintly — "Israel is beloTed, 
bccanse editors have surrounded hioi »itb varioos periDdicaU, all made 
for his needs. Ifa-Siaiar lu light up liii path, Ha-'Emeih to eolighieii 
lum, Ha-BattT Or to drive away daikness, Ha-BHiktrim to amuse him, 
KiiMf Yniai Tor indifTcrcni things, Ha-Kokkabim for useleu (bines, 
IIa-K»l for all lorlt of things, H.i-ZrfkiraM for charity colleelioDS, Ha-Ihri 
foi fools . . . and it is of this that is written 'To every thing there ii a 
teuon. and 2 time to evety purpose*"^'. 
Here we have the main characteristics of the chief periodicals 
put in a nutshell. 

But he is not content with a mere description of the periodi- 
cals; he endeavors to show the cause which shaped the pro- 
gress of Hebrew Journalism since the appearance of the 
Meassrph. Journalism, in his opinion, has great and far reaching 
powers for good. But in order to make that power effectual, 
a journal must, first of all, be conducted by men who are equal 

»• Set Tnm X, p. 563—563. 



1 



go 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 



to the great editorial responsibilities. These men must be supe- 
rior in learning and ability to the contributors, and must under- 
stand the tendencies of the age, the nature of the reading 
public, the faults of the people and the proper remedies. The 
editor must hold himself responsible for the welfare of his 
public, and must have the courage to speali his views freely, 
unmindful of the opposition thai may be provoked, and must 
persist until he gets a hearing. He must be awake to all that 
is going on about him, must be moderate and tactful and must 
possess the gift of gathering about him a faithful band of able 
writers. The contributors, on llie other hand, must not be mere 
phrase-makers, but men of learning and of high purpose, who 
have ideas and know how to express them. Then the public, 
on its part, must show its appreciation of the vast labors of 
the editor and contributors. And if in addition to all these, 
there be harmony and unity of purpose among the editors of 
the different journals, the power of the press would be unlinuted. 
Unfortunately, however, Hebrew Journalism, in his opinion, has 
become a prey to ignorance. Men of limited knowledge and 
narrow views, neither gifted by nature nor equipped by training 
for literary work, have been at the helm of journalism. Flatterj' 
has become the current coin with which editors pay their con- 
tributors, while among the editors themselves there is constant 
warfare instead of harmony, 

"The Holy One, blessed be He"— says the parodist— "saw thai if »ll 
the editors would stand by one another ami counsel one another Ihey 
might destroy the world with their power of speech, uid Israel would 
turn out a new being. But this generation it not worthy of such an 
event. What did the Holy one, blessed be He, do? He moved them 
with hatred towards one another. The Ha-Ma^-gid piosecules the Ifa- 
Lebaiton, and the Ha-Lcbanon vexes the Ha-Maggid, both abuse the Ha- 
Skakar. The tla-MiUt denoancea the Ila-Kol, and the Iln-Kol slanden 
the Ha-Maiii .... Said He, I will set editor agftinst editor, and Ihey ihall 
fight every one against his brother, and everyone against his neighbor, 
their spirit shall fail, and their counsel I will destroy, and Israel shall do 
what bis heatl desirei"*'. 



V. ntOM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 91 

The result b that Hebrew periodicals abound in trivialities 
and in personal allusions. Much ink is spilt on riddles and 
chronograms, and much labor wasted on empty rhymes, and 
pedantic annotations. It is .sickening to see the amount of rubbish 
issuing from the Hebrew press. Such is his severe judgment 
of the periodical literature of twenty-five years ago, and such 
his reasons for their weak hold upon the people. 

But Brill's attention was not centered on journalism alone. 
Hie critical view embraced general literature as well, and it is 
significant that he voiced the spirit of discontent which was felt 
in the camp of literary men of his day. He regarded the literary 
achievements of his contemporaries to be much superior to the 
achievements of their predecessors of two or three generations 
before, and yet he admitted tliat his contemporaries were dis- 
satisfied with their work, Tliis shows that the feeling of discontent 
in literature had become general. Gordon's lament: "For Whom 
Do { Work?"'J uttered a decade before, became now the common 
«>■ of men of letters. The old idea that Hebrew was to serve 
as a medium for European tliought, as a stepping-stone to uni- 
versal culture, had lost its meaning for that generation, because 
it no longer needed any medium — at least they thought so — 
and the more modern idea, the one developed and promulgated 
by the national movement of recent years, that the maintenance 
of Hebrew as a living literature was necessary for the mainten- 
ance of the national consciousness in the Jew, this idea had not 
yet taken deep root in the heart of Jewish men of letters. Both 
authors and readers were just then groping for some ideal for 
which life would be worth living, and not finding it, struck out 
in a note of discontent and disappointment. 

Occasionally Brill aims his sarcasm at other phases of Jewish 

life. The meanness of the false benefactors, the extortion of the 

I .physicians, the oppression of the ta-x collectors, the uncleanliness 

^tn synagogues and elementary Hebrew schools, all these are 



■j Cordon'* poem i'TDS "» rh {J'V "rr is Wiln* 1898, vol I p. 10a) 
nt lln> pabliilied in "VTW toL 2 (p. JSJ— 354)> '■ =■ i" 1S71. 



92 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



subjects of his trenchant satire. But he is most bitter against 
the class of rabbis who do nothing but quarrel among themselves, 
heap one superstitious law upon another, and live and wax fat 
by the sweat of other people. Again he returns to literature, 
and lashes both the immoderate critic as well as the cowardly- 
author, And inter^voven in this whole satiric web runs a thread 
of literary gossip, wliich is full of interest to those familiar with 
the literary events of that time. 

In short, though this and the preceding parody lay down no 
rules for criticism, they are the product of a sound critical mind. 
and considering their attractive style, their mild and persuasive 
tone and the wide circulation they had through the pages of 
the Ha-Shaljar, tht-y must be regarded as one of the causes 
which helped to bring about the era of rational criticistn in 
modem Hebrew literature. 

In Brill's third parody, the Scroll of Fasting, published in 
■ various periodicals, we notice a radical change in tone, stj-Ie 
and purpose. It is no longer the small offenders of his own 
people that engage his attention. While danger is lurking from 
without, there is no time for trifling. In the face of terrible 
persecutions, and violent uprisings against our people, such as 
transpired during the eighties, the humorist forgot the petty 
offences of the clergy and the men of letters. The slander, 
maliciously heaped upon his people by antisemites, the vicious 
teaching of assimilation, the pernicious advice of blind friendship, 
the chilling despair that settled on tlie heart of the Jewish 
people, robbing it of hope, clouding its sense and destroying 
its energy- — these now occupy tlie mind of the satirist. And 
the change in purpose is accompanied by a change in tone. 
The cheerful humor that lit the pages of the two preceding 
parodies is gone, and a sad, morose, pathetic irony takes its 
place. The reader feels as if the darkness of the Middle Ages 
had come back upon the earth. Everything is so sombre, 
gloomy, throbbing with pain, When the lives of thousands of 
our brethren are in jeopardy, the humorist cannot be cheerfijL 
But on the other hand he is not bitter either. The word that 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 93 

exactly describes his mood is reproach. The whole parody is 
one long cry of reproach — reproach to humanity, to civilization, 
to religion that preaches but docs not practice universal love. 
In the style of the Midrash, the parodist weaves his thoughts 
into Biblical passages, and makes the words of prophet or 
psalmist the symbol of his ideas. 

"I,ord lid thou up the light of thjr countenuicc upon ns, etc.. (Fi. iv, 

6 — 8) "Tbii", says Ihe parodist, "bus reference to the faithful in InaeU 

who laj Chui: During alJ the oppresiioa and lubjugation, nil ihe mas- 

Mcrei and persecutions, pain and torture thai have come upon us in every 

^neration, during all Ihe dreadful days, we only had the light of thy 

countenance, which woi lo ns a flag and a banner . . . We were not veied 

St the peace ftod prosperity of the nations, nor did we envy them because 

their com and their wine increased . . . Lord of the Universe, we ask of 

tlieiti nothing but that there be perfect peace for us among the nations 

of the eanh . . . and that our dwelling placet be secure from Ihe terror 

of eaUmily"^!. 

There can be no sadder, nor more pathetic spectacle than 

ihat of a people, "bowed by the weight of centuries," crying 

for peace and rest while the nations of yesterday are bathing 

in glory. The very submissiveness and resignation with which 

this historic people is accepting its fate is the greatest censure 

of the World's greed for power. This satire is not the child of 

free fancy but the product of history. And if all tlie official 

records of the riots in Russia and Rouinania were destroyed, 

this parody alone would tell future ages of the shameless 

violence that raged in Europe at the close of the nineteenth 

century. 

This parody, moreover, is burdened with an important mes- 
sage. On the one hand it protests against assimilation, for 
"just as oil cannot be mixed with any other liquid, so can 
Israel never be amalgamated with the people of other nations," 
and on the other hand, it admonishes the people not to rely 
■n supernatural aid. 

■The prophet has said (Isaiah Uiii 4, 5J: 'The year of my redeemed is 
come, and 1 looked, and there was none 10 help; and I wondered thai 
there was none lo uphold : therefore mj own arm brought salvation unto 



•* Set S. P. R^inowiti hKW rea vol 1. coL 596-59?- 



94 



mSTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



me'. "This", sajt the laliriit, "letchM thit lirael ihill not say, I will 
go and lie down uid rest till Che end of the day*, till the great trumpet 
shall be blown, and I will do nothing" ^.^ 

If the Jews wish to continue an individual existence, they 
must awake to national consciousness. The old hope of Messia- 
nic redemption need not be relinquished, but the hope must be 
coupled with action. People must co-operate with the Lord if 
they wish their prayers to be accepted. In other words, we 
have the message of national Zionism, couched in the language 
of the ancient rabbis. It offers no plans, nor tells how the 
Jew can be brought to national conciousness, but the impulse 
is there, and the hope, the confidence and encouragemeat are 
all there. 

As soon as the storm of persecution subsided, the satirist 
left the grave question of Israel's fate among the nations, and 
returned to a subject that lent itself more readily to his genial 
humor and broad cynicism. This time it was the system of 
education among the Russian Jews that Brill chose to purge 
with his satire, choosing the Shiillfatt Arnkh, or the Code of 
Joseph Caro, for his form of expression. 

Having spent his whole life in teaching, Brill knew all sides 
of the profession. All the sorrows of the teacher's life, the 
stinging poverty, the crushing humiliation, the contempt and 
scorn to which he is subjected, the arrogance of the parents, 
the malice of competitors, the uncertainty of his income — 
he had observed them all. On the other hand, he also knew 
that the schools lacked very much in system and method, and 
that many people unfit for any occupation took to teaching as 
a last resort, and brought disgrace upon this noble profession. 
And assuming ironically, that things were as they should be, in 
accordance with some unwritten law, he deduced these laws 
a posteriori and put them in the form of the sLvteenth century 
code. Dickens has not made Salem House and Mr, Creakle 
more vivid to us than this code makes the Heder and the 
Mclammcd. It is a masterpiece of workmanship, and a priceless 



«S Ibid. coL i 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 95 

document for the student of education among the Jews in 
Russia. 

Some eight years before, Levi Reuben Simlin in an excellent 
parody entitled Haggadah for Teachers, had already pleaded 
the cause of the teacher, but his was a one-aided plea. The 
poverty of the teachers was depicted in Baming colors, while 
tlieir failings were passed over in silence. Brill, on the other 
hand, spares neither parent nor teacher. He shows that both 
have failed to do their duty towards the child, and maintains, 
that the teachers are as much to blame for their ill fortune as 
the parents. Moreover, — if we may credit him not for what 
he says explicitly, but for what seems to be implied in his 
manner of saying— he feels that it is beyond the power of 
any individual to remedy this evil. To reform the systems of 
education among the Russian Jews in the Pale, it is necessary, 
first of all, to change iheir mode of living. Give them more 
room to move, more space to breathe, open for them more 
opportunities, grant them more freedom, and the rest will take 
care of itself. It is for this reason that he reproaches no one 
in particular. He merely stales things as they are. It seems 
as if he wished us to understand, that the laws which he codi- 
fied were not made by the teachers nor by the parents, but grew 
out of the intolerable conditions under which these parents and 
teachers had to live and bring up their children. 

To sum up, we find that tlie works of Brill show considerable 
versatility on his part. He reproduces with equal skill the con- 
ciseness of the Mishnali, the quaintness of the Midrash and the 
idiom of the codices, and imparts to his imitations so much of 
the spirit of the originals, that the humor in claiming an ancient 
origin for them, as he does in his prefaces, is well sustained. 
His interests are varied, ranging from the future of his people 
to the extortion of the tax collector. His love for his people 
docs not blind him to their faults, and he has the courage to 
tell their errors to their face. On the other hand, he is clear- 
sighted enough to see that his people arc not always to bUme. 
As a critic, moreover, he has done a great deal to improve the 



96 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 



literary taste of his people and by his frankness, impartiality and 
keen observation has exemplified true criticism. And finally, as 
a humorist, he has displayed a keen sense of the ludicrous, and 
has infused into his writings an air of geniality, a delicate irony 
and a deep pathos, which make them far superior to common 
imitations of ancient models. 

In the panorama of Jewish life, as depicted by the parodists, 
the figure of the merchant is of course not wanting. Two sa- 
tires on the commercial phases of Jewish life appeared within 
one decade of the last century; the Massckhetli Shelaroth of 
Abraham Abel Rakowsky in 1894, and the Massckhetli Soharim 
of Abraham Solomon Melamed in I900. Both of these are to 
be reckoned among the finest Talmudic parodies in Hebrew 
literature. The style and the spirit of the Talmud are nowhere 
better imitated than in them, while in humor and irony, 10 
keenness of observation and piquancy of expression they have 
rarely been surpassed. In each of these parodies the lives of 
the merchant, the broker, the money lender and the tradesmitn 
are laid bare before us. We see all the subterfuges and all the 
cunning they resort to in their wild chase after wealth. And 
while we know that the parodists have painted them a little' 
blacker than they really are, we, nevertheless feel, that the 
straggle for existence within the Pale must be terrible enough 
to warrant even such black colors. All the evil that the May 
Laws brought upon the Jews of Russia is unintentionally reflected 
here. In the light of these oppressive laws we no longer 
wonder at the lack of honesty among tradesmen, but wc wonder 
at the amount of perseverance displayed by them under such 
inhuman treatment. The precarious existence wliich these 
benighted laws brought with them into the lives of Jews, forcing 
many of them to shift from one occupation to another, is de- 
scribed by one of the parodists in the following way: 

"R«bbi Saliran (merchmt) (ajri, > grain msrchant in Ihe 6til lUgc is 
■ benedict supporlcd by his father-ic-law, in the second stage a teacher 
of small children, in the third stage a clerk and in the fourth a gnio 
merchant. Rabbi Yadan (Wizard) says, he it a wood chopper in the bit 
itage, a ihoemakcr in the second stage, a butcher in the third, and a 




V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 97 

grata mcrcbaot in the fouith. Said Rabbi Suseron [middle-iiiaD), Ihe 

words of Rabbi fiahran apply to the cities of the North and the woidi 

of Rabbi Yadan to the cities of the South, and both we agreed as 10 

the poverty of the last alaye"". 

Equally pathetic is the description in the other parody of the 

Trequency with which business faUures have begun to appear 

among Jews in the last years: 

"to ihe beginning", says the parodist, "whoeTcr became bankrupt 

dies*cd himself in black and weal lo a place where no one knew him, 

but as soon as it was seen that the Jewish cities remaioed desolate it 

wa* orduiied, that the banknipl should remaia in his city, but most duI 

enter the synagogue. When it was seen that the syottgogucs did not hate 

even ten men for prayer it was again ordained that the bankrupt may 

come into (be tynagogue but must change his place, thus, if his pew was 

in the East he must go down lo the WeiL Then again they saw, that 

the whole congregation was crowded in the West and the East was 

capty, then it was decided that every one should remain in his place"^. 

In these two parodies, tlien, we have two historic documents 

*" bating to the economic condition of the Jews in Russia in the 

1-ast part of the nineteenth century. 

Of the remaining parodies of this group the following deserve 
*« be recorded here, though in a very brief way. The Ha- 
'yoreah of I. Goldberg, published anonymously in 1895, is in the 
f<Hrm of a monthly magazine, and, in its composition, approaches 
^uch publications as the American fitdgc, or Puck. It abounds 
in puns and epigrams, and contains more than a dozen specific 
parodies. But its wit is often nothing more than witticism, and 
its epigrams show plainly the ear marks of laborious effort. 
And while it touches on many phases of Jewish life it touches 
tJiera but superficially, showing neither the deep sympathy nor 
the keen observation so essential to a true satirist The Welt 
Mtsorak of M. Dlugatsch is even less creditable. The idea ot 
parodying the Massorah is, to be sure, new with the author 
and would certainly lend itself to many fine possibilities, but the 
manner m which it is carried out is disappointing. The parodies 
too frequently consist of coarse jokes and the effort to be witty 
is e^-erj-wherc apparent 

H See A. S. Melamed, CnniD rODB Berditchev I9C0, p. 49. 

•7 Sec A. A. Rakowsky. nnev rooe Warttw 1894. P- iS— 19> 



98 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

ir in addition to the above, mention be made of the Midrask 
Zaddikim of I. Z. Brodotsky, which is a satire on the immorality 
and extravagance of the age, and the satire of E. Ch. Sajontschick 
on the hardship endured by the Talmud Students in the Russian 
Yeshiboth, entitled: Seder Haggadah Le-Hobeshe Beth Ha-Midrask, 
the nationalistic satires of D. Frischman and A- Idelson on the 
British East Africa movement as well as ZangwiU's satire on the 
Kharkof Zionist who opposed this movement, then we shall 
have recorded all the important parodies un the morals, manners, 
customs and conditions of the Jews in Russia during the lune- 
teenth century. 

(E) PARODIES ON AMERICA AND AMERICAN JEWISH UFE 
In the study of the parodies that deal with conditions in 
America it is important to bear in mind, that they were all 
written by foreigners who were still strange to the new land of" 
their adoption, when they put their impressions on paper. Owing 
to this they not only reflect the state of American Jewry, but 
they also reveal to us what America looked like to the be- 
wildered immigrant. 

Like most Europeans of a generation ago, the European Jew 
looked upon America as the land of fortune where gold was 
lying in the streets and where every newcomer found wonder- 
ful opportunities. The American dollar, not infrequently finding 
its way into the pocket of some poor Russian or Polish Jew, as 
a gift from the "rich American relative", helped to foster and 
spread this Eldorado dream. It is therefore not surprising to (ind 
the immigrants groaning under their disappointment as soon as 
they are disillusioned. Thus, one of them, parodying Psalm i rCv 
gives vent to his bitter disappointment in the following manner: 
"AkaiH ... I love to hear people persnade [hemselves and others, thai 



J 



Ametica is 


he cr 


wn of <ttl 


conn 


ries . . . Skom 


IT Pelhtsim . . 


May 


the 


Lord protec 


us fr 


am such i 


mple 


ons. DaUolhi 


. . . Of what 


good 


ate 


all America' 


fotlu 


ei to the 


poor 


man? . . . H/' 


manti A'. 'adaSfi- . 


. I 


thought if I 


would 


speak English 


I would find 


my lalvatioo. 


But 


the 


fact is Kol hJadam 


Kozib it >s 


a w 


rid of bluff ai 


d swindle" M. 







*S See A. M. Sharlianslty, man nrjdp-iTOK N. Y. 1899, p. 16. 



V. : 



OM THB NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 99 



The same complaint uttered in different tones may be heard 
from half a dozen other disappointed dreamers'". But while 
the immigrant is easily disillusioned of this preconceived notion 
about America as soon as he comes face to face with the 
hard facts of life, there are other notions which remain witli him 
for a much longer time. America seems to him to be a barren 
soil for all scholarly aspirations. It is no place for the learned. 
Idealism cannot thrive amidst a noisy, bustling humdrum exis- 
tence. It is a land entirely given over to material pursuits, 
where every one is money-mad, unscrupulous, corrupt in morals 
and deficient in manners; where the sweet words of charity 
are silenced by the rude cry of "Help Yourself", and honesty- 
is only a policy at best; where all the outcasts of Europe 
flock for refuge and the arrogant parvenues are at the social 
helm. It is a land where everything is turned topsyturvy, 
the noble of heart are laid low while the vulgar rule the 
earth. These sentiments are expressed in different ways by 
different parodists. Imitating the Psalmist, one of them pro- 
nounced his judgment of America in the following manner: 

"Blessed is the man thftt walkcth not in the coonsel of scholars, nor 
suodeth in the way of the eoUghtened, nor silteth in the seat of the 
learned. But bis delight is money, uid in the accu moist ion of wealth 
doei be meditate day and night He shall be like a tree planted in Ih« 
land of HB«ilah9" wbose fniit is gold, and the lettTCs of which are goU 
and all that it bringelh forth is worth money. The wise are not to; 
but are like the chaff which the wind driveth away. Therefore the 
wise ihall Dot stand in the assembly of the rich, and the enlightened in 
ibe congregation of those who accumolate wealth. Foe monejr answereth 
all things, but the poor man's wisdom is despised"?'. 
Exchanging the style of the Psalmists for that of the Tal- 
mudic sages, the same parodist continues: 

"The New World itands on three things: money and money and again 
money. All the people of (his country worship the GoMeo Calf ..." 

"^ore work and bate learning, for he who makes ihe Torah a ipade 

lo dig with u>d wanti to make pro6t bom her words, i% ai if he took 



IM See below iX U. chap. XIV under the 
I ^ Cf. Genesis U, 11. 

■ See L Davidson, Jl'ttin 131 in "Ojn K. Y. 189a, 



of Agut, Hutin and Foiinak. 



100 



raSTORV OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



"No sinfeu'er will accumulate wealth, led n( 
nor t£ the ihatnefaced apt to get rich; but he v 
grow wise, for hii wealth will make him appear so". 

"The baiil of all law and religion is: -Thou thalt love th^ weoith with 
all thy heart and with al! thy soul', all the rest is based on this 
principle" 9'. 
Another parodist, adopting the language of the Talmud, has 
the following to say about American greed for wealth: 

Rabbi Yedayah preached: "What is the meaning of the Biblical pas- 
sage (Psalm civ. I^)-, "^'onrler is the sea gteit and wide, [herein ate 
things creeping innumerable, both smali and great beuts?" Yonder ii 
the lea — that ia America which is like unto a lea. As the sea cwallom 
up everything that is thrown into it and covers it, so America receive* 
every one that comes to its shores and jjuts a veil over their past. 
Therein are things creeping innumerable — these are the people who 
resemble the creeping things in that the bigger swallow up the ima&er. 
Both small and great beasts — these ore the meo with small fortunes 
who arc continually getting richer until they acquire great fortunes. 
And why are they called beasts, because they alone who act hke beasts 
succeed in hoajdiDg up riches" 9J. 
The foreigner's opinion of American politics is tersely ex- 
pressed in the following parody of the first Mishnah of Abotb: 
"Columbus discovered the free land of America and handed it over to 
the Presidents, and the IVcsidenls handed it over to the RepresentativES 
of the people, and they forced it into slBVetj"'H. 
But what strikes the recent immigrant more forcibly perhaps 
than anything else is the change which he often finds in his 
own townsfolk who preceded him to America by a number of 
years. The industrial nature of the American commonwealth 
not infrequently brings it about that men of coarse fibre and 
strong muscles scale the social ladder rapidly, while people of 
refinement and good breeding, remain on the lowest rung strug- 
gling for a bare existence. This fills the parodists with chagrin 
and we find one of them expressing his indignation in the form 
of a new decalogue. 

•1 Mammon am Ihe Lord thy God who has brought thee oal of thy 
Cftther-lAUd, where thou waat a sand carrier, a chimney sweep, a vagabond, 
a swindler, an informer, a traitor, a hoise thief, and have brought thee 

*• fliV, 9J See G. Roaeniweig, Kfni» raOK N. Y. 1892. p. 10. 

« See A. Hmwisch, jrT-M-3'1 VlV'bnp Tin TTIH D'f"D Tfl«p>T»nK Kl N. V. 




V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT lOI 



here into itie land of gold to become > president of a (ynaigogiie, « incr- 

chtnl, ■ landlord and a politic! an" 9 3. 

Born of the same mental vexation is the feeling entertained 

by many immigrants that America is the depository for all the 

scum of Europe. This is expressed by one parodist in the 

following Talmudic style: 

"Whrn do people begin to come to America? Old men as soon as 

they grow feeble; barons and dukes wben they become bankrupt; hone- 

thievei when they are caught; soldiers after ihay have taken the oath of 

allegiance, banlceri after ihcy have become insolvent"'}^. 

I Another parodist speaking from the Jewish point of view puts 

■be same sentiment in the following way; 

1^ "Akabiah the >on of Choilic said: Consider three things and you will 

be able to exist in America: Forget who you are, wear a mask before 
whose who know yon and do anything you can. He aced to say, if you 
were an informer al home become here a public buiy-body; if you taught 
children the alphabet, become here a preacher in an orthodox synagogue; 
if you were a masseur, become here a physician; if you were a drummer 
In the army become a professor of music, if you were a c1o«ti il home 
become here an actor; if you were a beadle take to poUtics; and if you 
are simply an impudent fellow, become the president of a society''^?. 
The same parodist sums up his view of America in the 
following laconicism: 

"America", he says, "is praised for ten things; 'I^ies First' (on the 
Eaat Side), 'Help Yourself, ;every»herej, long funeral processions, cheap 
newtpapert, child labor, an abundance of chief rabbis ... an abbridged 
Pater Noster (for Reform Jews). . , and editors without censorship" A 
AH these confused opinions about America naturally go to 
»ve that the immigrant is unfit to judge American traits and 
American customs correctly. But we must not fall into the 
error of attributing this unfitness only to the Jewish immigrant. 
Professor Miinsterberg in his volume on American traits from 
the point of view of a German has drawn a picture of the 
Yankee which proves that at least the Germans are no better 
fitted to judge Americans than the Russian Jews are. Accord- 
ing to him, the American appears to the popular German 



^^roi 



« See J. Jooathanson, Tmr inriltp-dnM in Cb. J. Minike't BBUfn nunaw 
N. Y. 1901. 

<« See A. Kotlir, (ntrmn) p« l-\i rooo Warsaw 1898, p. 7. 
«7 S. A, Hnrwisch, i6ni. p. 5. 9^ Jhd. p. 10. 



102 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWTSH LITERATURE 

im^nation as a "haggard creature, with vulgar tastes and brutal 
manners, who drinks whiskey and chews tobacco, spits, fights, 
puts his feet on the table, and habitually rushes along in wild 
haste, absorbed by a greedy desire for the dollars of his neigh- 
bor. He does not care for educatioo or art, for the public 
welfare or for justice, except so far as they mean money to 
him. Corrupt from top to toe, he buys legislation and courts 
and government; and when he wants fun, he lynches innocent, 
negroes on Madison Square in New York, or in the Boston 
Public Garden. He has his family home usuallj' in a sky- 
scraper of twenty-four stories; his business is founded on mis- 
leading advertisement; his newspapers are filled with accounts 
of murders, and his churches swarm with hypocrites"**. 

It is different, however, with the parodies that treat of Jewish 
life in America, or to be more e.\act, we should say the life 
of the Jewish immigrant in New York City, With the field of 
observation limited, the parodists display a keener insight; and 
while none of their satires are altogether free from exaggeration 
they are nevertheless true in all essential features, because most 
of the authors have experienced tlie life tliey depict. As might 
be expected of people who but yesterday put the wanderer's 
staff aside, they give more prominence to the life of the green- 
horn than to any other subject. The trials of the immigrant 
in the early days of his arrival to these shores, the trouble of 
the peddler, the misery of the East Side tenement dwellers, 
the neglect of the immigrant's children, the utter chaos in the 
religious life — all these occupy the foreground in the panorama 
of American Jewish life as depicted by the parodists. And 
while tliese satires are few in number compared with other 
literary documents dealing with the same subject, they never- 
theless enable us to form a clear idea of the most important 
phases of tliat social life which has lately been characterized as 
"an unholy mixture of diverse elements, a dissolution of old 
traditions . , . out of which Jewish spirit will in time emerge""*. 



99 See H. Mansterberg, Ameriean Trails. Boston 

100 See Ameritan Hebrew Nov, 3, 1906. 



ind N. y. 190a, p. 9. 



V. raOM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT IO3 



Of ( 



in t< 
Hferhic 



I 



xc cannot follow the immigrant through all his 
varied fortunes, but we may watch him part of the way. He 
has just touched American soil, and we experience no difficulty 
in recognizing him. His habit, gait and bewildered look stamp 
as the stranger. There are also other peculiarities by 
rhich we may recognize him. 

wiiC mea", so niiu a passage in Masitkhtlk Ammca, "btve 

connled %tiea cliaraclcrislic* in Ereeahorns. They etX ravenouily, walk 

in the middle of tbe street, curse Ihe name of Columbus, coiinpl their 

language [bjr mixing It with English uords], ask advice but di> doI take 

it, and cheapen the tabor markel"'*". 

The first week after his arrival, tlie immigrant generally 

spends with some relative or friend. But how does he fare 

afterwards? For an answer to this question we must again turn 

to the same Talmudic parody. 

"The Kibtiii have langht: A greenhorn who hu been here seven ^ayi 

_ uid does not know by whtt nciuK to support himself is helped by 

I hit friends to become a peddler. How? Tbey buy him a basket and a 

F imil] amount of merchandise and initiate bim in [he secrets of peddling; ; 

they tell him to go from door to door ind invoke upon him the double 

blessings 'Blessed be thou in thy going out', that the mii^chicvous [boyi] 

may not annoy him; 'and blessed be thou in Iby coming in', that his 

coming shall be as his going out. If he is found worthv. be will bend 

his shoulders to carry big loads of merchandise like a strong ass, if not, 

his basket of goods will dwindle away and he will become a working 

man, for it is written (Gen, 49, 14): 'And he bowed his shoulders to bear, 

and became a servant under taskwork'. 

■■It wa» said above: 'They initiate him in the secrets of peddling', 
WTiat are these, secrets? Rabbi Peddler said there are two secrets: Any 
etutomer who Jiays his debts to a peddler is overscrupulous, and any 
peddler who pays his debts to the storekeeper is overscmpulous, for it 
b wrinen (Iiaiob uif. 16): 'Glory 10 the rtgbteaui, but 1 have said I have 
■ secret, I have t secret. Tbe treacherous dealers have dealt treacher- 
ously, and those viSxo have been dealt treacherously with, they also have 
dealt treacherously*". 

"It is taught in a Baiiita that there are three periods in a peddler's 
career. In the 6rsl he is like an ass carrying loads, in the second the 
storekeepers cry, in the third he is like a child suckling a dry breast, 
and in each period lie roars like a lion and says: 'Woe is me, I have 
wasted my strength and thrown away other people's money among the 
gentiles' . . . Rabbi Sa^hra said: A peddler ha* four characteristics. He 
is like a sponge, a funnel, a strainer and a sieve. Like a sponge he kb- 

I >Bi See G. Ruseniweig, t^id. p. 11 — 13. 



104 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTEBATURE 



sorbs all kinds of mercbtndise from the storekeeper, like k funnel he 

throws everything u his customers, like n strainer he lets the mer- 

chuidise pus through his hands and retains only the debts, and like n 

sieve his pockets are never benefiled by what he retain!" i™. 

The career of the peddler has been a favorite subject with 

the parodists. And no wonder, for it may be safely asserted 

that, before the sweat shop came into vogue, seventy-five percent 

of the poor Jewish immigrants had at one time in their upward 

struggle engaged in tliis kind of traffic. It will therefore be in 

keeping with the importance of the subject to quote one more 

parody which recounts the tribulations of the peddler in the 

language of Ecclesiastes: 

"The words ol SoA'm/w Isaar"'l, peddler in America. 

Woe o( H'oes. saith the ion of Iiftftc; witbont the doUu >1! roidt of Ufa 

What pi'ofit hath the peddler of all his labour wherein be laboureth 

under the weight of his basket- 
One daj goclh and another dajr cometfa and the dollar ii always in the 

possession of other people. 
With sun-rise coraeth his worry, and wherever he be he lamenleth his 

bitter lot. 
He goelh toward [be south and lumeth about unto the north; he tumetb 

about continually in his course and relurneth wilb anguish in his souL 
All the gamins run after the peddler, and the peddler cannot escape; 

unto the place whither the peddler goeth, thither the gamins go. 
That which halh been in Europe is (hat which shall be in America; and 

that which hath been done to (he Zkid that will be done (o the 

Shttny "■*, and there is no new thing under the snn. 
All things of [be basket are full of weariness, man cannot utter it; the 

eyes of the ladies are not satislied with seeing, nor the ears of the 

servants with hearing. 
There is not a thing in his basket whereof the peddler does not say 

behol<i this is new, it never existed in the ages which were before. 
The end of the peddler is that there is no remembrance of the debts 

which he bath against others; neither is there any remembrance of the 

debts which others have against him""'5. 
The workingman's lot has also received considerable attention 
from the parodists. But, as most parodies of this class are 



i<" Ibid. p. 13—14- 

'°1 In America Sshpii>n Isaac is a. common nickname for a Jew. 

<°4 ZAidii an opprobrious term (or Jew in Rossian as SAreiiy is inAmcrican llang. 

'"i See L Davidson, fl^np p in 'I3»n N. Y. *ol. 5, no. 13. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT IO5 

socialistic in their tendency and have already been treated in 
this chapter, one specimen from a parody of the Sayings of 
the jfewiih Fathers will be sufficient. 

"The PiMicT said: 'Be submissive to tby bou, for he U th; God. 
The madiiiie is 'Caj Law, uid the table at which thou workest is the 
•lUr upon which thou tscrificesi thf blood and sweat to the Monejr- 
God'. 

Tbe Goah-operalor said: 'Walch sjid chun and everything cUe in the 
houic it pawned, the grocer refuses 10 give on trust, the butcher cUmars 
for his money, the |ieddler seiies Ihe furniture, the Imdlard dispossesses 
and the children starve'. 

This is the way to live in America. Bread and salt shall be thy food, 
water froBi the hydrant ihall be thy drink, the Hoar in the shop sh^ 
be thy bed and eighteen hourr a day shttlt thon work" >"*. 
Next in point of interest to the parodist is the home life of 
the immigrant. Tliis home generally consists of two or three 
rooms which arc very frequently shared by one or two boarders 
■who help to pay the rent. The wife sometimes Joins the hus- 
band in the shop, but more frequently she attends to the 
home, and, in the language of the parodist, "what the hired 
servant does in Europe, thai the wife does in America. She 
washes clothes, scrubs the floor, cooks, makes up beds and attends 
to the boarders""'. Under such circumstances the children 
are naturally forced to earn money at a very early age. As 
the same parodist puts it: "Whosoever eats must work"'"*. 
This unfortunate lot of tlie immigrant's child, which drives him 
into early slavery and sometimes even into vice Is characterized 
in a parody of the Sayings of the Jewish Fathers. 

''A child 6ve yeus old should peddle Jewish newspapers . . six., toilet 
paper, seven, writing paper, eight, candles and matches. At nine he 
•hoBtd peddle condj, and at ren English newspapers. When be is eleven 
Im bdM be strong cnongh to carry up ice to the top floor, and al twelve 
he shonld know how to harness a horse. KX. his conhrmBtion he should 
deliver a speech in true gamin fashion, and at fourteen he must already 
b< behind bars to remain there until he becomes of age" ■"9. 
The cramped and crowded existence of the immigrant and 
his family is of course not conducive to domestic purity, and 

** See A. Horwisch. lArf, p. 6—7. 

"•J See G. Roieniweig. Had. p. 16. 'o* Ittd. p, Ij. 

■^ See A. Hniwish, Md. p. (4—15. 



io6 



mSTORY or PARODY IN JEWISH UTKRATlHt£ 



as a result we have a number of parodies dwelling upon the 
immoral relations of wife and boarder which cannot be con- 
sidered here. On the other hand, the misery of the boarder 
who stands in constant dread of his landlady has given rise to 
a number of clever skits, the most interesting of which is a 
Yiddish adaptation of Hamlet's Soliloquy which is rendered here 
into English: 

The Boarder's Monologue 
"To nioTc, or not lo moro: that is the question. 
Whether 'tU belter for the bonder to suffer UDtomplaittinglf 
The bitter-sweet words ol the landlady, or courageously 
To take arms aEBinsl the hae- To move, lo flee; 
scaped Geheii 



No moi 

To moi 
Ar, the 
And thi 
Than « 
That It. 



and know that v 
c landlady, no more boarder; moved and doDC. 
'c, lo sleep elsewhere — perchance ivith board; 
re is the tub; no sooner do we tid oursclvca ot 
on off the yoke of landlady 
e gel anothir. There is the calamity 
:eps HE many years in the stuffy room. 



Hi 

The 



would bear all the afflict 
it a wicked, garrulous woman may i 
' stews and sluFTcd potatoes, 
' fat puddings and foul sausages, 
s that visit her, 



iflict. 



The matches she proposes, 

Her pretensions and her sour looks, 

If we knew thai there where we, would move 

We'll fare better than here? 

Bui the dread of an unknown landlady 

Makes cowards of us all. 

Fear alone keeps us fettered fast 

And the room remains rented to the last""". 
Another point of interest to the parodists is the lack of 
proper Jewish education. Teaching Hebrew has become a 
profession in which any one that wants can engage, and the 
ojrriculum of the Hebrew schools is arranged with the con- 
firmation ceremony as the only end in^view. To quote again 
from the Massekhetk America: 

"If one has beeo a peddler and has proven himsdf unfit, or \ Uboret 
Mtd has proven himself uoikilful, then shall the daughters of Uriel ttke 



See A, M, Sbukwukj, :hVk1KD D"UrrW3 on in VKniPt JWTKD No, 6, 



190I. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT IO7 

pity oti him tad engage him as teacher for theii children. For teaching 

Hebrew in America is neither an ut nor » science, aiid everyone ii 

eligible for it Our Rabbis leacb, the Haaan muct be eismined, but the 

Hebrew teacher need not be examined, Tor no man becomes a teacher 

_ of Hebrew unless tbe spirit of folly hu taken possession of him, and 

L eiery fool is eligible to teach Hebrew, for ii is written, Job uxv. 11) who 

H leaches n* more than the beasts of the enrtb""'. 

I The same parodist takes also to task the orthodox rabbis 

for turning their sacred calling into a business, and the Reform 

rabbis for concentrating all their energies upon oratory. He 

cfiastises t]ie so-called lodges which are nothing but hot-beds 

of dissension, and the charitable societies which clamor for 

foocy but do little for the poor. "Any ten men", he sa)'s, 

"living a meeting place constitute a lodge'". And tlie time 

•'°'" meeting is from the hour that tlie officers begm to drink 

^"*til the beer gives out" "J. And as for charity, the credit is 

°"e to the proprietors of halls and picnic grounds. "For without 

***Us and picnics no charitable society could exist in America""'. 

•*'s characterization of the Hebrew author in America is hu- 

***oroiis as well as pathetic. 

"Who is an author ? Whoever goes from door to door with his book 

in bit hand, so sayi Rabbi Author. The wise men say, he who has no 

shoes on his feet. Said Kabbi Literateai, the above applies only to 

Jewish authors, but non- Jewish aathors have people come to Ihclr 

houses to purchase their books . . . and even among Jenish authors it is 

onljr those who write in Hebrew that are so poor, bat those who write 

in Viddiih arc doing very we!! . . . Whoever writes a llebiew book in 

America or comei here with his book from abroad is a mad man. For 

if David, King of Iirael, who scribbled only a few unnecessary aignl wax 

lAken for mad {I S. ixi. 14) this man who wrote a whole book to no 

purpose most ceriunly be mod. Rabbi Wiiard ssid^ .\n]' ache rather 

llun the beada;he of authors, any pain rnthel' than the pain of printing, 

any anxiely rxlher than (he anxiety of writeis. America cannot exist 

without tailors, but it can exist without Ilebiew aulhon. Happy is he 

who is a tailor, woe to him who is a Hebrew author" "i. 

Perhaps tlie most scathing satire on Jewish communal life in 

America b the following parody of the Sayings of the JeziAsh 

Faikrrs, which is alt the more forcible because of its brevity 

and indsiveness. 



1 



«■ Sea G. RoaenaweiE, Aid. p. 18, 19. 
tij mi. p. 33. 'H I6U. p, 35. 



taid.f.. 



io8 



HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 



"He used to uy: More torieliM, more hypocrites; more lodEM, 
bonBi places; more reform Jews, more anlUemlteii more 
companies, more inceadisnes; more physicians, more sickness; more 
newspapers, more lies; more lanj'crs, more prisoners; more chuJUble 
insticulionl, more people dying of hunger; more rooms, more boudcn; 
more marriages, more deserted women; more love sffun, more siuci- 
des; more jewelry, more pawn tickets; more wealth, more greed; more 
honesty, more poverty""*. 
The above sketch of American parodies would be incomplete 
without some cliaractcrization of the chief parodists. The 
cleverest and at the same time most prolific of all Americaa 
parodists, is Gershon Rosenzweig, the author of Masukkeik 
America, from which so much has been quoted above. He has 
a keen sense of humor and considerable power of observation. 
He knows the life of his brethren thoroughly and depicts it in 
true colors, exaggerating only whenever it is necessary to pro- 
duce a stronger effect, and even then not overdoing it. He 
certainly is one of the cleverest punsters in Hebrew literature. 
Especially amusing are his puns on English words which have 
phonetic equivalents in Hebrew. Withal, he seldom sacrifices 
truth for the sake of word play. His satire is caustic, but never 
coarse; and his style is as brilliant as his wit is pungent He 
has full command of the Talmudic diction and idiom, and ' 
handles iill forms of Talmudic hermeneutics with skill, but he 
is at his best in finding Biblical analogies in support of his ' 
witticism. He certainly deserves to be ranked with the best » 
satirists in Hebrew literature. 

On Abraham Kotlar. the author of Masscklietk Dertkh 
Erez Ha-Hadashah, we cannot bestow this degree of praise. 
True, he handles tlie Talmudic style with considerable skill, 
but his humor is far from refined. In his effort to be realistic 
he often becomes coarse. His parodies are indeed interesting, 
but not for what they tell us of American conditions as much 
as for what they display of the author. The author h>mself~3 
might serve as a fair type of the bewildered immigrant who ob- 
serves only what is on the surface of things but not the things^*' 



^ A. HurwUch, iM. p. 4—5. 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT 109 

themselves. His wit is of a very inferior kind, and when his 
puns fail him he is quite dull. 

A. Hurwish, the author of several Yiddish parodies, also 
deserves special mention. Writing his parodies in a language 
different form that of tlie original, he does not follow the text 
of the original very closely, yet he succeeds in producing tlie 

^desired effect. His satire displays a fair understanding of 

^■Ustiiig conditions, but he often indulges in unpardonable exag- 

^Hntion. 

^" Finally, mention must also be made of A. M. Sliarkansky, 
not for the innate qualities of his parodies, because few of them 
possess real literary merit and some are even vulgar, but for 
the fact, that in the loosely connected skits, called by him the 
American Haggadah, he succeeded, perhaps unconsciously in 
catching the spirit of restlessness which hovers over the tur- 

Ient existence of the Jews in New York City. 
K tl 
the 



(F) THE NON-SATIRIC PARODIES 



r tile parodies that still remain to be accounted for only a 
r summary can be given here. Most of these have nothing 
\ the satiric in them and little of historic interest, while the 
that possess a satiric element are mostly polemical in 
nature, and as such are rarely a credit to their authors. At 
all events, no polermcal parodies can be discussed here. They 
are, of course, duiy recorded in the bibliography, and anyone 
especi^y interested in this class of parodies will find the most 
important of them under the names of Deinard, Gordon, Lands- 
^M!gj Levinsoim, Libowitz and under the pseudonym Rabbi ben 

^^Rlie few satiric parodies that are not polemical belong to 
Qie class of perverted proverbs, or modified maxims, and, as 
auch, are more interesting from the point of technique than 
from any historic import They do not confine themselves to 
any special phase of life or to any particular period or place; 
nor do they dwell long on any particular subject They are 



110 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH LITERATURE 

merely sparks of truth and flashes of wisdom, but they shed 
no steady light. 

The non-satiric parodies have no other purpose than to ex- 
tract cheerful humor from serious liturgical texts, and as such 
are the legitimate successors to the parodies of the middle 
ages and require no special elucidation or elaborate dbcussion. 
A few extracts from the more important of them will suffice. 

In his Haggadah for the Night of Drunkards, Sommerhausen 
produced one of the cleverest liturgical imitations known in 
Hebrew literature. The diction and the style of tlie Liturgy 
are reproduced in it with consummate skill, but instead of the 
devotional spirit it is permeated with humor and fun. Like the 
parodies of Bensew and Feder, it sets forth the praise of wine 
and the pleasures of the drunkard. It turns psalms into drink- 
ing songs, and prayers into drollery. A well-known hymn, dating 
from antiquity and recited every Sabbath morning, is parodied 
in the following manner. 

"Tbc brcalb of every living being, endowed with (peech, sti&ll blcM 
Iby Dame, O cboiceGt oi drinks, and the spirit of atl human Beih dull 
elorify and «xtol the meritB of Ihe grape uine. From everlutiug uoto 
everlnEting ibou ait the source of all gladness and joy. and besides Ibee 
we have no gladness and pleasure- At all limes of trouble and distress 
we have none to comfort us but thee. Thou art good and beneficent to 
Ibe healthy, and a cure for all sickness. Thou appeasest anger utd 
wrath, driveit away sorrow and grief, art a stronghold to the poor in 
disCreu, awakest the sleepy and biingest slumber lo the sleepleK. Thou 
malcesi the dumb to talk, and sealcsl the lips of Ihe gimiloas. Tbo« 
raisest them that are bowed down, cnlightencst the blind and sinitett 
others with blindness. To thee alone <Jo we give thanki to-day. Though 
our mouths were as wide as the sea and our lips as broad as the sides, 
and our hands outspread to mix the cups and our teet as swift as binds 
to run lo the tsine-house, yet should we be unable to drink as much ai 
our iDuls desire and to become intoxicated in thy honor, as is our datj 
in return for even one of the countless thousands and tens of thousands 
of kindnesses which thou hast done by us. In famine thou gaveit us 
nistenance, and in draught, thou hast refreshed ui. Thou hast saved at 
from grief, rescued us from anxiety, and lifted ns out of the bitter water*. 
Therefore our limbs which thou hast strengthened in us, and the spirit 
and soul which thou hast revived in us, and the tongue which thou but 
dogged in our tnoatht, lo, they shall testify and proclaim thy greatness. 
For every mouth is full of thy good savor and every tongue licks the 
flow of thy honey; every hand gathers the fruit of the vine, and every 



V. FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT III 

foot treads the grapes in the vat and all hearts rejoice at thy work, even 
as it is written: 'And wine maketh glad the heart of man to make the 
face shine more than oil*. Who like unto thee delivereth the poor from 
his trouble? For he drinketh and forgeteth his poverty, even as it is 
said: 'Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine unto 
the bitter in soul* "» 17. 

Equally amusing are the parodies of Mohr. The liturgic texts 
are handled with the same liberty and with equal skill and the 
spirit of fun is everywhere present. One brief passage from 
his parodies will suffice. 

"I will lift up mine eyes unto the cities: 

Whence shall my wine come? 

My wine cometh from Hungary, the only country in the world. It 

shall not suffer thy feet to itand, nor thy tongue to move. The Jew 

that drinketh shall neither slumber nor sleep. Wine is thy keeper, wine 

is thy shade on thy right hand. Wine shall not forsake thee by day, 

nor cider by night. Wine shall keep thee from thirst, it shall close thine 

eyes. Wine shall fill thy mouth and throat from this time forth and for 
evermore**** 8. 

Among the non-satiric parodies must also be counted a 
number of Yiddish folk-songs current in Lithuania and South 
Russia. These songs do not always modify the original texts, 
they use them rather as a framework, and the difficulties they 
present to the translator are almost insurmountable. The 
following, however, is a modest effort to reproduce one of them 
in part to show the way they are formed. It is a drinking 
song composed in such a way that every word of the Bene- 
diction which is pronounced over drinks is used as the key 
rhyme to every stanza. 

**0n the little glass of whiskey 
I pronounce a blessing; 
There is great success 
in its caressing. 

On the little glass of whiskey 

I say Borukk^^9\ 

This is a law 

in the Shulhan Oruih. 



"7 See DmDr ^^^ mm in Dn« roOD Warsaw 1885 fol. 13 begin.: HDWa. 
«»« See U^th U ^3 s. 1. 1864. p. 19. 

"9 These Hebrew words are transliterated according to the pronunciation 
of the Lithuanian Jews. 



112 HISTORY OF PARODY IN JEWISH UTERATURE 

On the little glass of whiskey 

I say AUo\ 

'Drink whiskey now* 

is my motto. 

On the little glass of whiskey 
I say Ha-Shem\ 
Because of it 
we acquire fame. 

On the litte glass of whiskey 
We say Eblunu\ 
Our fathers drank it 
before me and you. 

On the little glass of whiskey 
We say MeUkk — king; 
Because it makes us 
rejoice and sing. 

On the little glass of whiskey 
We say Ho-clum\ 
We drink in crowds 
and ne*er are glum"'*®. 

In conclusion mention must also be made of Rabener's parody 
of Israel Nagara's Aramaic hymn for Sabbath and the anony- 
mous Code for Drunkards^^^, 

The foregoing pages, it is hoped, have adequately shown the 
interest which the parodists took in all the important movements 
of the century. And although the life reflected in these parodies 
may seem somewhat exaggerated in color and distorted in 
outline, yet, those who would know Jewish life in the nineteenth 
century in its completeness, will do well to look at it also 
through the medium of parody. For, while this medium has a 
tendency to exaggerate a little it also tends to intensify and to 
enlarge. 



«»o See below Pt. II, chap. XIV, no. 37. "» Ibi(L no. 39a 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



8 



] 




I 



THE MASSEKHETH PURIM. SEPHER HABAKBUK 
HA-NABfi/ AND MEGILLATH SETHARIM 

These three parodies must be treated simultaneously, because 
they have many points of contact and are, to a certain extent, 
interdependent And first of ail it will be expedient to treat of 
the sources used by scholars since the seventeenth century. Until 
recently there was a great deal of confusion and uncertainty 
about these parodies in bibliographies and literary histories. 
Different scholars called them by different names and ascribed 
to them different dates; their authorship was disputed and even 
their contents erroneously described. This confusion arose, first, 
because the first editions of these works have been inacces- 
sible, secondly, because the copyists were careless about the 
names and the arrangement of the individual parts, and fin<dly, 
because the bibliographers themselves did not examine the 
existing manuscripts with sufficient care. 

;> L PRINTED SOintCES 

t Of the early bibliographers, De Rossi was the only 

Editio one who saw the editio princeps of the Massekktth 

'''^'"P*- Purim, but his description of it is hopelessly inadequate. 

It reads thus: "B'niD roOD . . . Tractatus sortium cum M'3in mO, 

seu Expos, alieg. Propltelae. 4" min. Pisauri per Gers. Sonc. in 



ii6 



STXIDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



sec. XVT' {Armales, p. 48 no. 37). Steinschneider, attempt- 
ing to reconstruct its contents maintained, that it consisted of 

(a) '3" m^33, a poem ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol; (b) This 
D'TTlD; (c) C'llB fODD of Kalonymos; (d) pUp2n "IBD. About the 
last, however, he was in doubt whether it appeared in the editio 
princeps or not. and he was also uncertain about the date of 
publicatioa putting it between 1507 and 1520 {Letterbode, VII, 
p. 10. no. 24). Recently, he gave the following additional data 
about the editio princeps, based on a communication from 
Halberstam, who possessed a defective copy of the same: 
"Dasselbe ist defect, handschriftlich erganzt, wie es scheint, aus 
der Ed, Pesaro selbst. Das Format ist ktein 4°, dabei ist auch 
«'3in pl3p;n D, abet aus Ed. Ven. 1552 handschriftlich" (Mo- 
natssckrift fiir Gesch. u. IViss. d. Jud. vol 46, p. 278. No. 24), 
This, however, leaves us still in the dark about the year of publi- 
cation. Among the literary remains of Halberstam that are now 
in the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
Prof. Alexander Marx not long ago found a note in the hand- 
writing of Halberstam which I consider sufficiently important to 
be reproduced here; '□'jlJJS TH' Win 'VSK KaDJP nSPB DIBT 
DD13 D« ^n3 U3'K '3 D» E^'Dl ... 1 1 'V f H yiM21VBy^ C'tTDt "Tf 

'"33 Bt? iD'Din 13^1 .Df DEii «b '3 3'trr6 S31K piapan n: tap 
onDnn )'D^^ d3 le'Dinp id3 y^e k'S'I'i diet -jinD 'is^ tbos 
«^ '3 46 'jj D'n ynK3-iyc3v'?3 t?"&D t?"o ''yi .... (I'bt i) a*Mi3 
D'DiDio nipnyn pi on D-Ksoan ■•■3n -3 Dms doo o-nonp '^ hjw 

-a-^ K'S'J'l l"Bl TlKIfi D'SlCMin The words •'fBI n«rB" arc 
Halberstam's not Stein Schneider's. According to Halberstam, 
therefore, the editio princeps was published in 1527 and did not 
contain the Sepher Habakbuk. Further on, however, it will be 
shown that the Seplur Habakbuk was printed at Pesaro in 1513 
(small 4", large sq. characters, unpaginated), and that the MegiUath 
Setliarim followed by a poem of Sondno and the Massekhetk 



■ Perhipt it it the identical copj described bjr RabbioovJei {Cat. IV. no. 

9*8) u follows; !DB1J '3 [pijB irifl .OlD'll'jp ~1 Sv Omo 'OD ra □'WO rft»" 

"4° lire '"lin irabn «'ai.i ttmo o'vo rtio upte". 





1. THE MASSEKHETH PURIM 



WJ'uriiH (small 4", i3+r5f.) was published at Pesaro about the 
f SBine time under the title of Masst-khclh Piirim- 

The second edition was printed in Venice by Daniel 

Editio Adelldnd in the montii of Adar 5312 (iS52)- The tide 

\ VeaJee. page reads: )2 ^K'iT T ^Jf DDIJ D'llB n3DD OnnO vhlti" 

.p-alj 1"^ xmi Tin anna T'rp "j'^b r'^-j-iip. According to 

"■two copies, one in tiie Library of Columbia University, which is the 
identical copy described by Roest in IBDil fl'a no. 965, and one 
in the Library of tlie Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
this edition consists of (A) t!ie poem of Gabirol (f. lb). 
(B) n'TTiD n^» composed of three chapters; (i) min hl^ piapan 
^■OD (f. 2a— 8a); (2) D'llD n"nff3 l'3"n ^3n (f. 8b— 13a); 
(3) IIK D33M?D (f. 13a— l6a). (C) n'llB nSDD composed of four 
chapters; (l) n«3 inK3 (f. 16a— 20b); (3) TE^in (f. 20b— 24b); 

(3) r3P3 nvn^ ^nt? D'nie (f. 25a— 29b); (4) pip t« (f. 29b— 3Sa). 
At the end there is also a postscript composed of two para- 
graphs: oma nsDD -ptyK and imp r** piE3 Kronen D''n?n noSi 

tf. 35b), but the Scphi-r Hiibakbuk is wanting in both ofthcni. The 
same description holds true also for the copy once in the posses- 
sion of Sommerhausen {Litbl.Kl. col. 181, no. 3). This fact led me 
at first to believe, that these copies were defective, because 
ahnost all bibliographers agree, that the second edition of 
the Masseklieth Purtm contained the Sfpher Habakbuk. Thus. 
Wolf in his Bibliotluca Hebraica, 11, p. 1269, states, that he 
saw a copy of the second edition containing i<'3in piapan TBD 
mai'JP ^y. Again, codex 484 in Cat. Michael is described as 

follows: ■•3"v nips riK'yi'ia ddi: itsio pup^n ibdi oniB rooa" 

(Sec also Cat. Neubauer, no, 2267, i). Cat. Lehrm, no. 1287 
has the entry «'3Jn pl3p3n D DJJ n^llD fDDB KIH ,D'TnD nViO" 
-2-it? K'S'ail . . . niaVJD ^y. So also in Cat. Oppmkeim, 497, 

trriii D'"iiD3 13 ycvtf^ niivat? ^y «''33n pi3p3n 'd nme 'dd" 

"3'^. And finally tliis supposition is supported by tlie fact, 
that Steinschneider (Lctterbodc, VII, p. 10. no. 24) describes the 
second edition as containig 68 + 12 p. (BL is undoubtedly a 
misprint for S.), while the two copies referred to above contain 
only 70 p. in all. But 1 have since found a copy of the ^B 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

piapan (small S", 12 p.) in the Library of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, with the date and place not on the title- 
page but in the colophon: nit? JlPKl n« J"'S nDK^DH nStJnV 

"n"3'yi3 V'S' iptn r'^'iiip -a irp ^'1k Vk'Ii t ^jj ^"v. This 

copy has vowel points and accents (mi'Ji), a fact not mentioned 
anywhere about this edition of this parody, and the date is TiK 
pPSI instead of n«. It is therefore very likely, that the Stpker 
Habakhuk was printed by itself a month earlier than the Mas- 
sekheth Furim, and that the copies of the Massekhetk Purim 
in which the Sephcr Habakbuk was found merely had the two 
parodies bound together. See also A. M. Biscioni, Cat. Btbl. Heb. 
Florentinae (Florence 1757), p. 445i 448 where the Venice edi- 
tions of the Sepher Habakbuk and Massekhetk Purim are described 
as being bound in one volume but separated from each other by 
other works. A later edition of the Sepher Hadakbuk without 
the Massckheth Purim is found in Sommerhausen's h"-^ min 
nniM? (Vienna, 1850). f. 10—12. 

3. A third edition of the Massekhetk Purim with the 

KdiHo title of aniD raoa 'D1 D'lriD nSio T: was published by 

Vienna. Jonas Willheimer (Vienna 1871, 8°. 54 p.), from a manu- 
script of the eighteenth century described by Roest in TBOn n'3 
no. 5 15 1 (Comp. Preface to this edition, and H. B. XIII, p. 2). 
It has neither the poem of Gabirol nor the Sepher Habakbuk 
but between the Megillatk Setharim and the Massekhetk Purim 
there is a poem of Gershon Soncino which is wanting in the 
Venice edition. The presence of this poem as well as numerous 
other textual discrepancies between the Willheimer and the 
Venice editions should be sufficient to discredit the statement 
of Roest (ibid. no. 5152), that this manuscript was copied from 
the Venice edition. 



% n. MS. soimcEs 

Turning from the printed to the written sources, it seems that 

most of the information about these parodies was derived from 

four manuscripts, one in the Library of the Vatican, another in 

the Bodleian Library, a third in the Library of Cambridge Univer- 



I. THE MASSEKHETH PUREH 



119 



sity, and a fourth in the Senate Library at Leipsic. The Vati- 
can ms. dates from 1438, as is evident from the postscript of 
the copyist Manoah ben Menahem, reproduced by Renan and 
Neubauer in "Les Ecrivains yuifs Franeais" p. 255 as follows: 
nw npn ^» 'db'i i" niPTB 03» n"3 av D^ii an iisn inas" 
anaoni Txrrh 'Btpn f^vh mn m I'-ca nap «nni n"3p d'b^m 'n 
"in'3 lyni nyn (oiroa nmo Tsa mio aroo. The Cambridge 

ms,, according to Rabbinovicz {Cat. iv., no. 100), was written 
between 1390 and 1440, The I-eipsic ms- is very likely as old 
as the fifteenth centurj', and the contents of the Bodleian will 
be proven in the course of this discussion to be at least as old 
as that of the Vatican. 

,. Bartolocci was the first to note a number of parodies 

Vaticui in a Vatican ms. (Comp. Cat. Assemani, f 79), which 

**■■ he ascribed to Leo de Valentibus, a person unknown 

in Hebrew literature. His descriptions read as follows: Y^h '3T' 

R3D0 rvsm D31 : rcshry^ p' nK nap'? D'niDn mjK lan Bf-oiK^a n 
"ij«p'DKii2 *'3 i«303i Tnhn 7113 nniB :n ^ j^ajf iniK by n''11D 
{Bibliotheca Mapia Kadfiinica, IN", p. 10), and again; IK pl3p3" 
viDK n^JD Sj! iiD'o Kim nniB natJD p dj KipJi piapan too 
"la Kipb 'iHT I'Ki vpi Tatya lyn lai nncwi )iE^a (^/«', I. 

P- ^3)- After a more careful examination of this Vatican ms., 
Renan and Neubauer found that Bartolocci wrongly deciphered 
the name of the author, reading !?'D3Ki?3 ^T instead of C'Vl'iaT 
(Z^f Ecnvains, p. 107). The whole codex, of which the parody 
is the fifth and last part, is described in Hebrew by its former 
owner, Vidal Bonafoux ]H1Bn (perhaps jSkbT = de Salon), and 
reproduced in Les Ecrivains, p. 254 as follows: O" TBOn nia" 
^otrycn tdd .nncD ay nai nne ,T3oi^ nmo iwa ,vti niK 13 
mren ob p .ya iP"^viai pw^ ''b nanno n-iioo d-'VO n^ie 

"tm D'TfiO. Renan and Neubauer divide the contents of the 
parody into three parts, viz.: 

Pl I beginning with "013 'D'a TI'l and ending with nc^ffil non 

mwm ruron nnnw «3n nmen ts' r» cp^ mio cino n^an 
r^i mio Thv,T\ Dti'n 'it? ninyi nKiim rnao nai^on •bde'd 
nvTO [pi^ai] i-Tiisi id: i" ma^n. 



130 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Pt. n beg. m^ rriDoi 'OTDo mm b^p pupa. 

Ft. m beg. rr'n»a V^"" ^^^ and ending with nVjD n^ p'^ 

mssnc 310 ipm iqid mo' 'i^n «''3^n tfnin tmc n^inB, followed 

by 2 passage in Aramaic, another passage beginning with llDSOn, 
a third beginning with TT3t? 'D and four sentences in ProvengaL 
This division, however, must be incorrect. For, judging from the 
opening lines of these parts, the parody reall>- contains only the 
Sep her Habakbuk and Migillatli Setharhn, the former corre- 
sponding to the D'-Iisn n-i3K and the latter to the pi3p3 of Barto- 
locci. It does not contain the Massekheth Purim of Kalonymos, 
and what Renan and Neubauer designate as the third part is really 
the second chapter of Megillath Setharitn. This statement is 
further strengthened by the fact, that there arc only two epi- 
logues in the ms., the second of which is identical with the 
poem of Gershon Soncino which immediately follows the Megillath 
Setharitn in all manuscripts. Wagenseil's statement (cited in 
Wolf, B. H. rV, p. 1041), that he found the Vatican ms. more 
complete than the edition of 1552, is erroneous, unless it has 
reference to the additional parodies (UC3Dn and "paP TS) follow- 
ing tlie Mfgitlath Setharhn- 

a. The contents of the Bodleian ms. (Neubauer. Cat. 

Bodielui Heb. Ms. no, 714, 4), according to 3 copy made for 

**■■ me by Rev. M, H. Sega! of Oxford, are as follows:' 

(A) D'TicV D''inD n^Jo (f 59a— 61b), beg. Kin ij'nrs una aina 
hvrw ^SD m32D mt p 'oi3 'ca m't nmB*? onno rhya and 
ending "sa Daaa^ ^ok'! iptn p'tn '?Kitp' 'I'j;^ nwv "it?« OTDiani 
'■■■'h D'i'niDn, followed by the colophon 'oia n^jo no^wi niw 
rrwKx r\'\'X) «»' vsh-a pnca nmic onnD n^jo ton ,msaD m? p 
m3D nai^nn 13si?d ,«-iD3ni nitron n'lnK Kan iiy .mianac 'th 
]'ini ^D:l I" niaSi n'?^ia ,miia n'?Kn d-d'h -it? ronan nxiim (im) 
D'lica *n )" [n'-nffa] n"n»a fnoB'^ = 'bb-^] db^ mnie ,mo 'oa Tipes 
D'-ino n^JD ni pay ^y movo it^n Knaocn d»i [?D''?aK] m^w. 

(B) aniB naDC composed of three chapters: (1) ^3p piapan) 

mS moDi trcn min (f. 62a— 66b); (2) p"n bn (f. 66b— 70b); 



1. THE liIASSEKHETH PURIM 



() -nK QiXVt) (f. 70b— ;2b), followed by the poem of Gershon 
Soncino on the same page. 

(C) [niDin] beg. . . . ''D13 mua (f. 726-733), identical with the 
Aramaic passage of the Vatican ms. For the full text of this pas- 
sage and those of D, K, F and K, see below chap. II sections I — V. 

(D) [niD2Dn] beg. [\ny02] ins{?2 •&» iVon ijinw .th-'B' wascn 

•O-O mya hvm and ending with [?pna] pM3 pt jlN . . . 1'3 TO TiyV 

■"na ijfi .OKis 'I'a'a oBno ^3 ««« ;'d ''to iiyi Kr'«T pn I'n 

"TIC 'J Bf'B'O (f. 73a — 75 a). These are undoubtedly the Provencal 
passages of the Vatican ms. mentioned by Renan and Neubauer 
But they consist of live instead of four sentences, and come 
before instead of after Ti3» '0, 

(E) ... Dipon . . . 712' Kin . . . Bi^i mi 'D-gi pispa fui? •a 
. . . cnaer (f. 75a). 

(F) iiDiB beg. ncffi vvyo h^ la itb" .toiki ■dbus -obtd bis 

'3 ^8'lE'' (f. 75b), followed on the same page by a post- 
it of the copyist, beg. . . . n?DD ni'K ]" nnw» [n»t(] ers ij 
ending with p'oyon rEDin .uro^n lai. 

(G) ion mat beg. "jn: 'sk 'naro ion •:« spy Ji'2 n« 13kV 

. . . tVd^ and ending with the words OVtirh HlSl )t3n OJfS TD 

aron p'^o .i^bn nipu'na vhti nVnn t d^hp 'ytt dki if. 75b— 77a). 

ich is an enlarged version of the )on n?Et? 3n3 published 
Perreau (//. i>'. VII, p. 46—47), and both are modifications 
the Edicts (nilJK) of Ahasuerus found in Midrash Rabba, 
Esther D*2M^ ZTSy 3113 T^Dn ^J DK beg. IpH I'K TJJ M^ Bl^. 
To the same class of imitations belong the two edicts of Ahas- 
uerus (D^Tirpn 133 t?niit?nK Hv niWKi niJK and 're n'wn n"U« 

nmrpn nSxn lUJI^ cniB'nN) found in ms. at the end of a cop)' 
of the nffO 1"t?' (i6iz) of Moses ba-Cohen of Corfu (Letterbode, 
VU, p. 8 no. 20), and the llanian Edict in the Maghrib dialect 
published by Dr. H. Hirschfeld (G. Kohut, Semilic Studies, 

p. 250—253), beg niK3« *B 3n3 . . . 's'sj^s pn 3Rn3 roBi mm 
. . . it'sTj? 7rr^-»- Tc^p K^K-no i«3 Hvrw 
(H) 3ren tJtrnD beg. "ry jon it3 [nV'^ya] nnBi pra- -^ ion 



e 



are: 

1 



122 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

D'Cn nn'jDm '36? ^KTE" and ending U'RilB- "73 "a? ]rhj>hp •Q'p' ^^ 

p''^D anpa ys" li'O'a mnoa )ok (f. 773—796). This is also a 

modified version of a Midrash Rabba passage {ibid.). 

(I) n^jon ID msH beg. . . . lon^ rh& t?nit?n« -|^d^ cnt? nwa 

. . . 'iTlo"?! part of which is the: •'3Tid'7 IDSy jOn 130P IDD. 

which begins ^^on '^ Tits' .. . ffnitrnn jon 'W (f. 79b— 80a). 

Comp. Tal. Bab. n^iO 15a; 'iiyOB- Hip';'' Est/irr, chap. v. «j V181 
^^D^ 1313 nCfJIK. The same is found in a Rabbtnovicz ms. 
(now Miinchen, 422), entitled lOH m'Da IBB'. See Letterbode, 
IX, p. 55 no. 47, and Monatsschrift, voL 46, p. 279. A fuller 
version of this Agada, wanting in our Targum Rishon, is cited 
by Alkabez in ""l^n niiO, fol. 155 and reprinted by Posner in 
Das Tarpim Rischon (Breslau, 1896). p. 71 — 72. 

(K) nvrd KrODD. This Talmudic travesty consists only of one 
Mishnah nb'3N31 nnoP^ I'SIO IIS DaiffO, and the Gemara to 
the Mishnah ends abruptly with the words '2"? ]"n!? 'T ^Ky 
KEfllD and is followed by a number of blank leaves. (Comp. 
also Cat. Mirhofl. p. jS, no. 213; Steinschneider, Letterbode, VII, 
p. II — I2i Neubauer, Cat. col. 1142D). 

From the above description it is evident that the Bodleian 
and Vatican mss. contain the same parodies. The contents of 
the Bodleian ms., therefore, are at least as old as 1438. The 
Vatican ms. however, may not contain the passages found in 
the Bodleian after liat? ''D. li is also possible that the MegU- 
lath Setharim in the Vatican ms, is not in its complete form, 
because the third chapter 11K D33iB?D is not mentioned in the 
description of Renan and Neubauer. 

3. What seems to be a similar ms. to that of the Bod- 

Cambridge leian, was once in the possession of Rabbinovicz, and 

^^- afterwards in the possession of E. Deinard who sold 

it to the Library of Cambridge University. It is described by 
Rabbinovicz {Cat. IV, no. lOO) as follows: D'TD 'DDl pi2p3n 'D" 

.i«ti D'3i Dm D'nea n'nt? mso 'ppinn ii?yt? niDaom ,DnnD nS:o 
npye on •yrorx )3t?nDi Dnirrn nn ~iivb ion man .zrwtS d^:idib 
HnBDin .'3iiD^ layf) iDsy icn isdb' ibi? .(wno Kin> moisn 
pr '"33 Kin i"3 .nnic 'od^ neoin Kini .D'on nBn3'D pnr "tt 



L THE HASSEKHETH FURIH 



123 



an33 p'lT D'liB DO 3"n«i :ij xp nil? p ■■nyi^ aroic 

"4" JlffHTno. The anno rhxt OniB 'DDI piapan TCD corresponds 
to (A) and (B) of the Bodleian ms.; niODDH to (D); O'llDlB 
mifiS to (E) and (F); 2ron p»nBl . . . )Dn max to (G) and (H)i 

TBW to (I); and nion nana'o pns' ii khbdi;! to (K). 

^ The Leipsic ms. is the oldest in which Massekheth 

LeipBie Ptirim is used as a collective title of the three parodies. 
**■■ According to Dclitzsch, who gave a very adequate 
account of the ms. {Cat. Lib. Manus , . . Lipsiensis p. 288 no. 8) 
it consists of three parts: Pt. I D'TTID n^3D composed of three 
chapters: (l) pnpan. (2) p^'H ^3,1. (3) n« 0J3M?D. with the 
colophon onjlD nSjD Kp'^Dl TIH DJSltPD l^J) pTl, followed by 
the poem of Gershon Soncino. Pt. II D'llB rODD of Kalonymos 
in four chapters, and with the same postscript as in the Venice 
edition, except that instead of cn:^ J'p'tO \YV.\ the reading is 
rea^ X^\t> p'«l. pt. in piapnn TSD beginning 'OTS 'D'3 TPI and 
ending with ^«Tt?' ^3 'I'JJ^. 

Besides these known sources, I have also made use of three, 

hitherto unknown, manuscripts, which throw light upon some of 

the most mooted points in the discussion- 

^^L The first ms., now in the Sulzberger collection in the 

^^p^s. Library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 

^^Bnre*' was bought from Ephraim Deinard. Italian Kab- 

f^***""^) binic char. Sq. 12°. fol. 80 — 176. The first seventy-nine 

leaves are missing. A list of the birthdays of the 

copyist's children, inserted in the ms., was written, without any 

doubt, between the months of Adar and Elul 5389 (1629). For, 

whenever the birthday falls in Elul he refers to the year 5389, 

but when it fails in Tishri, Kisiev or Adar he refers to the year 

5390. Thus, '33 3pj;' .CBcn h'hv, «'• niir a''3 p Kin vs* -33 rsha" 

-fTm n'PKTS roff niff K-3 ]3 Kin it. The scribe had four 

sons, Solomon, Jacob, Saul, Azriel and one daughter (HTTD) 

living at the time. His wife (nD'3n3) had died in 5387 {1627). 

The ms. contains tlie following items: 

(A) D'liB "Di'a J1S1 nv3 13 KiTp^ nni'sr ^ K'an pi3p3n tbo 
|«o-83). 



124 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



(B) '■j'^Dn nwD ^y ^its: p r^tha "i inan iv (f. 83 a). Fol. Sjb 

is blank, 

(C) oniB rODD as a general title for DnnO rhxi and nSDC 
Dme. The colophon of the Massekheth Purim is the same as 
in the Venice ed., except the reading tPB3^ l^p^tD T'81 instead of 
Wm^ pp'tD TKl (f. 84—114). 

(D) 13 1^0 QTTi nE'J?0 (f. 115a— iiSb), given as a quotation 
from h»p\rv DipS' ;j 387 (error for 367). 

(E) »Tpn -lu antn f^s (f. nsb— ii6a). 

(F) Extract from a manuscript copy of n^Hp Cmo beg- 

Xrhb -npa ^ann 'laui iipi Kyis'? ^tnt hkiih' T12 mn mi3V 

. . . DiiTJT »~Mh (f. ii6a— 117a), which is similar to the nvJIQ 
published by Jellinck in his edition of Lonsano's T^JJO (Leipz^, 
1853. p. 126—138), and in his CITDn n'^ IV, p. 142—144. 

(G) The list of birthdays mentioned above (f. 117a). 

(H) Three different forms of ncntf nTAl (f. 117b— Il8b)- 
(I) Extracts from the Midrash and the 2ohar (f. li8b— 120). 

(K) intno ns'K nwrni (f. i2i--i27b). 

(L) D'liB mot?'? -in6 Dnyin 12 jjynn'? aniTna d'm: d'tb 

(f. 127b — 129a). Consists of two poems in Hebrew and Italian. 
The first begins l^Dp Omn 'snOli mODli "inBK '« »l"lll?nK 'B'3 
l?KT3, and is perhaps identical with the one cited by Stein- 
Schneider {Monatsschrift, vol. 46 p. 575, no. 105), beg. *D'a NT! 
. . . tp-ncnUi the second begins ^'K 'p ,D''11D ^'3 ^« niaw "ttHB 
. . . ID'B'K V"* no'TD. 

(M) . . 1'DID niD'K ^^13 IID'K ''B ni (f. 129a— 129b). 

(N) Extracts from the Zohar (f. 130— 134 a). 

(O) npnai nBTTC r\xhr\ (f 134b— 140). 
{P} nu'ajn ^y V t '^'d !;«''n' iTTioa ]i«an . . . rwyc pDB dsib 
. . , in«i *;«■■,»' ncNi 'u la^jntp a^no ipjJJtf (f. 141— 143a). 
(Q) Extracts from the ina \y». of Kalonymos, beg. ID'cn TIW 

^nroip no ^ib3^ tts 'J'mb' ■'B-yK ina law tbd (f. 144—151). The 

extracts are not in the same order as in the printed copies, 

(R) Extracts from ^Nlioy nnano, chapter 15 and then chapter 
14 (f. 152- l6ia). 

(S) »K^ ]npin ■niD3'?« aro and \wh naiPAT man {f. i6ib— 



I. THE MASSEKHETH PURIM 



T25 



163a). It begins lij rem niD ^lyE^ 'inpicn "niDs^it yan le/M 
K ana ie«V aroi npffin ^l?K nion dd n'litra [r^n], Comp. 'Tdio 

a'DlDiysn ed. Loewenthal (Frankfurt a, M. 1S96) p. 51 and 

P- 53. 

(T) n3D3'?K DK bs iBD'itn DTsinan mj« {f. 163a— 163b). Comp. 
wici^'cn noiD p. 61. 

(U) D'ciDi^'Bn iDiD nsp (f. 163b— 168). 

(V) ^3W nSl? fUnan (Astrological), f. 169— i;o. 

(W) Letters (f. 171—176). 

The ms. was not completed at least until the sixth day of 
Kislev 5391, as is evident from a note on f 175b, which reads 

thus . . . TDBi (csff v^D3 '1 Dm yn i»itt' b^i vh rrrr am la^ 

K.-IOn* TWO '311 nio. 
. The second ms., which in all probability dates from 

joij. the i8th. century, comes from the library of Elijah 
bereer Benamozegh of Leghorn, and is now likewise in the 
(Bena- Sulzberger collection. Originally it had the collective 

IJ'^'b''' title of oniB T:y, but now it bears the title of '0T3 
K amo Jinai :'1«31. Italian cursive characters, 24", i7of. 

Finay be divided into four parts: 

' ■pL I. D'llB by nwai -OTa TDD (f i— 7b). This is identical with 
pupan -IBD, and its colophon reads; MTpjn D^IB by 'Diai 'IKa D^tM 

sniB ova pn npa wnp*? nurjiff "jy trajn piapan. it is followed 

on the same page by the words DmB rDOO ^Tini nnj), and 
immediately after comes 

Pi. U, beg.: 'DT30 mw ^ap pl3p3n and ending with 1*?? jTtn 
onno nViD «p'^ Tin oaaiCD (f. 7b— 36a). This is identical 
with nnriD n^». Following it is the n«3 BVB, or the poem of 
Gershon Soncino (f. 36b), which is reproduced here with the 
variants of the Vienna edition and of the Bodleian and Leipsic 
iDaiiuscripts*: 

• D'pnpiDn nnBtTDD 'i^n lO'abn wan omd .1 

D'pnK nnmaai ^awsa ^an ipaoi nn^na "*«* iota mv .2 

* Since this went to preis Dr. A. Ficimuin hu pabliihed thi> poem according 
to ihe Peiaro ed. i/T. //. B. IX, 153] and ihe only vuisnt there it Ihe word 
tcaoi tnitead of ipao' in the second verae. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

cp-iTs D'Tsni nvyn ni-cpn nisTO nrnp na iki2' .3 

D'p'^na EPiDKDi ni3iy n-cua nppn .5 

ovovon bah Kiip d':^^? "isd ^TS^ .6 

D'pni D'ODpoi msoni minn n^« .7 

D'pni nitpySi D't?i 3in«';i aniBn 'c D^p^ .8 

Pt. ni. nniB nDDD of Kalonymos (f. 37a— 7Sa), with the title 
KTOJ on the first page, and the name of each chapter on the 
subsequent pages. It closes with the words p^lp yn "pV pTTl 
. ■ . S'-'Btn Kny"D3 D'IIB rODO n^ Sp^ho as in the Venice 
edition, and is followed by the poem of Gabirol ITSn "Wtt TT 

K-1031 .HiPO DV B-'niD nsDDi Kuan pupa riRiaa on . . . ^ttm t m 
, . . pn HKiis . . . 'j'nm nnji . . . ^'in ym (f. 76a— 76b). 

Pt. IV. D'llB ll"Dt TED (f. 77a— 170b), a collection of parodies 
by '"pD of Modena, which will be described below in the ninth 
chapter (See also above p. 49). 



Line I. D'pipiBn nntiVDD is wuiCing in Bodleian mi. 

1. In Lcipsic ms.: TI33&1 n&3n ]Dm IBK niD-; in Bodldtn mi.: 
■n;301 niMnO 3ID IBK; O-pviB . . . isn is wantiog theie. 

3. In Bod. mi.; D'p'ni D'BBITOI; O'pnni moaonn .Tinx ima"; In Leifuie 
m*.: ...■Tm^...W3>. 

4. This tine is wRDling in Bod. ms. ; in Leipsk mi.: Miffi □C'a 
R«»d mi-BO. 

5. InBod.ms,: 0"pn^ DIlBTl WID pplFTO f^n ; in Vienna ed. DQ^U nppn. 

6. WanlinginBod. ms.; in Leipsicms, and Vienna ed.! D-pOPB S«A mp. 

7. This line i< wanling in Bod. ms.; in Vienna ed. K^d. 

8. This tine ii wanting in Vienna ed.; in Bod. ms. ^DV^ ^TB 
trpni . . . 3lnilVl; in Leipsie ms.: O-p'pJ MW^, The correct reading 
is perhaps D'p'Bl]. A similar expiession ii found in a ms, of the 
17th. century, rii.: oral D'plPnl D'TDim anl.T ■oil r« pin r?in" 
"■Q-p-Bfj 1-10 7,^ ntn-i ironnS (See below chap. VI, vo'jm riM T1S). 
Prof. Giniberg suggests reading D'Jf} or D'p'pt, tbe former beis]; 
the Aramaic and the latter the Hebrew form for sides or bottle* 

9. Thit line is wanting in Vienna ed.i in Bod. ms.: ...t^ai TffrOi-. 



I 



127 

library of S- D. Lui- 
Dunita zatto, and is now in tlie possession of A, L. Ger- 
**■■ mansky, a book dealer in New York. Italian cursive 
2». (20 p.]. The full title on tlie first page reads: pDpan "IJBD 
p^TDi DjfoiDi ^pl3D .CUB 'ors )in rj)3 13 myh maviip ^y M'aan 
JU'TDS ■»« ni'E Tjia 'j«nB"3i mwa ijmi D'ppinDn n* ^y oo-ui 
, . . o"iBD ni»y^ . . . n UDt- pi ,[5273 — 1513] v':i na? h'^kd'h 

IDB . . . imina . . . rain. From the colophon on the last page, 

which reads: K DV y:ha n'o'rnD ne anian laK'^nsio m pns' 

pTSpn] tSpn WK ni, we gather, that the ms. was written in 
1837 or 1S34 by Isaac David Momegliano, a grandson of Joseph 
Hayyim Momegliano. The latter was a member of the Napo- 
leonic Synhedrion (Wiener, Biiliolheca FrietUandiana , p. 408, 
no. 3388 A). Who 3 aijff was is hard to tell. 
The ms. contains: 
(A^ K'3jn pi3p3n TDD (p. 1—3), with the subtitle «*ipD. 

(B) aniB nSDO ^ KTOJI TSSSn (p. 3—10), identical with n^3D 
tnro, having the same postscript and the same text of the 
poem of Gcrshon Soncino as the Benamozegh ms. 

(C) 'M? D'llfi naOD (p. 10—19). identical with OniB TODO of 
Kalonymos, having the same postscript as the Venice edition, 

(D) The poem of Gabirol (p. 20). 

Though the last ms. dates only from the second quarter of 
the nineteenth century, its importance is not diminished thereby, 
because its full title shows that it is a reproduction of the 
cditio princeps, made either from a printed copy, or from an 
older manuscript*. From its title we gather, that the editio princeps 
of the Sepher Habakbiik appeared in 1 5 1 3. Whether the Mi-gUlath 
Selharim and the Massekketh Pwiiit appeared at the same lime 
is not possible to determine. As in the case of the Venice edi- 
tion, these two parodies may have been published a little later 



Hf, ' WUIe (bi* book wu ^'''''E thiough ihe prcu D. Fiankel offered for 
Mle the ed. pri&c. of the Stfhirifaiakhuk (See Cat. X, no. lO; Hiui&tfn 1906); 
(he title of the Laetklto mi. coincides woid (or word with the title of the ed- 
princept. 



128 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



(see above S I» section 2), but certainly not as late as 1527, as 
Halberstam would have it, since Soncino's printing place at 
Pesaro existed only between 1507 and 1520.7 

To show graphically how confusion and error gathered 
around these parodies, the following two diagrams give the 
various names and arrangements assigned to them in the different 
mss. and editions. 



DIAGRAM 1 



NAMES OF THE 



I. in Bartolocci, 
BibUo.Mag.Rab. 



2. in De Rossi, 
Ann.p.48,no.'37 



3. in Vatican Ms. 



«''nin pnpnn ibd 

(Vol. IV. p. io> 



pnapa 



(In Colophon to 
PL 1). 



B. 

.pn3p2n nao 
.an^D rooo 

(Vol. I. p. 693). 



o^mo rbih 



(In Colophon to 
Pt I). 

ttmo wiTD rhya 

(In Colophon to 
Pt III). 



C 



Dn^fi raoD 



7 In the same catalogue, Frankel offered the editio princeps of the 
Massekheth Purim {ibid, no. 2). But since his copy consists only of twelre 
leaves and closes with the poem of Soncino, it cannot be anything else than 
the MegilUuh Setharim, Dr. A. Freimann, again, described the editio princ. 
of the Massekheth Purim belonging to the City library of Frankfort (Z. H, B, 
IX, 153) and from his data I gather that it contains the Megillatk Seiharim, 
the poem of Soncino and the Mas^fkheth Purim, but neither the Sepher 
Baba^uk nor the poem of Gabirol. The question therefore as to whether all 
these three parodies were given in the editio princeps of the Massekheth IHtrim 
or not still remains unanswered. 



I. THE BCASSEKHETH PURIM 



129 



4« in Bodleian Bfs. 



5. in Cambridge 
Ms. 



6. in Leipsic Ms. 



7. in Sulzberger 
(Deinard) Ms. 



S. in Snlsberger 
(Benamosegh) 
Ms. 



(In the Title). 

rrmnb 

(In Colophon to 
Pt. A> 



9^ inLoxzattoMs. 



la in Pesaro ed. 



II. in Venice ed.' 



pDpnn nfiD 



(Pt m> 



Vp ran papsn nw 

(In Title to Pt. A). 

(Tide of Pt I). 

(In Colophon to 
Pt. I). 

ta Iran papan 

(ibid.). 

ira^n pnapa nma^ 

(In Postscript to 
Pt. HI). 

^■01 ^nKi nanb 

(In Ms. £1 131). 

^p ran papan n^o 

(In Title). 

MnpD 

(As Subtitle). 



M^a^n pupan ikd 



»ran pnpan nw 



mem nivfon 

(In Colophon to 
Pt AX 

D^^fi naofi 

(Title of Pt B). 



n^3& on^D naoD 

(Titie of Pt I). 



cn\D naoo 

(In Title to Pt C). 



on^ naoD 



tmem naoD 

(In Title of Pt II). 



on^D naoD 

(In Colophon to 
Pt I and to Pt m). 

onno rtio 

(In Colophon to 

Pt n). 



Has no distinct title 



D^ftfi naoD 

(Titie of Pt m). 

in&3 

(Subtitie) 
(In Colophon to 

Pt m). 



(In Titie to Pt B). 



on^fi naofi 



Dnno rtib 



(Titie of Pt. C). 



Has no distinct titie. 



mtt naofi 

9 



STUDIES m JEWISH PARODY 



Id Vktican and Bod- 
ID Leipslc M>. 

In Cambiidge, Suit- 
bcrger and Lui- 
z&tto M». ind 
perhips alio in 
the Feiaro and 
Venice editions. 

In Ed. Vienna. 



DIA.GRAM : 

THE AKaANCSIllSNT OF TH 



piapan tbd 



The above diagrams clearly show why bibliographers groped 
so long in the dark about these parodies. They fell in one of 
two errors. Some took Megillath Setharim and Sepher Habak- 
buk to be one and the same parody, because the former be- 
gins with the words "Habakbuk Ijibbel torah", and some took 
Megillath Setharim as another name of Massekluth Pttrim. 
Bartolocci labored under a double illusion, and not only re- 
garded Megillath Setharim and Massekhcth Purim as one 
and the same parody, but called it also Sepher Habakbuk. 
Wolf, who had the second edition of Massekheth Purim be- 
fore him, was convinced that the parody which began with 
the words "Habakbuk Idbbel torah" was not the Sepher Habak- 
buk; still, like Bartolocci, he thought it was part of Massekheth 
Purim {Wolf, Biblio, Heb. II, p. 1269). This erroneous opinion 
was also held by Graetz {Gesch. VIl, p. 264, note i), and as 
late as 1890, J. Chotzner, in an essay on Kalonymos (5'- Q- R- 
XIII, p. 137, and in n'7t?n VII, p. 430) persisted in the same 
error, though in the Hebrew translation of Graetz (vol. V- p. 25 1, 
note ij this error had been corrected. 



I. THE MASSEKHETH PURIM 131 

S in. AUTHORSHIP 

In regard to the authorship of these parodies, the blunders 
were equally numerous. Bartolocci, having deciphered the Va- 
tican ms. wrongly, ascribed Megillath Setharim and Sephcr 
Habakbuk to Leo de Valentibus {Bib. Mag. Rai. IV, p. lO), 
Wagcnseil (cited by Wolf, Bib. Heb. IV, p- 1041) on the 
authority of an Italian Rabbi, attributed Massekhitk Purim to 
R. Leon Blantcs, and De Rossi made Elias Levita the author of 
MegiUath Selhartm (Arm. p, 48. no. 37). 

The more definite knowledge, which we possess to-day con- 
ceming these parodies, is due to tlie combined researches of 
Zunz, Dclitzsch, Fiirst. Ren an and Neubauer. Zunz was the 
first to discover tliat Kalonymos ben Kalonymos was the author 
of one of these parodies {Gcsani. Sc/ir. IR, p. 150 — 153), and 
though in the heat of discovery he attributed to him MegiUath 
Setharim instead of Massekheth Purim, he soon corrected 
this error {Cat. Lips. Additt. p. 319). Delitzsch was the first 
to point out, that Sepher Habakbuk, MegiUath Setharim and 
Massekheth Purim were three distinct parodies {Cat. Lips. 
p. 288, no. 8). But while he accepted Kalonymos as the author 
of Massekheth Purim, he still held to Valentibus. or Blantcs, 
as the possible author of MegiUalk Setharim {Md. i/dd.). Fiirst, 
it is true, added a great deal to the confusion, as Steinschneidcr 
puts it {Letterbode, VII, p. 11), still to him belongs the credit 
of being the first to detect a close relationship between Sepher 
liabatbuk and MegiUath Setharim and to suggest one author- 
ship for both of tliem {Litil. X, col. 759), His other suggestion, 
based on the opening line of Soncino's poem K'3^n train BTHS 
■T^n, that the author of these two parodies was Leon Halevi 
the Orator {ibid.), is worthless. For a long time this passage 
was a bone of contention, until Rcnan and Neubauer discovered, 
that Bartolocci had deciphered the Vatican ms- wrongly, reading 
r«ilt^3 n JlK'^ for P"'?1'J31 jlM*?, This at once suggested, that 
*frn wz'iT\ might be identical witli Levi ben Gershon, who was 
suraamed Leon t«'2^] des Bagnoles (Les Ecrhaitts, p. 107, 255). 




132 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



Still the word K'Sin in that passage remained unexplained, and 
even Steinschn eider's statement, that (f^in was not an un- 
common title of distinction among Hebrew authors of the Middle 
Ages (Heh. Bib. XV, p. 55), did not quite satisfactorily explain 
it. The meaning of the word, however, becomes apparent as 
soon as it is construed with the word cno preceding it and 
not with the words 'l^H K'3^n that follow it. K'Sin EniO, in 
other words, is another title of MegiUalk Setharim, because 
the latter is a Midrashic commentary on Sepker Habakbnk 
ha-Nabhi. On the othtr hand, the expression 'I'jn tl'lSn is not 
to be taken with the word E'lTO, as Renan and Neubaucr did, 
but with the word JTID' in the second verse. The rendering of 
these two verses is, therefore, as follows: "The Midrash on the 
Prophet (i. e. Sepher Habakbuk ha-Nabhi), Leon Halevi of the 
Family of Grammarians laid its foundation at a time when all are 
more attached to eating and drinking than to wisdom and honor". 
This interpretation is further corroborated by the fact, that on 
closer examination the Megillath Setharim is found to be a 
running commentary on Sefi/ter Habakbuk. In true Midrashic 
fashion, the MegiUatk Setharim weaves its thoughts into passages 
taken from the Seplier Habakbuk, and uses it as a frame work'. 
The dependency of the text of Megillath Setharim on the text 
of the Sepker Habakbuk, as well as the order in which they follow 
each other in the Vatican, Bodleian, Sulzberger and Luzzatto 
mss., make it quite certain, that both parodies were written 
by one man ; not, however, the mysterious "Leon the Orator", 
but the well-known Levi ben Gershon. Another passage which 
points to Leon des Bagnoles as the author of the Septter Habak- 
buk is the colophon to that parody in the Bodleian ms. which 
reads in part as follows: msn n'lJD SS' ... 'D'O n^JO TOfl" 
. . . mianaiP ■'^K [Leon] (See above % II Sect. 2 A). 

Another cause of confusion has been the fact, that some 
used Megillath Setharim as a collective title of the various 

8 The commcntiry on Scfh/r Mahakbuk begin on f. 4b (Venice edition) 
M follows; . . . -li^lpa -p Jia '31 1B« .'"Ot3 '0'3 'm" and ends OD f 7b with 

the words . , . i-Tn in 'tb inV Tim i«'M '«o ."^nw ^3 "J'ri -vra nws tw" 



1. THE MASSEKHETH PURIM 133 

parodies, c. g., the former owner of the Vatican ms. (see above 
5 U, sect. I), while others used Massekheth Purim as the col- 
lective title, e. g., in the Leipsic and the Sulzberger ms^ 
{Ibid, sect 4 and sect. 5 C). 



^P % IV. DATE OF COMPOSITION. 

One more question to be answered before closing the biblio- 
graphical discussion of these parodies is the date of their com- 
position. The Massfkheth Purim, according to Zunz, was written 
between 1319 and 1322, while Kalonymos resided at Rome 
(Gesam. Sdir. UI, p. 150 — 153). But no date has been given 
yet for the MtgiUath Setharim and Stplier Habakbuk. It seems 
however, that the same note, by which Renan and Neu- 
bauer determined the date when the Vatican ms. was copied 
(Ihid. at the beginning) contains also the date when these paro- 
dies were written. For. immediately after the date of the copying 
comes the phrase .TTS'^ ■'B"»n l!?K^ «in 03 VB3 n3» «nm, 
which can have no other meaning than that the parody was 
written in 5092, i. e., 1332 C. E., about ten years after Kalonymos 
wrote his parodies. And since the Megillaik Setharim depends 
upon the texts of the Sepher Habakbuk, the latter must have 
been written some time before 1332. 

I The whole foregoing discussion may, therefore, be summed 
as follows. Kalonymos ben Kalonymos wrote the Masse- 
\eth Purim in Rome sometime between 1319 and 1322. Levi 
ben Gershon, on the other hand, wrote the MegUlatk Setharim 
in 1332 and the Sepher Habakbttk sometime before- Of these 
three parodies the Sepher Habakbuk was printed at Pesaro in 
1513. The Megillath Setharim followed by the poem of Soncino 
and the Massekheth Purim also appeared at Pesaro, but per- 
haps at some later date. In 1552 the Sepher Habakbuk was 
again printed separately in Venice, and a month later the two 
other parodies without the poem of Soncino were issued from 
the same press under the composite title of Me^Uath Setharim 
Masiekheth Purim, and instead of Soncino's poem the printers 



134 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

prefixed the poem of Gabirol. Subsequently, numerous written 
copies were made, in which title, contents and arrangement 
were carelessly confused. 



CHAPTER n 

PROVENgAL PARODIES OF THE FOURTEENTH AND 
FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 

The first five of the foUowing texts are edited here according to 
a copy made from the Bodleian Ms. no. 714, fol. 72b — 75b and 
80a — 80b, for a fulkr description of which see the preceding chapter. 
;j n, section 2. It may be added, that the quotations from the 
Sfp/ifr Habakbtik in the last paragraph of the Resolutions (See 
below noUs 32—35), as well as the frequent references to p13p3 
and "013 (See below § I, ^ Hi 3, 10, 11 and % III), prove that the 
author of these parodies was familiar with the parodies of Levi 
ben Gershon. And while it would be rash to jump from this to 
the conclusion that these parodies came from the same pen as 
the Sepher Habakbuk, it is nevertheless justifiable to assume, 
that they are the products of the same century, and the frequent 
use of Provencal words and sentences, on the other hand undeni- 
ably prove them to be of the same country. 

The sixth and seventh texts are based upon a copy made by 
S. G. Stem from codex 1199, r, of Do Rossi's Mss. The first of 
these has been described by Dc Rossi as "Tractatus Talmud. Purim 
cum Tosephoth et Comment. Kasci" (See MSS. Codices Hebraici 
Bib. I. B. De-Rossi, Parma 1803, vol. 3, p. 96). In Stem's copy, 
which is now in the library of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America, the Toscphot and Rasht are wanting. The 
reason for assuming that it is of Provencal origin is the fact 
that it devotes considerable space to the Purim King and the 
various sources of his revenue, which is a favorite topic with 
the Provengal parodists. That it is a product of the fifteenth 
century may be surmised from the fact tliat the ne.\t fascicle 
in the same codex was written in that century (See De Rossi, 
ibid.), as well as from the fact that the game of Backgammon 



n. PROVENgAL P.-VRODIES 



I3S 



is called in this parody the game of Tables, a name by which 
it was known in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (See below 
noU 82). The seventh text was not noticed by De Rossi. From 
the title it is to be inferred that it originates from the same 
author as the preceding parody. 

[niDin] .1 

cimn . . . aisn n« ^\ip':i annnc nina piapa -ttDMOi laia nitia 
Try 13-31 nms S^pff n^Spai kt^'? '3'3 an mnotri MnoBfai 
ffiiriD UK ntn ibos nmnan ni^Nn ^221 'imtro ycin'i ^id D' 
nixf ^31 'run DHKi "ot?K 830 ii*^yn t'3 njjT !jy p^Vpoi jTiotrei 
wwnrin pnnai t'3 npn ^yi ]" mrw'; o'^yo tpk onisin on d'ibk 
.iroaonn t3T n« o-p' «'' t?« 'o-d myo ncm trx ^a '3uy man 

[niDDOn] .n 

Inwn "o-o my3 ^cnj ■nnK»3 nff« T^on lunn n^n-c l3D3Dn .1 
I .innsy ^'?Dn niriD ^33 ■«?« o's^on 

|iM ff'p^ nntren ct3 n'3^Dn ixb" jf'3E" ^nan -i^aitp uaaon .2 
iUu%K3 «'33n pi3p3 10' itp« n'BBt?am cpm ipin ^3 
Erpnn cp* sbc ffsbnno mn^ nip' oi^tri on nttp llDSDn .3 
TP n33i ,Tnnn inw lao'i imray .dhd inw i« nnatin 
r** Dn3 ^-Ki I'pn trjn ^3 ni'733i :i'vn ■!?:« ^3 niVs 
^n nn-m csj^k ':3K3 oyia KMn I'yn *min D'31d« 
l^v .iiy n33n 1*^ s'^iy 

^Hbl ^te^ rn' ^01 iBie pp orr^v ud- k^ nioipent? U03Dn .4 
^^P .Oit!>k 3np iTivn ^^n 

r*i nVKH nissDnn •bbe'ds dtj? u3 iddc n^a^nnt? iJOSOn .5 
.irnn tj?^ anp invn i^on •?« pi Kip^ ^3r w^ nno 
Dnai on-^y I'D!' ]"in 'JbV niTpnn iNip3 -fjon ibidw iJODDn .6 
'mew mm mr oyn 'itiu ioki nnsi nans D't?p 

.S1K3 3in3 D3'iB3 

^^B .BBIR33 irrai 713%K3 iVdiI niisw user -p^rm UQXn 7 



P ) S<9^T inn" m. Cf. Joihaa *i. 36. 

- ■ TTw firti two proper nouns are a pUy od Pi. Ix»ii. 10 ^»l» nam «• "aim 
Sip'. For the D^me »lr«nfl,T cf. Eir« ii. 63, »nd for auj I Chr, iv-S, 
J Re«d wfn » R«>d nam. s Ct. Mishn&li Awa*. vn, 7. 




136 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



'133 ^K K'an'? iiDDi vteny^ mc oBem n«T bk \"irm UDDOn .8 

.inn 
T^Dhi b^va iBi -pn n»3y ync^ O'tpuyn -mv iharxet l3D3Dn .9 
layTC' K^i Kinn ;istn ynai .mjj'os ^B'y *«T!? ^^''Oi 12 

io«o3 mia'tP' 113P0 nn^ nsT k^ bi^di on qki .mm 

litPKT ^^K tnn »«to 'ot3 mvo dik die" Diya' Kbtp 1303D?T .10 
yiE' nto nnia rrfr k^ 01^01 en dki .amen mno ly 
.rwK^ )nn 131 ,-p<Dn '133 ^« -t3n 
E-Tin l^'«^o nisS q*d ""d-d myo ain aiB b'»' h^p UDXn .u 
jnB' ntD ini3 n-TV Kb nm b'iib mnc ly ]i»kt ni« 
,nsT DM ima "tb tbbh^ inip^'i ,7^on '133 ba "un 
.ntrK*? inn pi 
mnaai nimta anoy nwy^ i^on '3Bb Ton D'sin imt? U03Dn ,12 

.7"i" ^ n'n»2 
i"OD' IK ,BiK »bibS iny3B' vh npin v' 1^ etb' 'a b:i& UDSOn .13 

.]"-jn "laiH 'B^ viiB' 9'Bi Dr6 
»-nn tp«-iB a'sSDHO iHK "Iji^snTtmisyp «>"-aii:>v )SSXn .14 
2311 BKi BIB'S '1 yifi' -by\ «in bn b"iie mns ly nK 
.TTT" r*?? B'3t? insTE' mp' BUT .-u'l yiB' Dion by 
.ansn '3 'mriN bsb yia" ,i:'By 'sa bbpos 
by 33ni '3y Kini a'siiDnD inx ^1333 n33 nay b«!? ijoaon .15 
^ya vifi'' I'tpy Kin b«i ;'^3t BEt?B3 iBB&B n'H' iian 

.Dion 331-1 '3D30 

lion by 33n Mini B's^ann tik '?1333 n33 my bkc ijoson .16 
ysiBD imy n'TV' initna niinDnKB-^ inyii "laefMS oy 
.insnBoi Tiin nt3 331-ini '^3in b3d pa 
"Oiin latn -[in D'a^ann iriK ^1233 n^Tsa nayn bkb* UDDDTl .17 
.av ii3ynt? i'b nrK3 Mn t?iMn »3y by ^b3 •swsy rT,T 

6 Cf. TiL B»b. Yeb. 116*. ? Reid 019B '1 lissa 7» Cf. ShftbbU I0«. 

B Read DIBO. 9 Read -ED. >° Read HB^S, '™ On the use of the 

tenn "ai for 1 Jew of another cily cf. Berliner, Magaiin XU, p. 145—146. 

" Supply '?». " Read inn bUD. 'i Read D30 !Jb3. 

14 Sai/ is the Provencal for pack'saddU. See M. Raynonard, Ltiique Romas. 
Fuit 1S44. E. V. 

ij Read nrw. 



n. PROV'ENfAL PARODIES 

w 0^1333 "Oip naa iirev ^'yr^ ')3o nrm p'k ^3» 

TD'^jr D^n DHi .''HraiJ*! D^on hs'B' yn^ "ii-rcsn' 

•viwi ^y nrit? no ono tph b yis'' on^ry nK pwn oy 

pn pi .ipBin^ "bsv nn npj* k^ Kinn i?'Kni ,ynaS 

.maiy nw«^ 

min 'n yTB' o's^ono inK ^1332 ^\2)!'V 'isi jnn Sac 

no ^t3 jnc' 'ly «in dki .roy mn dk 7^Dn na: ^n 

D*Kan miinn -33 b: -inn n-n 16 oh yiie^ vhy n'TW 

.viyoD rn h^ o« yiic^ on^ nTit? no ^d3 lyic loy 

^B5 run o'a'Tono thk ^13J3 «3nt7 jt-d: n^a ^3» 

.H'nnt? TH innn ^y ^oion 

niwrw i!f nnin new rvtph n'3i 'wj larw ibk d'« S3» 

TyiTD T^n 'Hi ^« ■'•un '3 yiB' ,Hb d«i .o'iid mip 

.rr^K nsi-ipno ix K'nn 

D'Tien niTO ny jipst ^^K cnn pktd nPK iwt? >d '?d» 

.^fi3 y-ion rf?3ni 7^n 'nj ^h "-un 3 y-ic 

"nsM "3 yTDn Tyrro nn'ni 0*03 m&s vn-inp ncK Ssp 

DM rnsjn yicn nsai ,nt nt?ynt? njK i^n 'uj ^k 

.K'nn Tyn ^naa v""^ 

Mv yna i^j' ffn nPK n'j'sos iyT» n»Ki e-n b^v 

tt'tp nTie no nn» ta in mw ^3 ly-*'- ,kj'313^ »3iyn 

.naiy nn «trn icnn n»Kni .jiitd^ 

jne* tth 131 T^n dk ihbk oy nn «3''tr '123 ck V3» 

I rtira DTniB Tn» noo "snn lyiB' napa dhi hdwd 

.«inn mpon 

' »»HS^i) 1^ un' niosonn 'B3 u^ 3"n n^nis td ^3t? 

[ ^B3 Kr^ic »p3' kS dki ,ibe'i bwd 3 Kr^icn ■ii3y yio'i 

."nt3 l^on DO '3 "'31B'3 y"\D' 
I TDy T33 Tyno cn^ iTn3'> yy\ -vy ^33 cn^vi oo^Dnff 
I ^ luiyn Vy iniy'3»'i ,niD3onni n^nn ■n3i KTp^ p 



13D3Dn .19 

iai3Dn .20 
lasson .21 

liDSDH .22 
IMSDH .23 



'*-"! Rud . . . yra inwvp m ... vna* o^uia "Uij "os wv 

■0* K«ad 'iAd. ■> Cf. Tkl. B&b. Yeb. 66b wnu 

■* t^UaU, Provenfil for ii//. Se« U. Rtifnouud, i^n/. s. v. 
•B Read UV3. " Rc^ ni=. 





138 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



riK tnon «^3i noij) '^a D«-ipS "nnnvta 0*21 nyi 

,niD3Dnn '13t D"p' K^t? ns'Ki »'k -ra ik jfiEfi nut? IJOSDH .28 
,n^Kn '-OT ijioc I3n iT'nn^ -run onK^ 'nrrn bttsf' 

,^3p^ mn bVi niiiD^E' ik m-i-i? iSon }b ]Ka t!»N ^jaff li030n .29 

.'Hnii?n' 'iju rrri'Di n^yn' coin 
^31 pT 'sniMb^p .TH' niDsonn i^«3 -otan tsiE-c ^se ijoaon .30 

■IDS ^t? "*'nib^p iTH' ana un liT 
liaiffiD' -yt/ti nuiae'Dn ^y m";^ "jai' hb-ki b"k ^a» liDDDH .31 

.jnaBa un'j oica vmjio "nse-n np'i o^a^nn 
gnin-' 13'T HD "iKani k^c o-iyn nntta ffTrft? no hsa iJOaon .32 

.vsyri hmn i^nn =''3a ^y Kinn Dst?en 
n^tjrii nioaonn •'lai ^k yiow 'n^a^ inia ntry iffw e^m .33 
]oa mas^ omwDn con v^y ixa'i nnw loaa 1*0*0 
^a j'riR v^y I'jin'i -sinny ^anoi imcBt?'' o'ai d*di yv b^oiht 
xiKcsinn fffiJiTi mn -ibd3 niainan nua nn *m3 b^p iff« m^^n 
.D"p: TH" ^npni Ktrn maV tm 
nioaDnn nan ^a n« o^p^i nit?y^ ^^on lai nt< kim Ef^Km .34 
'miya ]ibib' 'monaa 'nnin j'poio' nin leoa mainan 
'3''nai -"K-ipD I'^y iO"pn>i ^lDn' npnn ]"3i .iiod* ]" 'c"E?t<ai ,j'iona 
'lyi .jDC'D D'3B ^'nsn^ b-uk aa^ nois" p'l "Tia 'lyi ,aiDn ]"a -jam 
nmn a'na 'lyi ,3"a^n b'31i )"'i t-'^m S331 iiaai ^in on^nwo nvn 
Tap^i p^ *I^ *]'CM '013 h» B'ljn piapa lowi "na 'lyi .j^mBn" f 
'^aii naip miKi B'Somj n^ny '!? nryKi "ria 'lyi ,3intn oy*? t;'DO n'm 
ID nB"i a^na 'lyi ,sinn n^'^a i" l^'^^* ^'f yp&n ''na niyi ,«!" 



*' Cf, T« »"r S »a8, ai. 'i vm is Soperflitoni. 

M ReBd nlBtf" "^IJ n'npi I^VP] TP^i?' "^'^ Dmid iii, ag, 

>j~t£ Two coiiiE, bat in spite of ditigcnl research I am una,ble [o identify 
their countiy u)d value. 

»7 Re«d lara, 

'« Read -B ^». >9 Read innj'. 

3° HK is superfluous. 

3' Read lljTia "nUBl ]\na\ 'nlBl?? '.iniD I'pop". Cf. TwEan Gen. xlii. 1 2. 

1»-3J These four quotations are from Stpkrr J/aiaiiui fia-Nathi; 31 ii a play 
OB Isaiah V, la; 33 on Proverbs xxiii. 31; 34 porodie! Micha iL 11; and 35. 
parodies I«uah viii. 2. 



n. PROVENCAL PARODIES 

ira ]hs ii« ^«i ]'3 " 



139 



,*tKT*i/n mi Y"n pn 

Tiac "-a III 

mipn«i '^-on ^aji ffiv 'nm di^i nai *di3i pupa yi3l7 *D 
^n ^3 n« -py mn onsK 'nsB" ^ai 'a^i 3-11 i3B'b^31 
Dmo aia-i a'oo' roma nipon .E-ipn ni'?np ^3 ny nin emp-T 
.]DK lOKii )isT 'H" pi n-'inin □■■an p "oVi npnn )"d aipTpi 

pDTfi IV 

f -D-w .rD'DV3 ^Kiff- now ,wyo ^3 13 iTC^ :"iaiKi "OPD "OPD DID 

.nnii o'D-j'; nD'3t?3 nuin ^013.1 Tn3 

.]" K^iD' i«j ^3 ]'V2 I'l) HKTS asn 

.rm'x/b n"n a-o loy n« ntrn Vtisi 

.D'Dp D'Tnn iB'Bm vran v^v '^'bn Kaa 

.TTry ]sib ■'^D1K 4'niTp '^k «3' DKna 

.DJiK ]'« m3 n'ntrm d13' ^«ip' "nma 

.TDn nnan a^j? oil tdii? h'H' -ho 'ot3 

'■onB'' TDnpom ^33'' a•vnT^b ttb 



mn« KriDDO v 

riyi noon cobtqi n"n»3i n^'3K3i nnrnra i'3nD tik DiDSyD 
' tmncn p:j?2 ]T?ini j'Vxtp .nipu'n^ pSnS n'twrn nv^p 

p pTi 'BUI DniB3 Tn3in n' 13 «3r DiK T« t'Dinn .a'VsKa 'I'D 
.ni^^iy n'Mtr s^n ']h ista a'loia dk 'it? oniea iidk loian .]" 
,4*arr^y a^oh yno di« '33 mtry n3 ce- tj? b ^^« oaivo 
a'^3«D 'J'o Tpn^i niDKl? n'iioD a'triM in^a ^p cB-ff tis i^an 
1^^ rbpi rr'npai ]uii Tt? u'd ^31 d't3i3 anaw^ 3"ni ,B':i»a 



*-to Cf. Ncnbsuer %nd Meytr, Zf <?. 

195)1 wtiere this pauage, etcepting ven 

t« So ia mt. Cf, Daniel IV. lo. snpi 



Wd« Pmitnsal D-Euhrr {Kima/ua, XXI, 
: 3, U publUhed. M Re«d oSttv 

'». 4i Read TTU. " SDppIjr ^V8. 



I40 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Dnya^i Diocs^i pnnm Tn njfi ^jj o'intn o'cn li^p^i iptia min tbd 

.KpTD p'^D .TIK DJDTr DTip 



D'D^ rr^ r 



.nncca p'^nc' ibid lyi ffiin cnic nla^S cms 'nd ti?j) njia-is or 

n'7'3K «^3 IIOjA D-IK^ 1^ ItPB'K '31 i>"Dp '((D MO'CD ."H^'SMl, 

'3 It? inB^ nsin it '«i ,moo pnt? n'"iK-i h^'dk i-6'3« '«a k^ 
'an Km Vop 'Hd Kot?B ."n^ncsv .mKn n'n- na^ nnSi ^ vth 
'KD K^M m inV3« nmc h^i Ssmn b rm Kn'inoa '3'3 ai 

■T D1H KS't? ino "T''?D 13" inS K'p'K .SC13D p p^ ]" TTTff 
'CK ■'3'3 31 .KS' lOK «BB 31 K3' K^) lOK '3'3 21 .O'llBi lOain 
'DK «BB 31 .13 »'» B'3irtl D'^B^cn '3B0 jTDJJD ^'03 Km KS' K^ 

'K8K1 n'"nt?3 inio 'u ans v^Jt? ii^» Y'^ny^ rnn-K .'"jjia 'boi rt 
men np'o k^i n'Dye ^-bsi icob 7^ n'K 'Kd n^k Kin Kian Kn 
inf) K'jis'K nn .Kn3vn nbb 3n urovn ja^ys Kion d'iib3 pm 
13 in3in n' di« p'Di k^i ]V2 p'lOK 'd anisa imntr^ uiiD rm 
iiDK DK pnv '1 i^inirm'^ inio iqk '3'3 3i ■'«a tub ■>« inins?^ iidk 
n3nN miK Tnitp ]'k na "aaoi rwiTo 47'3'3 ,T'?y is-hk .ininB^ 
K"in .nnDB3 ni3i.i^ 'i3 mijio ma'p^ n'iiB3 udd nine's dik 3'ti 
sniDD fKsr y» S3K «iSDo ninB''? DiK 3"n *^i'B'i:ip ■'3'3 311 rrni3 
\"nv '11 n'opS KHKi Kinn .j-'SbSb »2t inn iionaip 'kd .nam n* 
313 iiiffjJD 131? ymr '11 1V31 iniD 'd« d'iib3 ybay nine'? ino 'tsK 
. . . KtsiTD '3^ ym -I bmy .rrniB Kn3Sn d'w '2'3 



DniD roDD 



VI 



.UK n"ia ni3ijm nitf3i ,an& nnn d^ib niii3i d'I'sid ""nD^ND .k 
!j33t? Skip' bbb" 'sn ym ts'b .d3P 'sno idik jiysB' 1 
'am nicBi 'in in Sua 1133 13 D'amai K'tPi DrrSy I'aoD I'pi 17 
msD nS'3DD D'Siyn Sb is'b ca .nE'3"3i d'3 d'dd n3iai nuioe 



IS Re»d T^BU" (oinomeli). Cf Terumotli li. i. 

46 In the ms, this imnl^ ix foUoired by a, Tcpetition of tbe wordi comm{ 
after the preceding irnrv^. 

47 Read -la. 

48 Spiced wine. Cf. yil »np"OB loab fU'lSlpS l^KU mill '^31 H3K I"*. 
19 In the ms. there ii another ditlographj here; the word 11013 i* followed 

b; a repetition of the words coming after the preceding 1JDB. 
so Read Ul^n. 



n. PROVENfAL PARODIES 



141 



I y71 JITHK TJ)^ K3n TJ? 13 TTS n»3''3 .Tjn WVl^ 00 J'3'"n 

" .n-y K-B-j^ DO 3"n oniDa it-vV ^nn s- 13-« c«i Daf tot? Tyn «V3^ 

THK nt?« Kirs IK DIKff 'D .2"n llin^ inj713 ^jM TDIM l^IJ 'T 

HX-jS DO T2"n HffKn inKi E"Kn Tnn ,dd T3"n niD'7« in«i n^ina 
.tnsny I'n -ntt n'lji h^k^d ri»v^ w^p unic nipo ,3niD3 ^an .OTy 
.s'*(nj'ion anjoD) oirt* K''3oi iron'jo ^iitjm iyn hsk^d rrcnpm 
itp «^p« «jn .nmaj 'Wi 'KtaK im 'ho'kd 'snpi ■•«? H3'n Kjn 
I nnctPDi nnB»D im in !?2a onpyii o'laia n^nn D'o^m ttoi 
* avoni nnro a^nan nniaj rrV "in •'an s>mET3 .Tyi -vy nytoi n^no 
KV3 'xr ifipn ipin 'kd ,ipin ^3 dk ■nin-'n 'stidi S'nas na inoK 
^3 ^y Kvi '3-nDi ,'3TM3 n^iij npTfii imiaii icpn rwyoi yni 
_ o^vi r^ya mp '«n Dsnax 't idk '^d ':n kjd .D3IP ^SHD .Sjcw 
ron DID «■?« .Ti«n mtpD ioe' icpi '"sd 13m 'si .pun ropo 
1 ipi Tspi yii TiKH Ti' ^3 ny a^naT .>>isn -ny nspo incn-n 
Mi"K ,p>j -xn Tspi ;r^Da -am .iitpmo ,'i»n 'sn Kin yit ;(iini |"pi 
( nm nnn .iro 'sn cm ;B3tr 'xm nao ,v^Da -sn ipi ip'O "Wfl 
,p'j 'sm niK DaB 'sn ."iim ;''x'n 'sni "jiSk .an 'sn y^i 
Sviw «in .'oj noB Ty 3'K oinin id n^ »i'pnD .oat? 'sno iwaV 
K2 DiB^'jiB ■1 in« .nsp "ja K^i nspo »y 1D« n^ piDo wm n^ 
Jl'aipa n3»21 -la by nsr nacn rm me" tr&i bo in'?n) nsii 
ws' 'jp nK Dtriy ni'n^ unp loxi onpiin i laK ;'73d maiyo na» 
news njc «■?« niwi nw 'kd .naB-i nic ^aa nioiai oanaa nV«n 
.niyi3t? 1 ^nhti -f} ]'K .nitri S n oat? 'sno ^i3' .maiyo na?i 
ws'K ■ya'Ki .em «!j natn mty ?n'S Tay 'ko nj» 'kh pyjsf 'ii 
TTS .noitrc njt?3 -BiSn'wS 'n« kd^t ssiidmt mn jjaii nm «in 
•KD M"»: '3n Kcn kS 'ki iiaa la n-jnu Ko^ca .Bac "Wl JTiH 
s*»ru« 1 TD« ?T^ «3D m:DD 'yii moftn 'in ii »6« n'nTay 
nai: laiw in n-s as no .jn n'3 skd Toim ^po n'^ I'i'B^n 
I'pnD .laff b^ Hh troo nautr k'dj nii?B: 'J'ti niioo 'sn p 0*00 
mttb ittw K'Bia iDwn nae-n h:> p jsc -ra as^ no Dimn id rrl? 
iro nnyo kV« db'tjk -n tt'j iok .myiae' n»» k^k ]w »h lo^nt? 



S> Read mn. S<>The woid* io the ptrcolhesii mre ■ dinoEr^h; from 

the previouE lioe. i* Read mvm, ii In mi. "VK W. M That is, 

foot week* of the lirtt Adar and Iwo weeki of the second Adoi. The mi. reads 
nSfOm "p K^R. a So in mi. 5« Read DIC'IUL CoiDpaie a few liaei below. 



142 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

HV33 s'TOKn btnv- b^ ]i pe r^tfb no -jtbo^ M'k Di^avonK 
i»T\ B^ -foya wpji hhpn Hi Q'n'jK s't/ut k^« wy (6k iS tw? 

K'lra IK maoo 'S'li niBs: 'an ji T'2 2k no T'nw'? Ktsa ppn'K 
n2ia» K'tPi'? I'SD 132T lin .D^DD n31Jl .nico: 'am nijBo 'an p 
D'n "Ml ^'^[^n ^y do Ehipintj i^nn Diri td .nca'ai d'3 d'dd 
pan '1 .'3110 n^nj ntriBi imiaai lepn wntryoi '1ki (Estiier x. i] 
voco "Ma .tpnwnK toki m"?! E*itfn(i 'tid y\z-\a mn loipoo tow 
ly im ,6°B'i-iiB'nN jwa^ pay no 'si lOMp ■■an Di^iinonM n 'a« 
1C1M 'in sinsn tst id tjis «';m ?dd t?mi?nKS n'*: rrn k^ Hrwn 
N-m^ KD^D ■'3IT m'?i boti '31 noKp '3n ?ioiKi 'MD .M'»in na» 
icpn rTB^jJo bi n-nna 3'n3 wn mvi«i mttik ^331 -'KTin' rr^is^ h^k 
^t? imi33i lEpn^ '3T1I3 n^nj tppnM .'sno n^na npTei irninai 
H'S'i ''3Tia ba in^nj »]« kvt rrfs'T cnitrnM ^w lopn no .BTwnn 
naffD 'iiiTn '^^^D '3 kt? iokt ?nin «'»: '3nm ]^ msbi .mn 
D'u^ Snj nin «n»n ,a'-iin'^ ^nJi 'Kd ,n'iin'^ ^nji ETiitmK iSo^ 
T3y 'KD Ha^}^':^\oan "n .*'Dnin'3» "jna '"'n'M k!jm ?'I)3'd dhw^ 
I'cnim i'3Di ]'Bi3t? I":d lein t tokt ,iDin 113^ n^i) ^ya'D ?n'^ 
iDpn no ,'3no n^sn: ncisi imia^i lEpn nwyoi 'km? Kipin do by 
)'3oi )'Bi3 '3110 n^n; ^k rmyh )'t?3ini I'am I'oo trm&nK io 
3in3n ratp oniin id idn ?n'^ vot^a '«o joon 11 .no"p^ ivavn 
ffiti Kinw rJK :)ip'iDi3 lEinS '13 n^'3D3t? »iin?nK hza n3 »mt?nR 
DtPi^ I'3D ii3i iin .msD n^3DD D^i'1J?n ^D .Ktffin ni tdik in 
n'jKn D'o'ni S'n n-Vib do )'3"n "* one' Dipob Dipoo ''3''3^ini ni^aion 
I'Vi 171 na'ioi ni'iD nnscoi nnstpo im in '533 D'py:i o'lstj 
in '333 D-wan ni'st ini'K o'lCTn -pno nay txb n^Kn o'lisn 'o'l 
nwK K^M '^ I'Mi .*iDT hy ni^ij) mnine' D-pan n^'so nt ini 
y n I'ao I'KitPii I'DiTK .1111 V'n pao n^ao m^i naDt yan ,n^3iDfT 
I'ao ]'DiTK I'Mica K^K >i I'M .113 IT ni3iynD nincwontra nnsaro 
bsn nnyo noK .naioi na'io ^"n nisp j'k'? ^13' .nnsBTSi bn 
K3n K^M '^ ]'K .I'yi TV Vn pao oipo!? DipDo D'3^in .na'iDn anios 
"BK ^13' .TJ71 V'n I'ao inK oipo^ n'yo •/'ntp ckh **M'tMn TpV 

57 In ms. lOHTitt. i' Read I'n^no. 

59 Read .ivm ^31. Cf. Esther i. 2. 

60 Read ]»:'} BniPn« I'W "O "SI- 

61 Read Bpn'K. 6» Supply D'113W ^13^, 

6j Read JflS^CT. 64 Rcid l.TC. <■; Read JT ^B O-^. 

» In mt. Vsn IPffin vsi. 



n. PROVENCAL PARODIES 143 

iAk 1^ T-ieK »h) nay k^ n'jun o'lion 'Ci ^n ni-iia^ r^yh ^xn 
•pro Vn p mnw tjj^ Knn n^a ^ik !)1D' .oniBn 'D' nay t6» 

>6 nniBn 'd'i Tns kh "'j'^w "ii .^ln n'3 pnp «Vt do [nS a"n 
.D*TiBn '0-2 iDipDD HSTH by .iffyn K'ja 2"r6 n^^ rryD'o Kinn ?i-op' 
ruTs yoi? «3n 'ansi ttiB- 'kd o-iib 'J"i '33 rraro''? p dk ?p3ii 
•yxia D'piDjf rnr- ns omn id iok Koyta 'hd .wnJE? Dlpe .'n-tn 
TJi:sn '13TTD nyt? i»3T KinK kd'hi Knjpn ]am lay^i .onit 
Ktfi in^ -p^'K .^'Kjnioa 133t iSn 'i^ito «^t kidk «5'ki '3'31 
«^p tinw mpD W'in dib-^id -i ick ?Tnn'7 ^i3' pK im -viv^b ^u' 
new rso Kipan nic-Q KiJC-nsK'po nwijim ,i'tpiy ]'« mKba nwy^ 
^ roK^n nmym 'anpT npn "oj "■ano nan oimn ^D .«tra^ 
^jj ^nts? tftoi K'sni ,T3y «*? kiid'k hitt hyoi Kin Ktra^ ,«'i?3^ ■ 

.*9^rtB 11133 ni33 

rpnin 01X31 niDi33 lan iik^ d-dh rpTi2 ipp nj?a"iKi» "ilM .a 

»t^ ,mn» ipj) njisiK p"ii3 it?y nj)3i«'j n« pi3 «'' .^ik^ 

rmyo njf»3 pts k^ .rniyo nj)B'3 pii3 n-mc icji nyaiw '"pns 

[ psn no ,vt:m wian -iD''!;n3 pn3'^i .inD3 .rtpjis 13? ni 'Ti 

hS oiTTin ID iDH ?inpn3 niD-K Diip «3n f\» mpna nio'« D"np 

BTnaa ]"ixd m« 'J3i oi^d k't^s i331 lonpKT 'jkb" onn K'B'p 

-n'*} hVi i6'!j2 ii3i ii'pn 'in dico «3n ^3h ,npn3^ ns' "un iwi 

^vi innscn oi'3 ynn no ,|'Drn «'Dn ?'wbrf> iiw pns'^i .K^pn^ 

[:Wpn3 win niDN c-np pn no nanw .inns&n ors «3n »)« inpna 

■-Ba?D ne^3 innasm I'on 'iKt??- ?inpn3 'in tiidk aiip Ksn i« 

^TBTt? njW3i (tnan ina nnaffbi ttnan ins n^yjs-^ «!?i ''p>i3 'sn 

^(D WD2 n-S niD -K inrDCn ii"n rr^ p'li •« I'sp '3M Ksn h2» 

.wo 'una rrnDB^ hm •»7a rvrovi »hi 'D-n '3 «Jis n'S Hpw 

riM3 ni^l Kip 1D«1 Dfi'lSK TK J*? WD nCJf 'NH wTE'ya TIJ? 

irrw ?]^ WD iBT? ny3iN3 ■•tos ."n^e* "pi lois in ni^oi 'KO 
n]73iK3 inrccn ik3 i« -wy nyaiwa inrarn ]hn'7 ne /idbd vb vd 
?'» Ko^3 ^td"33 i«3 .•]« 'a «D^y3 ^ie'33 -(jTh no '« .»Tpy 

e? Ct Uiibnah abote 2"n i«nV i«n3 ^ usiit i^J t. " Read JOroua. 

•» Read ^RD. 7" In ms. . . . "IW pT3 l6. !■ In mi. "WW SsK. 

?• yw. ,TPirV n'n oiro -sn "-up pT3 -an turns. u /s<rf. tn^ •m. 



144 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

D'owa T«2 'in 'nnisia i-d'o n!?it?n ^3 ■'inas 't em .ni^roi ^"n 

ntJin ^3 '36 ^y d'd n^im pxn ^a ':a Sj! idd n*?-*?:! 'iP ^anya 

.main ^d 'jb Sy n'o ?*n^itrn pwn ^d 'id by ise inij i.tpk 

'31 ,'^D 'in K3D ."IDJ .njjup nwon rr^y «'3o 3Jit?3i ma 3"n cniaa 
D'liB K'riK iTDW '1 iDK Vj'jio m3 TUK ni'Tuei 'nan aicm Ko'n 
DV cnn^ iicya ■]« cnn ''roi n"?!*;! Dnien '"D'i «3n a'na .a-nie 
,n-D3 n'a nrmn ikd ^k maa D'd nniE?n ]hrh no ,Kn O'lioan 
K'n irK nnntsn Kip 'ok «3« ^1D'K1 nntro "ns «n isa j'' 'an 'R 
.ffiis aaV HDE'' ]"i Kjc i"n nna-o idi« 'in nnnc n irv nreo 
D'liDan Di'^ no 710-0!? k3'k niDio kS 'kt k'h nisiD mff nru 
«^ D'liBan DTI «Vk ?«niDiD ciiei Ke'rca .a"n -oa t'2 pw 

]KdS «Sk fa'ffD ]'K1 I'TB^ inK T3D nJBID 10«T JWD^ TTiT .niSW 

■■d: D'liBan btt d"m Dinin ids .id'o^ Ka'M 'kd ]'2'vm idst 
'ip .-'iiBst^ K30 ynw '^ no!; Q'-nEa "iisa (wom aina^i dico nasn 
•D'piDy D'D amei nnKan aTS nbn omin im r?^y dib^jk t 
Tioa n'lica naw^D nt?iyni ,DmD3 nDK^D pcnj? pK .-"3nD .3 
D'liBa TDi^ni □"iiBa 'toi^ ya .nyiap nxon K'3d Jiiaai ma 3"n 
l^TDi^ I'Ki D'iiB2 n3Ki>D I'ffiy fK^ ]'3o iTi .KiDJ .ntpys naiy 
DV ns ''ffiy ninsn 'lya D'atrrn n'liBn Dmn'n p by ■kjp aiiBa 
minnB' nno i"'D td^ji «3 b''i nn»Di nnot? iim {?in^ ^»y nyaiK 
"K ^l?aT OTBi bbs ,b'?D^ itn d'ti dib nnt?D bb2 nnotr ina mm: 
^un njnD '?3 ik ^un nano nai oiDn no otbh j'ya »bn p nnx 
Biy'Di 'i3'i {?Tn jKci'i .f|iii I'SHD \'Kv min iio^ni nawVo ni«' 
IK loyn^i ?iV:o naK^n n"n dijj'd aiyo 'Kdi .t^'d ^a '3t 'ko 
o'liB B'-iiB K'n« K^K 1^ KiD nasSoa ni3 'o-ei 'i''?a pTn iro^ 
•p« ■■'Bk p d« cmin id nb fj'pnc .oniB k'hk 'dj «3n iib'oo 
n^'pya "iid« b"' no o"' Kip idk oupiin i idm kS« tu ^aK 

.p D'lIB IK iniD CEi ^aK 1T31 n3«^B 

mBi!6i nmyD t or !j33 d'iid3 nine'Vi ^3»^ T'S'^n ."'ino ^ 
TOD layi 1 TDK jS wo nniyc nyaiK .«-idJ .in-ins^i jn-ie^ 
.DT ^aa nmyo t iid^^ nnocn nntfo o-oys 't D-Tiaa ainan 
?nta nr b& ]rib po vb3 raa '-nai 'wm t'3 T'a ''n3n 'wn kd'ki 
,n^i<n a'D'n 'i» riK «-ip tok ?'Di 3-' '3n 'k .t?":^ la 13 Knp ie*( 






U. PROVENfAL PARODIES 145 

.mc m'ub 13 ^n miBa i03 nspa mot!6i nini?^i h\3»'7 
TVith nrnatrw vioi .d'iid rmyoa nintp^i ^i3«'? o-a^n pai un 

t nrcD 'D" oniK nipj^ S"n rp-inKV nnDSE" I'loi .nnsBi nnoffi Vn 

.nnoffi 

rVwac -iv ■*BKi ,Q'niB n-njJD3 D'aij^D nuini* yy^n ."Jno .5 
mp new lojfi i ^D^t j"? k3d .tnci .]''?'pan *"jffo ninsi «^ 
ainan nan omota r^xn n'Ton 'C hk D^p"; anai oaoiai oaroa 

»«'[S3^] 'in orrim, kdv Va*? ^'in djdi ?]^io nst? .nain D'aot 
S? in^ r^°' -^'o nTij!D3 Timn 'ji t'' mijJDa pio'i 'J '^n ;Htsr 
.ma m't:V 12 V'n nta nr 
h(pint7 TO) 'Jnmea or "jaa my3SK3 pint?^ i^a^n .''ono .6 
pvw «*niin^ipn pinci 's'a pim?a pne* k^ ^a ioik Dj?^a t 
*VI I1P3» TK TO 'TQJ .irQin 'T K3' nS miSH pinCl TBHTK 
ly nniDa myasK pins'!? i'jd yins''? 'O'ai k^i nic D'yaEf )aa '3W 
TtMC kV i^ap [Esther x. 27] "o'Tin-n ^sp^ iD'p,, '«ia '1 ntmar 
^« nnp3 p'vn : pica nijiasKn nnipa ainan ib idt jKa "jap »% 
pTrn D'riBB' I'lap >d': nnipi n-nsc vi^'p .''B'ns nnipi KXf 
"[naBfi] pTni D'HEC T'^p ;n nmpi KatPi n'nB» pap ,1 nmp3 
^H^?DySa '11 Kop Kin «ySE 'Koa .nmsa myasw pint?!) jtoo 'i nmpj 
^^■DK ff' lao DjfSa 11 miDoS d« »' lao nop Kin oi^ainonK n tdk 
^^rUD Dj?^a '11 ,miooa a'na i^api mioa!' dk v lao p"n .Kipe^ 
I^^T? roi iKa .'51 ,'ai .-p K'lOD'ja n'V cm 'na ^api «ipo^ d» v 
Inun^n pncap 'b] niiisn pinpas- a"j ^ijias« '3 pinsaff n'* airon 
pna na pnt? h^ 'd '73 to'? nnK ]KaD .^n'smK pirwap 3"^ 

79 The ms. 11 Ulegibte in this pl&ce. 

k Ref] nwVD as required by conlexl two linei below. 

<i In ins. "in. «■ Wanting in m*. *3 In mi, DniBS. 

^ A maiginal note explaining Itial Ihc words mPSlli, TtiTlbtl, TVTIK and 
nnti ire names of games The copyisi, however, has carclesily embodied it 
to the texL Foi the explanation of rhese terms, tee note 89 below. 

•S Supply msaiK. a. below the expteition WnW 1 fnltwaO n\ 

W In nu. nir^wa pinwV »7 /diJ. O'lV rrrpy S8 Wanting in mt. 

*9 In the mi. the reading is Twr^tt pinraw '^1 jiiiisn pirwac a"i- The 
games ennnerated in this passage are dice (n^pnSK), cards (m''1>), backgsinaion 
pmni-r) and chess (TmK). The translation of dice by rlJiaSK. while ely- 
Bologically incorrect became the name foi this game in all Romince langua{c« 

10 



1^6 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



pnim Sa ppe t tm .Enica nnsnn nvmt? yain las wn pmi 
lion^ pnt?' nDK:» niyT niyiDW iniK y)raoo i^k aw .tdc^ o*i«3 
pDn n'lp pen 'no ,[job xxxviii. 7] jroi?' kS s^cju m«pn mp 
.□•niD 9'ni iDiK 'in noin mpnt? an im'H inn lan .n^'M ntnp 
.ni2"n D-ffi r|«i DV3 nnijE'^i n^''?a inoD ccb^ m« a'^n '^ifiD .7 
B-nin'n i^api lo'p 'ie ciisn ora inoo et)e6 ms a^n -iri .KTDJ 
no '^K 'iTK niV' cycn tdwji .Dn'ijy o'l'jjn ^a Svi Dpt ^pi UTvby 
•nc^n ?ni3"n o'ca iki i'jdi .nPK n'l'? ik3 *;« nt?K n'l'? ]^n^ 
^3 '^'113 'T tm .on'^v kS« iohs kV dh'^jk ,Dn'^ Di^an lei^ 
njnm itd' h^ onati ■:» d'-di a'sa n'!; i"in oniBa ineo trepon 
.nni in s'ijaa d-b'jjji D'^-ot: ibmj laa nn -di tdi^ dki 



U derived from the Latin i/nre, lany neveclheles:! be defended on the grouad 
tbtX dice are cubes of a lingei's breadth eacb. It is also possible that 
I11]!33{* is a cbirogripbic error for rtWSHt, ni dice ore iniunlly made of bone or 
ivory. But while the etymology of ni);3:iM is nnccrtain, the £ame sij^ified 
by it is made certain from the context. In the vowel points of the word bip 
(Esther ii. 27), says the parodist, are indicated the points of the ripaSJi. 
Hirek corresponds to the single point, Sheva to the double points, Kibbn; lo 
the three points, Hitek and Kibhuf to the four points, Shev« and Kibbof to the 
five points and the three vonels together to the six points. There can be no 
doubt then that rlp3SM are dice, as these also are marked on eak.b tide wiita 
black spots from one to six. Again, in playing with three dice the greatest 
numbei of points one can score in one thiuw is eighteen, when each of tht 
dice is thrown with the six spotted side upward. Hence the stateucnl 
"nlpaiTK '1 pynaia n"" airsn 7^ lOI IXS". The translation of cards by n-a 
Deeds no explanation. The expression J^nilln pmplt!' 3"! ha.s reference to 
the fifty-t*o cards that constitute a pack. TlffT'S is either an error for TBTU 
or another spelling for the same game the invention of which i« ascribed to 
Ardeshir Badekan (See Low, Lcbnimlter p. 317). Since this game is simiUj to 
or Ibe same as chess (See Kobul, Amch and Jutrow Diclionaiy a. v. limi) 
it is played with thirty-two pieces. For this reason I read -t-GnlM pffWSe 3"^V 
My reason for identifjing nun^r.T pinw with Backgammon is twofold. TaW, 
because it is known from Chaucer that the early name of Backgammon wax 
"Tables" (Sec Bohn's Hand-Bottk of Games. London 1867 p. 381), and lecondly 
because Backgammon is played by two persons, each furnished with fifteen 
men, or thirty pieces in all, and thirty it just the number wanting to complete 
the number 133, which, according to the parodists, these four gam ca make Dp 
in pieces or points. The latter reason justifies me also in supplying pinBQO *> 

9" In ms. PUK ^Ip . . , ^lO!^ prE'. 

91 Ibid. o'liB na,. 



' Ibid. ^^33, 



II. PROVENCAL PARODIES 



147 



.•jtrn 1183 iDD jiDKT T1H3 nie»!ji nwB^i ijiDK^ j's'-'n .-^^riD .8 
nnpi nnBi ^3« Kb dk voa b3« ipy ny3i«3 d>iidk O'ist no3 
nit? ^33 KTp io« MO'n '31 '^•ti ':n ma .tnOJ .ncya -djj sb 
"rron n^K ,nbKn Kip ion dc'tj« i ioh .Tsa id 'bk '3n 'k nj»i 
KT3r«o n'«T TOi .niDi sro mh 'oa T' 'sn 'k .□■inK sbi Y? 
P'3io IB namw .D'jrsK^ nunoi n^jo tripo n cr pp )3'3Tb !'■» 
mop jn:D3 jnano i:'(<» b '(<i3 i pit .]rD3 ^n ^3 me' \yff 
Trah inv osnnn hut nam p-na 'nn ^k siv ib k3 noDir nmss 
em .D'iiD3 101K in inv orm pns nvn^ ixk 'jick .Down 

,12»* bBP3 D'Ttryi D'31 53n>Dno3 b3Dn Jfli 3'n3T 'KO 'KIS -I 

maiV i3ir b»3 d'tcj) iki ,d'iib3 D'SI n-onos S3on ]ri 'ncK 

.wa'iiiao □'13^3 nxan t nnn ByiDnbi K'pjn va ono 

Tinni n3»n ,d'iibt ktodo Hp'bci ■«?v nysmb iib ^^ pirt 

.iy^ 'H' "n^K 11133 '"jiMi T'baa .omna Tiit^ 



vnpT\ nou 

.cniB roBD b» 



vn 



imy b jian- mjra mvn Kions sn^am msc cnnn'i hjin"" 
^l6:y3 .Sktbt "jsa «3i nnn3 «-n>Kb ]i3nmn3i Ii3"n3 .Tntro!? 

II'0»3T HT6ti nSy TQ'Kl K31 **Kn"SD «,T 3np 1DI31 
» irODJf ^31 nKt?3 JWT .K'DIM ^33 "p3n' .(WS'jV ""D^J?^ 

';jw Kmisn ^3^1 «:b .k'JSidi w'j'tfa «*iui .«tb'33 ,kd3Kt 
inp TDSi «i)Tin2 Kicb ]i3b Krr ji'-bsD ]w psi byi bmtr 

llPaiOll .T)(tril "pj-l K3BJ n'Sy M31BDbc' »TV .pa K'DDia miDp 

|i;^ Bibn B'S' 01S& ncny .]i;k b«itr ba byi ]inn' lOBjn bSi 

133 hS'BT Kn^D BJ) «D' IB I'l^f ""^B'l .«0r^ l^n ««? '33 

.p« iio«i .3'-?) IDI31 K^ayn nn-cm uS nh«^ 



«i /U. 0*Bra ^>D3n. M So in ms., probabljr for O'lpu. 

« The «wne «s 'HW) *" ^^ C dnmk, from T). 

^ Retd xrt"^ a routed kmb ttoSecl witli r*w and onialted m»t. See 
W. I. *. 
n In na. m^pVi. e^ /iid. \\5ys\ meu. 




f4» 



CHAPTER HI 

THE VERSES AGAINST GAMBLERS ASCRIBED TO BK 

EZRA, AND THE PARODY OF LEON de MODENA 

Besides appearing in the numerous editions of the JHD TID, tiie 

Verses Against Gamblers have been reprinted in the foUofftng 

worlcs; 

(1) T^HD of Moses Kimhi, Mantua 1563 {Cat. Bod. no. %lt}S\. 

(2) Kleiner Brantspiegel, 1657 (Cat. Bod. no. 5700, 8). 

(3) nrrOtPl miK 'D, Leghorn 1786. 

(4) M. Pinner, Grabsclirifh-n der beruhmtesten Manner . ■ - 
nebst Catalog von ^Sq hebr. Drucken imd Handsckriften. (Berlin 
1861), 8°, p. 49. The text is the same as that in the Frankfurt 
ed. (1794) of the JJHQ IID. 

(5) TJDH 1867. p. 318 by Ch. J. Gurland. 

(6) Ibid. p. 350, by BO lajt IID'D, according to the text of (3). 

(7) DniBn mj« Calcutta 1889, 8°. [ii] + 34 p. This booklet 
belongs to the collection of Judeo-Arabic in the library of Co- 
lumbia University, and since it is not mentioned by Bacher {Zw 
neuesten arabischen Litteratur der jfuden, in Zeitschr. fur Hth. 
Bibliogr. VII, p. 87, 1 13, 148) it may be described here. !t opens 
with two poems, one beginning 'jnot?ni '3'IK ^D ^Jf WKT 'JOf 
with no^B' in acrostic, and the other beginning JlTl nso IIS with 
llffC ]3 miy in acrostic (p. II). After these poems comes the book 
proper, giving the historj' of Purim in the Judeo-Arabic dialed 
(p. I — 32). The Verses Against Gamblers, and a wine-song 

beg. neip D'liB nva ino with pin j'sin ne'e in acrostic follow to 

P- 33. ^nd on p. 34 is the oft reprinted poem beg. ^M ^Ton "f5W 
IDW with nD^B" -a ]Vn OmaK in acrostic. 

(8) David Kohn, K"i!y ]aK Dma« '3"! Warsaw 1894. voL i, 
p. 161 — 162. This is also almost identical with the text of (3). 

(9) ia-iy mt? -jioa 'D jnnu n-i3« p. 65. This book is described 
\iy Bacher, /. c. p. 115, no. 17. 

(10) DniB niiD mo p, 10—11 (See Bacher, ibid. p. 116, no. 19). 
The text of this ed. is the same as that of (7). 



m. THE VERSES AGAmST GAMBLERS 



149 



The reason for reprinting here the Verses and the parody 
is to give the reader for the first time the text of these poems 
with all the variants. In the following transcription, the text is 
taken from the Frankfurt ed. (1794) of the jno 110 f. 26, and 
the variants are according to nos. (3), (7) and (g). The texts 
of (i) and (2) are inaccessible to me, the text of (4) is the same 
as that of the 1794 ed. of the J?10 IID, the text of (5) is too 
corrupt to deserve comparison, the texts of (6) and (8) are 
copied from (3), and the text of (10) is the same as that of (7). 
Besides the textual differences noted below, the verses are also 
differently arranged in (7) and {9), as indicated by tlie numbers 
on the margin. The variants of (3) are enclosed in parenthesis, 
ihosc of (7) in brackets and those of (9) in braces. 



.D^apnsn i:i jna^ ^wj^ ■ 



.DnpC nj;i2t?3 ,lilp3 TllDl ,131Jf hy fj'DVl ,13100 I'B' .2 

•wna vD'i .nn njr "3 oii .n^^s' »b n^iy^ ,n"ii' '3 3i6?n"i .3 

J^D ,Tjisi '3y Kini o'3' vh impc ,Ty ^k tjid i^'i .4 

.miun t?p3» ,n3iDai nDB3 .nsoai liffs ,»3i ly aiani .5 

.D'-inx^i 1^ ,yn" inym ,yiip naai ,pno ifKn .6 

.cnio3 'ij'j!3 ,iin NSC' v6\ ,pmn nain k^3 ,]iiEn3 S3toi .7 

rnoP3 ,inio cv wjj'i ,iniK D'K:it? vn^ ,in'3 ipjm ^31 .8 

' .D'Tt?31 



II 


■5 


■s 


■7 


•3 


.6 


.6 


■9 



1. , {rrnip ifi'vix . . . pnwnnj ,[mt» . . . pn»o.i] .(h-bp , . . insoi . . , n-aipa) 

2. .[jnipuBa . . . uiji «i'Dvi!] .(nsaca) 

3. iai] !fi-^\ya vrm* "3 . . . oSijrti . . . awn'] ,(D"ini3 i-o- 'a .n-iB' k^ TO'ai) 

.|d"iiio )I3B'i ,n"io' its' 

4. . \a-^n . , . I'j* Jt^ mipa tji^ I'jtB 7^'] .Ifi-^n . . . Tjf^ vpo) 

5. .JD'-iiBn ttpa* .nawS noes .nai -ip awi ,naBi man p»| ,[aiBf*) 

6. ,{o"in«Vi 1^ pir jnj ,([h"-inH^T ibsfS piv p -a]] 

7. .[iTO , . . -^a . . . hzn' Toni} ,[«SD' di ,11m . . . ''js , . , S:«'] ,(11'b) 
B. .[. . . O'ww B^a ura 'jai i*pii*ts! ,[inio o\- o'bsbi . . . o-itiip ir-a 'ffut ^3) 



ISO 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



The text of (7) has also eight additional verses, which arc 
reproduced here, with the number of the verse on the margin: 

.D'T33^ nam ,^nD vnwm ,nm in-ao pia pniBTH .7 

.D'ii3« 2^ 12*? ,D'o3 m ^filE' ,0'it? ''B TDB' ,o'ntP3 pmtpni .8 

.nnap^ ^an .ntPiTn nam .ncin inosn .ntri^ca pmvm ^ 

.omion i'i2 noin^ nai' s^ .nu yaP' wl' ly^ 'nKBNBa pm»ni ,10 

.D'-tfiDtia naan ,jmin in»« dji ,voo" iDsna ,jiot? n«np ■>^3 ,iz 

.Diapn i'? [133'] U3' ,n3'pi nipi ijii ,n3"TDi noop .na'K naioi .13 

.onntff TV aiyo .vii't? nam ,innv iiDiBi ,in'oy ^lui .14 

.DiiDtp pv P3 .DrrpVn ^oia ,nncj) 3C ^3 ,Qn3 Dsam .16 

Ed. (9) contains nine verses the fourth of which reads as 

follows: nn' in'Ti .vvay iM3*> ,inny ^oibi ,irav nio and the 
eighth reads fK ,n^'3o K^po nacn ,n^nn pinE"^ .n^oan 101 taif 
.onai TKl ^D^( The tex-t of Kohn (8) has one additional vase 
at the end, viz.: in p^ ptn H?Bi T3jf »'« mana 7^0 Sdl '13 3flJ 
lEnp D»3 p3im ,^^t3. 

THE PARODV OF MODEKA. 

.D-jprnn n2i7a mn .B 

,n"p: [nan^o] in3«^D ,K'3ip3 pnsn .1 

.D'lPB' t?'M ^33 ,n'n 1D131 

,i:inV ^aK^ ,i3ip^ 310 tuti j 
.onpp [noK] 'TDsa ,131)? ni nrn 

,rr';s'i inioa rriTi nam .3 
.Dnno pins'? irin^ ^'3^l 

O'Jfsi im Sn3 Ty ^33 nr 'Va 4 
.Q''vi3 3^TD Tyca p'nsi 

naiD3 ipnsa ,naia nwri .5 
.[DniBi] D''iiE3i nDB3 ,n2i3n 'o'a 

,jjn3^ 3130 ,ijn3i yi ikd .6 
.onnw i'1131 ynei n3in 
,111133 [iiopi] initn .piDna [^swi] ^aiK .; 
.[O'TiM ^3<jf3] tjnwa Dis ova jina Toiyi 



• Read nCDBS ^ DDDDS which is 



a for dice. CI. Td. Bkb. Su- 




IV. PARODY OF A LETTER OF CREDENTIALS 

.■\ra»ho T^m ,imi nt pins ,8 

The readings enclosed in brackets are according to the edition 
of the PTO IID by M. A. Pfeiffer, Wittenberg, 1665. The version 
of Pinner (/. f.) is the same as that of the Frankfurt edition. 



CHAPTER /K 
PARODY OF A LETTER OF CREDENTIALS 



1^^ This manuscript, found among a collection of letters of Italian 
Rabbis, originally belonged to Rabbinovicz (Cat. 4, no. 2S), after- 
wards came into the possession of Halberstam (no- 431) and is 
now in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; i leaf 
14 — 1/2 X 14 — 1/4 inches. Square characters, 25 lines as indi- 
cated by the vertical lines. The division into paragraphs, though 
not found in the ms., is adopted here by reason of the uniform 
rime which marks the end of each paragraph. The lower left 
hand comer of the leaf is destrojed, but apparently nothing is 
missing, except, perhaps, additional signatures. 
apm ,nnat ddm nnipi ny^ 'a ,Kmp 'sin d'^ij nan n^n .1 
.KID "WM niy Hin my nw mV' nno '3 ncDJ nnsai ,nn*A2 
,nB'iw rami nt?Ki .ncniMO my: «30'i 1 nrn np^h nip ^^l .2 
n-ojfmi ,nffD3 nnaa rr^K ht^ .nE-Ki ns nnsm ,nt?TUi nio'sK 

..TID3 r6KD I n»'7t? D'is n-6'i hod .3 
•vmn .Kip» 13 pp» ,mi33y ]3 n^oa ,in3 13 ]so oniDP nVm 
^3 3m^ w I mpn^i ptci riK brh ^ta '3 .miojfi dito -thu .4 

pTD '3 .aifaa roDoi ,DTf3i» mp!?D an^hy dtjj noi aio no 
'3'T3 tryiD I k!> m .n-yy ^lyn p-aai .dtjti* on n-ann .5 

.nsoi von 
UTns ^DD .ncsoa tcw ir^innn ^3 hy .noaon 'nni ovn 'm 
nsTwi nDip« itSK I o'Tsapn iha '3 livop iiyi .ncnn ir-n .6 

.rmnji nSa nv nancn "pn ^k 
TTR K3 Bunui ,1133 BTH^i' niins pK 1T3 npi liTyac ahiTi 



wtri npriD ,nipTp2 nan nasjji ,na^ tvt\ kih '3 | irai ^j? .7 

.nsnoi 
w IKS ,n'>inH cn33ji') icm nis h^un -laayn o niyi ri«t 
D'y^i B'^inn inn '3 ,n'iifi crn init< icjin ,d''-i'B'i nnoBa .nniDK .8 
.»s' lain 1 ona □'!» 'io^ .at-iia-ia i'?3K ncKi -inc ■'Va ,D'1id3 .9 
wa .B'lopi □''^113 ,a''^innn ino 'a i>'bb' it?K ciaayn td 
,D'3pn D'lyi .D'Honi | D'JBinfnw .d'Js ncia 'Ira lin^a "pia .ro 
DJ ,D":c»i D'Di3K diaiai ,D'3iyo,i ^a ^lan'? .D'sai nuK 

I .KSID ^a Ql .D'SIOI DJ o'lwn 

DTs^tsn nai ,mon •'b b i'?at< ,mn ain dii»^ 'a nvnai .11 
^TTjjn bs in^'i I m^va ^-ni ,myi iinins nt li'nwiai ,rnuii .i; 

.nsy lan itdw 'a leiKa 
I ai^yi D"3y ,Dmon k3 lyoi? ,B'T»n )d ihk ncs^i ip'i 
B*jjt?T onaajjn p aipj^ ppi aio inK ^inn '*? e'' .anvai a'-api .13 
v»^ inn ab^ K'n ain nSya | n'liDsn n'aa wn ^K ,Bnn« .14 
in^p la^ ,n"iDn 'OKpn antpyi o^nbtai ^i^k aiaaa .anioon 

.«soi '^iK ,Bn-iiD B'ja rwfbjs | D"ni^» ,15 
D'ho Tyac n'^^p nanr" uai nisa 'oinn un:« uoaan ^a^ 
D'BfiyiB yii .B-ffTp 'lai d'B'cbi B'^py a't?:K pn^ ] m^ff^ .16 
.naoi I a'!"? in lyoi^c nitry^ ,a^na 'lai .17 
I [439 = 1679] B'sip nksai »k Ksn 'a natpa iik virh T'' dim 

I h'yha i"-u Miiptr la Kjnp B'ha tj? ns aninn bimi .18 

I ^piD m 'oix Nais ja sania Tjnrn biki .ig 

I 'i"s' i^Dj? w'uV'a ns-an a-Tpsac i-ysn '3« .30 

I n'^'h '•'72 B131BC K^i ion annji ii-cy lims w .21 

I nno nam miam yaaa aj .22 

I ^rn mffa nn ennii t- biti 'ji^b 'ditd .23 

I ne-iBi n'lai «"KVa nan ab Tjnn ^4 

•Vinn nv nia WK^a i^iaj? Tjjsn .25 

Of the two cities mentioned in the text, the first C'no (i. e, 
dead) is perhaps the Hebrew for Moret, a town in the depait- 
ment of Seine-et-Marne, forty miles southeast of Paris, and the 
second "i'ha 'Bill: for Montmelian, a town in the department 
of Savoie. 



V. THE HAGCADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



CHAPTER V 

THE HAGGADAH OF JONAH RAPA 

The peculiar title: Pilpul ZejHOH Zemanim Zemanekem 
is either a play on the c3Cpression Jiy aSsi pipi py 
(Daniel vii, 25) or has reference to Talmud Babli, Me- 
S 2 a, where the question is raised why it is written {Esther, 
^c 31) nrriota xhv.T\ n'Tsn 'o' nn n"pV and not jcn or tuma. 
Ail the existing manuscripts of the parody begin with the con- 
junctive phrase ni noiy^ m TK D3, And though the construction 
is rather peculiar, it does not necessarily prove that the manu- 
scripts are defective. It would be more singular were all the 
Euscripts defective up to the same word. 
In the study of this satire I made use of three mss. 
. belonging to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 
which I designate here by A, B and C. Ms. A was 
purchased from David Frankel of Husiat>'n (Austria), who gave the 
following erroneous description of it in his Catalogue 5 (Husiatjn, 

1904), no. 917: x^Binur^a noD^&min idd 't:'VKVci?''nn:iDK ia;„ 
26 T'3 2° '"PT 37a crrnwi^nni an'jnjD ^3 ^j? .nn'oi \xwhi 
'H'BT The ms. has in fact no title at all, and consists of 26 
leaves besides two fly-leaves. The handwriting is not Rashi 
style, but Italian Rabbinic, and the size is not 2° but 4". The 
first two leaves are somewhat mutilated, and on the fly-leaf is 
found the following inscription: "Sanson Lazaro Bachi di Car- 
mognoUa nel anno miUa otto cicnto trentasetta Dico— 1S37". 
The entire ms. is vocalized, but tlie punctuation is so faulty, that 
it suggests the work of a school boy practicing his lessons. 
Mss, B and C belong to the Sulzberger collection. Ms. B was 
bought from Ephraim Deinard. who wrote on the cover: TED 

imnn an nnjo cnna kyjid vjinsd orriDT o'lot jot ^ib^b. It 



■ A eopbemism for C-itUI to e*kde the Rnssiu 



r (See Z. H. B. 



"54 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



has no title-page. Paper, 4'. i8f. Ital. Rabb. char. Ms. C is the 
dentical copy described in Cat 6 of Ch. M. Horowitz (Frankfurt 
a/M. 1884), p. iii, no, 76 as follows: -l2in HB-K «DT mv Xlin,, 

□■"QUn naiDK m Drraoi aria pi by b^sha wm (1380) up nwa 
"4° (1834) ixpn 'PD npnya rdd ba niir: ry. This is evident 

from the title-page and colophon of the copjist, which are re- 
produced here in full. The former reads as follows: D^TBilp,, 
npon nit? i3"n 't!"E'n i^«^ o'pn nit?2 imn ^:?K WJT rUV mil 
D-'JDT jDi ^v "jiD^B mm .en'oiji n-otrn nx'-ia!? D'vaiKi nsoi d-8^ 
njiDtt 1J3 i^in 2310 ,nrmD 'ss n'i"3jfn ^32 tnnn 717 by ,nn'as 
mp3i D'tppr nci niinsn .cjrrm vni DniipB mim ,Drr2i3i d'tsiw 
.anncao ■'^ani pi^'ipn v^s^n nsp nijwo ^y D'ijJtPJi ,cn'^'D3 vrzsy 
'OS T'an 'pioo ii"sot?ni UDm .nn'Snotp^ qj-d' 1'3 lyr vh tpk 
■jV Dm:ip Mn ,nn''2sy naiy !j31 'n yn^w b^ naw' ,DrrniteD 
onS in 'n »:» .DnnDia nwBai vbp^ 13 ims on^PBii ,aTmDsr 
■'nno .nn^ oSioa a^n an^ in d.t'T ncyoa .dh'^'jjjd vai d^jies 

&'» '330 D"» "ryi D'-ain ISS' ''D"'3?D1. The colophon is worded 

as follows: Dm D'jjs Ki)p t?3i fjis ^30 Dvn -min nun ^T31„ 
no3 '3 naavh n-iirnn ^k nK'Jsn nijfD ni'X i6n npnjina «so' ssorr 
T3*a irw Byo3 luni ]&■' ansa mnw npnjjno nN'sin*? ^nyy nijrr 
^B« '1)31 i!7B«rT 'S3 'napn n«i ^sai I'a' 'd nwivt ikd^ ip mtai 
niKwa 'i'jn .□'i"3y3 p inns p ns'rna in nvjjB nsnn Ta n^y 
I'P pin'i nw^Bi imino "jkti 'at?n mi^i 'ii tk' niKTinn ^16 
nn« iBD nv (^i'?«) o-om nn tjva npnjinn nabar^ -nm .niK^n 
an TV 'miB is'^ ■[yn'' vjb^ p-n .p"B^ [1834 = 594] pTsn jyo^ 
Tyt nmasn m^k ^k iipa p'nynni ^^■Tl:^ «in 'it* .ni«an (?)mji7 
."niNn i? nti ,01? 'iao ,D» 
The ms. has also the running title of D.TiDI D'iOt ]Dl and is 
paginated. Paper, 8°. [i] + 23f. Ital. Rabb. char. Ms. A is the 
oldest of the three mss , and Ms, B is almost an exact repro- 
duction of it, varying in but two or three instances. Ms. C was 
copied from a very old and faded manuscript, but who the 
copyist was is difficult to decipher from his nom de plume Tyi 
nt? 'iao DC We merely gather, that he was bom in 1769 and 
that he completed the copy of the parody on the first day of 
Elul SS94 A. M., i. e. September 5, 1834. 



V. THE HAGGADAH OF JONAH KAf A 



155 



In this connection it may be useful to enumerate all 
Other exist- the Other mss. of this parody which have come 
ing Mm. (q my notice: 

(1) Drrani O'lot p\ by ^IB^B Paper, S". S8f. in Parma (Hed. 
Bid. viii, p. 150), identical with the copy described by De Rossi 
mhis" Bidiiotlieca Judaka Antichristiana" (Parma 1800, p. 94— 95) 
as follows: "Rapa Jonae. TVilTi Agadi seu Narratio historica de 
Jesu ortu vita, mysteriis ac morte. Ms. Ut majore hebdomads 
nobis sancta in usu est apud judaeos lectio Agadae paschatis, 
ca ipsa suam hanc Agada suis iegendam auctor propomt. satiri- 
cam et tnfamissimam, in qua Christ! ortus, vita, my.stcria, mors, 
chrislianorum festa, nativitas, circumcisio, passio, pascha, resur- 
rectio, quadragesima, bacchanalia depinguntur et irridentur. E.x 
proxi quadam sacra, quam affcrt et Vercellis viget, suspicari 
licet a judaeo Verceliensi esse profectam." 

(2) DTTJOl D'lOt IDt •?» ^IB^B TBD formerly in possession of 
L S- Reggio and now in the Bodleian (Neubauer, Cat. Heb. Mss. 
2221, 13). "It was copied from an autograph copy by YocI ben 
Binjamin Luizatto at Gradiska, fin, llOJl fl'T 5529 — 1769" (Neu- 
bauer, ibid. col. 767), 

(3) nn'Mt D'lOl pi h-9 T^-XSS Paper. 4°. zgf. Ital- Rabb. char, 
in the library' of the Breslau Seminary (Zuckermann, Katalog 
der Seminar-Bibliothtk. Breslau 1870. p. 12, no. 100), which is 
undoubtedly identical with D.TMlt O'iDt pt ^Jf miT mentioned in 
Cat. de la lib. M. Leon V. Saraval (Trieste 1853, p. 103, no. 
xxxix). 

(4) Dn':Dl D'JCI IDI ^p b-^sht "written by Joseph Menahem Treves 
(D"3"1B), begun in Turin, and finished 26 lyyar (April 29), 1790. 
in VerccUi, Ital. Rabb. char- 4". 28f, without tide page"; formerly' 
in the library of Halberstam, no. 234, now in the Montefiorc 
Libran* (H. liirschfeld. Descriptive Cat. of the Heb. Mss. of the 
Mentefiore Library. London, 1904, no. 454). 

(5) ^win jns vm\v\ roiow ^a3 )iDTpo ofriDt d*3bi pt SibSb 

4» nDB ^ mnn 11021 {.Cat. Rabbinovicz No. 10, Win non 'H, 
p. 31, no. 140). Ms, no. 339 in Cat. Frdnkel No. XI [Husiatyn 
1906], which I had for inspectioiK is undoubtedly the identical 



156 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



copy of Rabbinovicz. It closes with the colophon h2 ob&^l^ 

(6) DH'Sai D3DI TOI by ^IfiifB 4", i7f. (Ch^m M. Horowitz, C<i/.6, 
p. iii, no. 74), 

(7) nmot D'iDt pt ^ blB^D 4*, 4Sf., ItaL char. (J. Kauffmann, 
Cat. 25, no. 158). 

(8) G. Trieste had a copy of this parody in his possession 
(See Serapeum. 1853, p. 297). 

(9) Steinschneider is also known to have possessed one cop/ 
(See Heb. Bil). viii, p. 150). 

(10 — II) Ephraim Deinard has two copies, both of recent 
date. At the end of his edition of Chasdai Crescas' IJW; 
D'lXUn npy (Kearny, 1904) he states, that one of these mss. 
consists of 37f 4". Ital. Rabb. char., and gives a short extract 
from the closing part of the parody (ibid. p. 93 — 96), which 
corresponds to f. 25b — 26a of Ms. A. This extract enables me to 
say that the text of Deinard's ms. is the same as the text of Ms, A. 
Among other points of similarity I also find, that both have the 
meaningless phrase ^33 I^TI U 131? VS, the correct reading of 
which is found in Ms. C as '32 mn DS lit!" DP (Comp. Ps. 
cxxxvii. 1). 

(12—13) Prof. S. Krauss {R. E. J. vol. 48, p. 84) describes also 
a ms. of David Kaufmann with the following superscription: 

"I'bip TjjQ KB! niv noD ^'t Tin ist,!? nn'iot D':ot pi iv b\t^z" 

4", 25 p. M. Weisz {Cat. D. Kauftnann. Frankf. a. M. 1906) 
describes two mss., no, 304, 4°, 49f under the title JDI by blB^D 
onOBt D'iDI and no. 305 under the title orriDt ^3i blB^B. 

In accepting Jonah Rapa as the author of the parody, I 
^ merely rely on the statement of the copyist of Ms. C, 
ship. ^""^ °'* ^^ Rossi. There is no internal evidence to prove 

it. In the whole parody there is not one personal 
note. And De Rossi's conjecture, that the author lived in 
Vercelli, because he describes some customs of that town, 
is not convincing, since he shows equal familiarity with the 
customs of other places. Nor do I accept Krauss' assertioa 
as final that Rapa was a native of Casaie, since the inscription 



, THE HAGGADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



157 



upon which he bases his statement is by his own testimony neither 
legible nor in the same hand as the body of the ms. (R. E. J, ibidi). 
j_ In regard to the year in which tlic parodj' was written, 

Dale of I followed at first SteinschneJder, who first set it down as 
eompMi- ijSoC^K"*?' miDD p. 1 80). though later he expressed some 
■^••o- doubts on the subject i^Heb, Bib. viii, p. 1 50). 1 found, 
what I considered at the time, convincing corroboration in the 
title-page of Ms. C and in a passage in the body of the text, which 
reads as follows; HI nc D'piy ijnjK tck jrwi no ,nm« Kin no nn,, 
■3 an^i 1^1 '^ irran .ki'd \v:hi E'^jjoi Mst? o'iiitri nwo ts^pi «]^« 

."naW ni^'aH win (Comp. my article Parody in Jew. Enc. IX, 543). 
But on closer study of the parody, 1 came to the conclusion 
that this date is impossible for the following reasons: 

In a passage, describing the Easter procession of the various 
ecclciiastical orders of the Catholic Church, the following parody 
occurs (Ms. A, f. 9b): 



':«0''?D"lKp?1 1^« 

•roK'an i^k 
'"rsiEKpn i^K 



D'rw n^ioi jmtai 

BVB' ^TU Kiioai 

n'n» nin«oi 

D-ntr DTiBiDsi 



I Now, if the author had lived in 1380, he could have known 
ily of the Carmelite, Franciscan and Augustinian orders, which 
were founded in 11 56, 1226 and 1 265 respectively, but he could 
not have known of the Theatine and Capuchin orders, since 
these were founded in 1524 and 1528 respectively. 

Further on in the parody (Ms. A, f. 19b— 20a), the author de- 
scribes a quarrel in the streets of Madrid between the Jesuits on 
the one hand and the Alcantarin and Calatrava orders on the 
other. Here, again, we have proof of the late origin of the 
parody, since the Jesuit Order was founded in 1540, and the 
Alcantarin in 1555. 

Again, in enumerating some of the Sanctuaries of the Ma- 
(Ms. A, f- 2 lb), he mentions one in Varallo, a town in 
• b lb. A. ruv ii"*! i|hi, iBH«.B.i«i()V, «BdiBMt.C ihm i^mi 



158 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



the province of Novara, Italy, which undoubtedly has reference 
to the Sacro Monte, a place of piSgrimage founded in 1486. 

Still further (Ms. A, f 22 a), mention is made of Barbarossa 
ruler of Algeria, who died in 1546, and of the East India Company 
which came into being as late as 1600, 

In the face of such overwhelming proof of the late origin of 
the parody, I was obliged to ignore the statement of the cop>-ist 
of Ms, C, and once more to examine the passage in the text, 
cited above in support of its early origin. After due deliber- 
ation, the following explanation occurred to me as a solution of 
the difficult}'. In the autograph copy, the passage in question 
must have read as follows: lin^K ^&» rwt nO ^D1« KVl HD DT 
. . . n:i? CJapi niKtS V1 fpn ni ns D-B'iy, the 'tPl being an abbre- 
viation of tPE'l, a date which the author did not consider necessary 
to write out in full, living as he did in the seventeenth centmy. 
The copj'ist, however, mistook the TS for its numerical value of 
three hundred, J 

The year 1680 is, therefore, the only date by which we can 
reconcile all the conflicting arguments raised above. It also 
relieves us of another difficulty in which the date 13S0 would 
have placed us. For, if we accepted that date, we would have 
had to account for the fact, that no trace of the Rapa family 
has ever been found before the middle of the fifteenth centur>' 
{Das Centenarium S. % L. Rapafiort's, p. 394b; Carmoly, D'31iyn 
nST '331 p, 2— 3j Dn?np ny\ St. Petersburg 1897, p. 135). 

The contents of the parody, following the pagination 
of Ms. A. are as follows: 

(a) On Christmas, beginning h\\> nt noij)^ HI T« OJ 

. . miaj fiiij; (f. 1 a). 

*b) On New Year's Day, beg, Kin ;iB'tfn . . . ■'3'OE'n Ol'i "m 

nvsT\ is^rh urh (f. ib). 



Contents 
of parody. 



i I ma; be permitted to reniaik here, that this chapter was written long 
before Kraati published bis article, and that all the references to ibc same 

were inserted while the book wait going through the press. It is needless lo 
controvert his bjpolhesis that the author lived abont 1450, or even I55o{R.E.J. 
vol. 4S p. 92). 1 am certain that after reading t)ie above arguinenli Prof. Ivraosi 



THE HAGCADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



159 



(c) On the Carnival, beg. 'TJ?» l^VJSl nyisin orh mmn ^'?''K1 )K30 

njOTK nijnip mno^i njoi? nncwi ^bm .npon n'sai nrum jir 
(f. ib-3a). 

(d) On Lent, beg. T3'3 nriyn ITD (f. 3 a— 8b). This includes 
the passages on Palm Sunday beg. . . . Vc: abl^T rrn mP«T3 
. . . «n Bra (f. 4a— 4b), Holy Week, beg. D1'31 'i»n nV3 
pAOCaP 'yain OVai f^tPn (f. 4b— 6b), Good Frida)-, beg. 'HI 

vpn Dr2(f.6b— 8b), Confession, beg.: ...S«itp^ innoan IDWJVia 
orwon riK Dmnon I'rsn D'jJien p uSnanc (f. 8 a), and on the 
Blood Accusation, beg.: nnitin bun liV'^B-n O'DjiB no3 TV tdIji ta 
en I'D ^M Si3«^ ifho nt?npn imina (f, 8a— 8 b). 

(e) On Easter, beg. . . . T^TilpT] 'JBIKI B.TJJOD n^m (f. 8b— lOa). 

(f) Polemic against the New Testament, beg- ]ljf;t?3 13il ip"? nD3 
(f. loa—l^a). 

(g) Attack on the Christian Faith, beg. nipB^ ni'jim ni^'PO nos 
orp^, parodying the hymn U'^V BlpO^ nUlD mijjm nD3 in 34 
paragraphs (f, 17a — 22b), continued by parodying tlie rest of the 
Haggada, beg, riDSl nos mtt 'jy and going as far as the hymn 
m^^T (f. 22b— 25b). This includes an account of a religious 
war in the streets of Madrid, beg.: ntfO ttbV2 . . . TmKB2 ncyo 
(f, i9b^2oa) and a description of the celebrated sanctuaries of 
the Madonna, beg.: Uip'j "laj? ^la^ ll»n ^i» (f. 20a— 22a). 

(h) A narrative of events in Vercelli, beg, Til TiW nnjJl 

. . . 'bnTii2 ani^vBD im nV d':dk: "pei (f. 25 b— 26a). 

(i) A narrative of events in Rome, beg.; T!(D?B7 TS'S K D^S 

maiD non nn'n •n'ccnn (f. 26a— 26b). 

The following is a list of the New Testament passages 
controverted by Jonah Rapa, arranged in the order in 
which tliey occur in the parody, with references to the 
chapters of the second part of the ruiDK pwi of Isaak 
"' ben Abraham Troki in parentheses: 
A, Fol. 7a Matthew, xxvi, 39; xxvii. 46 (24, 26). 
„ „ Luke, xxiii, 34 (40). 

On Ihe olhet hwid, I z\t,A\j meknmrledEe my in- 
of Ihe geographic identilictlioiu in Extract 







STUDIES m JEWISH PARODY 



Ms. M, Fol. 13a Mark, xiii, 32 (31). 



Matthew, xii, 32 (l6). 



n 9-13- 



13b 



: et sq. (7). 



, „ xix, 16 (19). 

„ „ 15a „ XX, 28; Mark x, 45 (21), 

„ „ „ Luke, i, 26 (32). 

„ .. iSb John, ii, 4 (42), 

„ „ „ Matthew, xiii. 55; Mark vi, 3; Luke vi, 42(17). 

„ „ l6a Luke, xi, 37 (38J. 

„ „ i6b I Corinthians, xv, 24. 

„ „ i8a Matthew, v, 17; Luke xvi, 17 (10). 

g In conclusion I give here a number of extracts from 

Extracts the parody, some because they bear on the arguments 
from the brought forth above in section 4, some to .illustrate 
parody. ^^ difference in treatment between the Hizsuh Emu- 
nah and the Haggadah of Jonah Rafia, and others because of 
the historic interest inherent in them. The text given here is 
that of Ms. A, and the variae lectiones of Ms. C are given in 
foot notes. Passages found only in Ms. C are enclosed in 
brackets, while those found only in Ms. A are enclosed in 
parentheses. 

A. A PECULIAR CEREMON\' IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH ON GOOD 

FRIDAY (Ms. A f. 7 B) 

BiTM niKiD i3nt?a .iv'tjom jjmh kb-u itrKa f 'cn OTa n^TTTD 
•iraKi T»y in' ,\vrv\ njn narno ^2 DrrSyn n-Dni Spn^ 

cpin Q'jniD Da'?D na uv^^■pr\ lanwa .D'aicyon (nypn) rchru 
iniK na'^31 n^'po men o'js rmyib lanje" »' .(n'iWKin onjw k^) 
B'-mD c'jy a'' nsDo nnp^ w-wt\ una intt mpoai .on'moaa v»7\ 
,io3ya «in vtc*?/! a'^'? nt?j) iBna Dn'*?!! rw cna I'lm^i .aTnii^yo 
V':n sDTD^Ji a"''n O'DUaot? p'l .VT>ai ova 13 nn-na "ivB'B«m 
Tpn «'^iaj ^3a jrwiana '■nniK D'^KPiatf t?'i .-nn ^lna Tm wanna 



. , . vh». i Ibid. B-Vin. 

s In M». Ci ^|«J. 



^ jniM rs^vK 



V. THE HAGGADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



l6t 



ooiy ^ani triDn M^a wiv d'JP .itdsi mwa wian ap (ano) 



8. POLE!inC ON MATTHEW. IV, i 
(Mi. a. r. I3b-t4b). 



Compare Hissuk Emunak, Part ii. chap. 7. 

vrmm laion !>« ir' nt* min p'-nn im„ ;^n t p^B "tJiK'ooa Tiy 
DTJan^i DV D'jraiK niynn o 'n-i .jorn iniH no:"!? '-s'id noc 
•«5« nriK n^p^K )3 dm 1^ ^DK'l itiipn r^R aip i« ,3p'i ni>'^ 
nrr naS onVn Sv «^ '3 2'."i3 loxi nsy «ini .on*? v.t» d'hh^ 
n'3 mph ^v in-ani mpn -yi^ 13'^ini jtscfn inp^ mtki ;iji ni«n 
TQ3 "3 ,vi«^ [hod'?] "josv I'jffn noK D'p'jK ]2 BK il? loKi Bnpon 

3V.T1 .131 ^ll!^»' D'B3 Sj? ^Om ^33 "[1036 ^^ HIS' l'3Hte '3 3'nD 

IQwn inpS Tpi .M'p^K n n« iwn vh i-ns Tiy ^3x i"b» iV 
TDH'i ,D^^m ■sD^y3» nrs^o ^3 1^ n«vn i«d ni33 m ^v in^pni 
3'n3 p» -^ Ti?' 1^ TD« iKi .-h mnn»n d« ^V in« rbv. !?3 nn Vs 
cnppo n3 TT33K 133 'moK .'iiayn iniwi htd tp^k 'n ntt 
.T133D 'n lyjo nam oanosn 'jbd a'3t3Di 
3irn pn ne* inwn-si ,nnB33i operia nt '"tokoo 3B'n ITO^ 
■JU^ rai3D3i 3133 immjfn ^ki ,nmm a^ nD'Di?3 iyDB'D3 
.nnwi '333 '*nisi ^« h!?i [nrr] m« vip' '3 lyim u'3m .nnsin kj 
lo'^m 16 f lyT ,nncon pps rare) w'w rrtro k^i .T'n moi n'ooi 

nnnn nn'n n^ -3 nyiD kti ^nnosn njrjn «^i niKi33n 

n« nnn -nn i«„ Diipn iomdo 'npmrui 'roVn i^n '3 dj nnyi 
vu nn^3 D31 nii03J -. . . pen inin noj'S? na lanon V« rw 
.Taw *u mn '3 pmn^ 13 TiKsti t»« ^^^3 no niiwpi o'pn nmr6 



•" itid. on-«ra . . aTwo . . . ffp»3- " ** '*'■ 

*> la H*. C unsea -ran. n /ftrf. is "aTon ^« iTr w nrvi t-tlt »«■ 

M /*Mi inm. -J /»«/. cVum no^ooL ■" /&A tokd. 

It 



l62 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



.mo -Ton 0333^ by ma "ov 
p'son Kin •ai Hbr\ ,Ti3t?n ■sinDi'c la pis no [udd] rwp Tipi '2 
main'ji aniai^ ns ,iop n^i itshd ^nin Ss i3^a "trw 'uV 
.loyoa D'iinin "a'n6 hem ,onyi/ 
Bi'?3 ,)rDj'7 -pix nn [onnaT 'b^] wn d'p^jk p dk 3"k (j^) narpi 'i 

.]TpD nanffw poo tr 
.]^■^V nyi V""' •T'!! K^i ^'fifi /P'^'ba ivnn "mKn3 mo naio tat 1 
'iTVffoi i^KT ,ni ^y TVD ■« "n^'^ 'di nv 'd niyai *3 'm, Ti 
ns'OiB'n viD jiPi n^ni ,nm' n» ninoi a^p^wn h» r6v n»Di a^na 
vr^3 pi .B'^n ^'?D '36 ^w^ 3'r3 ]sv ,D"n niKsin wdd tbh 
.n'?i3D nnsin rwn 'ui K'nn nVann nsa f '' "^WJ 
rrn 'ikt inon iniK nsa ,pin»i! ny nt ."locn r^K STp tm„ 1 
n3»'i ncrri ,pnh 'nm ntpo nsi irKS d'jb pi'pSi nSna ni'jJD^ 
.pimo^ IBtpn iioyi ,pirn inipmS n^i n'i-iDpani n'iis-nn (udd) 
ri'Bon 'rjn [orf'on 'd'?] D'p^« ja rrnt? nDica ninTiii jjitbi l 
ms (HE'D) K^sni 'SD'Jiaj rm '*D'i3K unh rrrrt? -dk k^ d^kii 
bip!; CTK) ^K'T'' ^31 ,'*in'?& 'n '3 yiirh rre nw nnrei f»h 
vn nTH? m«inV «in oj irr^Ki .irron I3 i«i nan i«3 n'y^aan 
TP jiK ^3Km D'Cffn la bk Tiin .TBya ^3 vn n3i3i a^p^nn 
.inr'Bn nm otronn 
,»"ninB «in no3 tb^b ^711^1031 ni!(B3 vb" thi naa itni i«i3 'n 
niniK sovBiB'sa ini»y "inK» ,'9pinj ':d iiy^ )>^lpff Tip) 
.3'D'33« im« nwyS ikb'i ,D'>:un ^rbz b'3t B-neioi 
^na 3"K "PTpn tjj^ i3'Sim lat^n inp*? mi, n-i3T hy 'sm nom'D 
n^jii ,iasp2 Kin vpi c'si ,iiny t\2 attn k^i ,13oo jB»n re 
.iBc ^Kitfn nny ,^Q■)a^ i:i^p ntn naia 
,ani«3 naip iiay^i tnpan n^a mpn by mi rt?' '^ji i^3' ytn TT 
.i'3iij) n^a nasn irmep m^ 



19 /iiii. Win mjlff. 


» /S,it miCT %K. 


" /W. DTin, 


" R««l n'lrja. 


»j /Mj. nno. »4 /w. D-HK 


1 Drt 1VP». 


»s JUJ. vim. 


»6 Read inrtB lo rhyme with IHBn. 




«T -fflrf. imoai. 


'8 /«,rf. 11,10 Sine i-c're. 





■9 The parendieaii U ©tlly found in Ms. C 3" /< 

i> Ihiii. va»n. R«ad B*»t(Fi imm dh^ rmv'i \im. 
3" ;a/^, ailB n^3 nolnn OnnDp kSi. The rending 11 it sUodi 
ronecL 3117 n^S ro» IE a quotalion from Mishna Middolh iv, 



6. To wsid 



V. THE HACGADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



•63 



rttni .rnvji ik □■ma'" crwis "nias^i .d'a-'kt laa hSt 
"'^ mrmpn ok ^^ \r». n^N Va nKi„ .j'-'^ff ^an -3 'b D^airu 
nrr onwi ^3 tkcs rrnt? mio rvh lopn (i^) rroan tpk 
•iTTD^n '2^ nisemo nt 3*nDi .j'ttois^ hd-ji vhy lainD 
.TPnn 'np' -jk d:i win ^K oiijs nvnoiD nvKT j'-jicpn 

nQ'n33i roKn '3113 D'i2in la^n la k^ ci-iio St? jsi 1333 
^31 btSkSi niKoS onpi o'3Sd a'pS« •ki-' Vn 'tr3« D'-iB"n 
fvh -h rrni o'-icvi i*7!y:r» (bzz) li'SD it?H3 n-Tsn h\rer 
•p rmrerh 'jh'do nnKi? ny 'S'im nyn ]Btrn Sk -vyh 

».-b mnnwi 
C. A REUGIOUS WAR IN THE STREETS OF MADRID. 
(Ms. A. f. 19b— 20>). 

omniapui itdb nvi3 »Sb3 (K"1ed'k St? nsiSon -vjj) Tmwas ."wyo 
3»ip'3 n3t?S Dni?m D'3Sisn d'jcdd iniKo , on'mot?Ki 
.Brenpo « ik 131 S31 niv mm ik ttsnn kdSs dicdi .Dn-ni-Bn 
*"nn3iOD nem k *'K3ti3S«p toi k '"nioypSn ro jn iSki 
wim .DrT3SD 'iD "«ni I'tsSii ':3i pwn 'S'k "S31 .orr-iim nmt? 
^TDn3 SjTD (w) ntnn ijjs omis Sj; Bpiic tvbii nSm 33it? " rt?' 
jsrninwpos Toni'D di'k Ssm dv -^"vy oSs ,orr33S 1333 in3D ik 
'Itr iKip3 [Kipj] .isDTK Bi'3 mp ri3im3 mi3n3 Dn3S3 'k djjc 
T331 .orrSjf Toij? Kini msS it?' n'n3n3 ,**di3S hisiokti niron 
«'Sni3 SsK B3'0'i .bh'sbS •*?« yiin Sj) n3i'Sj? rwin nnsn nn'n 
nnwa pisidkvi niron 'in? i»v m .Bn'3''3 p'bed 13i ]'ki B'n3n 
IK .orrSKDcS "pin p lo'i nt?in mm: mi? ,«'BnS tdkS inSt? 



Ae nretis oH Itie roof of th« Temple tbete wu an arrangeineDt of iron points ■ 
(■bit high which wu called Wt il^A. I am indebted for thi* suggettion 
to i'rof. Ginibcrg. 

J) In Mt. C TKh-aa. it /i>i,i. -'m ^snw. a !hd. \v\-A re-ri. 

ji /W. no^i. jj //*/. 'jipwn. J8 An/. .T»-L>c. 

J» In Us. C *^ IQV^. 1" Alcantara. << CalatraTs. 

*» Vfcrf. "irao, U Airf. l^at tl Jesuit Order. 



1 64 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

I'D'n isni ♦sD'tpnen ninan non '3 ,BTiinK^ nrn'i laitr 

T'lson nn'p^N rao vpi t?'3 on^ N'n nDin '3 .ona ttsi's ^^iti 
,Dn'3T3 K^B'i INC 1KD niAsn iKC 'riK inDO'i .an'B'ia^a opnoi 
DBK ,Dna T iD'Ti n^xH onan^ nnS at?ri^ rr-' rs '»:« ifyn *3 

^y 1B3 DH'-^K m^ ny ibtivi ninsn (3) 'vitt f]K ^nm .0:6 
.D'sipni Sann 'Sya innn 11 tt^ ■<d ,d'31i O'sini vir na os'bme 

tr'«i .on'BKo ]&!? n^VE' ip lain riK niDj^ ip'Bon «^i .niiinM 
.orr^y dt ^DB' ly qobe'ds imari'i ,DiTT2 j'Dn'D^si iwai ittki 
DTions) ,B'DnE':m D^mn^n t'B" na ^'miy^ iKas nman 'ana '^1^ 
D'TM? n^E^^tf n3D snst?J kV .a'tDBioriDi B'a^in rn '3 (orp^jf 
.*»D't3j)iD noyt? 'fisHK^j nyan k^i .d'b^bi 
p'nta inn .B'S^n «''t?c n^yo!? ='»-'3 ^313 l3^1 udj nvn iniK tOTi 
n^n p i«s' D'Bimi d"3t mnffm ,D'bi o'sinii onisE' o-a^s 

.□■•^113 WKTi i^3> nny p^ ,D'V'naDi ooia q'^Vud 

D. CELEBRATED SANCTUARIES OF THE MADONNA. 

(Ms. A, f. IQB— «■). 

^31 D'3^D ^3 nn^i 1^ iinntrm ,inin'3n «^i iiip^ lay 1133 ii»n 1^ 
iniD>y3''i ,ini^'?ni d'S'isi ant i«3 «^i .innayi nnay 'jdh-^u 
irmiDM ,ini3ty'i not? n^Kai noK^ nayi ,iniR'ip' aiT'i''DB3i onioa: 

D"T .iniootri 12111 

ii'cyni D^iya» 3n? ^31 103 ^3 ,n'3niK ^3 nS lo^tri m: l^K 
^33 n'^« 113 «*?! ,n'B'y3i ^'iTD'trani mffia^D la^o ,n'mapin 
nn'Dtai nina»3 **dd» nn nin K^i .niDirrai misi npvto ry 

49 Read O'lTlDn Order of Knights. S" 3ii/. "DWai n*". 

sj /ij'rf. nnnwm ynn ]& C5"ini orrnso^ wow nni« omjcu. 

M /*u/, mm. Ji fiiif. hn piib, s« /AV. 11^, 

*■> Ptrodies Mialinah Pesahim v, 7 '3 'na.lH^ ip'jn K^ Il'P'bw ns '?» or^'O 
t'Bjms HDjre -JBO 'n POB". >or this also I am indebted to Prof. Giniberf. 

^< Abbreviation for IV !\'2, i. e. the Jesuit order, pnt in that form (o u 
ts pkTodj Mishnab Sbabbalb i, 4- *" la Ms. C mKD 'JQ. 

6J In Ms. C: O'lJ ^3. <•* Bid. n"0'»3n. 6j Rood nOT, 



V. THE HAGGADAH OF JONAH RAPA 



165 



*'mism ^mnrpn .Tenipcm ncnpn nc-Kn nrntt ^jj n'^v ITDK 

rrniK Sdi nnyir '«3 ^dd n'Toitpi .Tarn not? nsKi inji itB«i 
nspii (cnt? n"i3ii? an i»s '-laDa) ^(■n'TDriD Ssi nnaain jTOin 
B'JSB hnn bMiah [DnjjJ ny o'jpij ncK is cfn anij? nnpiBi q'bib3 
nn "j'SPD rn n-\i in D*3E'in B'Tcyi b"ji) B'Ttn B'd^d nmni 

rmn B'unPDni B'sncn 'n32 tcroin losn b nw "(Bno 

biro By ,''3npDi pimn ,2n«^ ikiS' n''?K r^nr^^n ^31 n-nn "jsi 

OH ,DPn3 1D'"11^3 TK '13.1 niNl'j ,311^ ICySl BM PBt? Vy IIPK 

-oew rr^K iK'3ni ,ct?Bi!? '^nniiK n^yn k*? yiici ,CBt?) i'k «bii 

TO DIP ^y ,DrrniD3 ^3 Sy jv^y iB-n^ Kinn Ji'3,n . 

nniH ^3 iKBi KS'ijwi ,BrT^ non ]iih) B^a^n i3n3» 'bdi? bw hv 
DC '5n3»' it?« TBD n'3n mn ,'^b"ii3 Sy nn-ao n-Dyrn? 
D'3«teni ,D"p Kin riyi vtr-' ibi: i3i) ,b'1o mp3fiii mpBTUi 
[bpo] inwB'a .(B'td ncno ancy 2vv D-Dumn i3t ah '3 Bnwin 
."B''1D nn B«isn nn ,u- lyi pK nspo "'Kino'TS^ 
,D'm "BDW ^113 ,B'''Nn (lyi) pK 'pniDo J'nafi mi ncKn nitt 
DP ^y nct?^ »"DjiD iBpiB .noiHi jw^i ni'ioi njTD ^33i 

t'TTBBa K"'piB« TOM^ iinnc^ j-iK D'c« .noipB B» ^yi n'pyo 
N'K^ P'K r^ n3n[t^i .TI31 jipTi jiBTC «'jnsiyn km -3 DlB«a 
M Id Ml. Bt mTKO, <'i In M». C: rrnspm rrvBDn nBrnponi. 

M y^i/. T1UB-I33. I.oreto it ■ tmkll town in the province of AnconB, eutem 
Wy- There U found the f&moui pilgrimage ihrine, Santa dsm, which is lepntcd 
» be the veiitablc bouse of the Vitgin, truisplanted by uigeli Itom Nuueth 
■ad mirunloQsly set down in Italy on Dec. to, 1394 (The Century Cyclopedia 
of Namei, >. v.). Compare also the closing tiaet of this pungraph beginnine 
JT^n mn. BertinoTO is a small lovn in the province o( Foili, Italy. Evidently, 
the muthoi is at fault here id his geography. 

*9 Tbe sign of paicnthesit is found in the Mi*. 
1« Ihtd. T3W3. ?' Ibid. O-W nn V-BIKI fit. 

1* liui. aiTp^ pnii. n In Msi. B & Cx .131-111. 

J* In Mi. C: 0-113. ?S IHd, •QP'. 7* Ibid. TWOvA. 

Ti Kranu in his u-llcle on thii mi. omiti the whole foiegoing pangtaph. 
^ee R. E. y. -loL 47. p. 93). ;» In M». C WB ill. 

711 liij. rtae. «" it,j. -wpio eiui. 

■■ Krauii {itid. p. 87) idenlifiei this with the eelebnted chuicb Nitttlra 
S*ib>ra dt Alecha at Madrid founded in 1533- ** Ah./, tnxo. 



iSS STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

iVl TyT3' .»J^IH1BTID3 -iV» KT'IS^H mt6 ITO^ ,^3100 »VW ITDtt 

■,paysv nniM^ nnnifi ,«sK"aia"'in3 ■!»« ■'i:n «*pn"iB3 Ttrn rwnn 
1DJ'"0K^S3 le/K iTB'k'? D'nonpo) ,"'K'a"i^opa it?« oyn **ar 

nnyi ,m^ktkii3» nni« non -itr« nnw "K''iiK'i«p3 icm newi 
mm iiyi ."^naa an-^y n^s: '3 ■'''D-DirD^Bn wnnm it?npn 
,niinon V33 -fjin nvotpi ^'n nnpyi 9S'Biio""B3 (dp nnfli 
(t-n .nuBpiE" rhnyn p rfrna «mi ,mi3t?n S30 ninaen nnan 
K^'j)^ inn CKia ra»i' K-rn ,""M'r''3'? nanpi ^^kbviik nnt 
tnaa m3T ,'"ni3it?«T3 w '-Dn^ up «^ n'js c^t? d«i .16'ji 
tnK3 "jwy n nMoaipa (tdk) onx^T n»«n ,nui03 m» 
jTbtwd in83 K^M van 'inaioa m^ >°*'in3iin nte»K^ ,jm» 
Tnn ^)w nniK mm "'3iBKT'6jio3t!' n^'^m ,rriD3 im (nvrawj 



»i im. . . . nVR nil -m^. Almeida ii « town in the ptorince of B<b^ 
Portnga]. 

<4 Tournon i> > (own of France in lb« Depaitmcnl of Ardiclie (GiMh 
G>Ui>i Jodoica, zi6). BJ Burgundj. 

K /iti^. ip<i. Vich is a town in the Protince of BtrceloDa, not Citalania u 
Krauiis hu (See Gtografia General df Kipaiia, Madrid I Stia), 

^7 Catatonia, Spain. 

»8 For the idcnlitieatbn of ttiii place s«c Kraui* {il-id. p. 88) iriio pTCi 
the reading ITDHIDI. "o Poland. 9° Haagaiy. 

9' In Ms. C: lt")11<lDV, Strigonia is a city in Ilungaiy. 

9' tbid. DK^TS. Milan. 

« /*/rf. rjKlBlKpa, Caravaggio is a town 13 miles east of Milan. 

94 Varallo, a town in the province of Novara, Italy. Near it is SicW 
Monte, a place of pilgrimage founded in [4S£. Krauis' i d en tili cation otil 
place with Vorarlberg is not satisfactory. 9S Ihid. men " 

9* Ibid. -rt)110"Cn. 97 Ibid. ^lUn. 9» /*i^. *« 



'™ Biella is a town in Italy, Oropa is not far from it. 

'o' tbid. y^. 101 Ibid, niinffiro, 

103 Ibid. KKT) -1 nJlpa. The phrase meani, "The Virgin of the little W* 
(Ughcllo) in the suburb (contado) of Nice". 

">4 Ibid. "Hum ntJH?!!, Mondari is a town in the province of Cuneo, Italy. 

"■5 Montferrat is an old marquiiale of Northern Italy. But as the n(i< 
place leeQis to be in Spain and both «cein from the text to be near eafh 
other, I suggest reading IDltl'DllD. Montserrat is a jagged mountain, AvA 
jO miles North West of Barcelona, noted for its monastery, founded in $Sa> 
which contains the Image of the Virgin. 



\1. THE SEDHER PESAJ. VVEHILKHATHO 167 

(Dip'D) nono K^ ,.TnnK^i n'ls^ km mawB m^n ,"*nRnp 
,l.T^in2 Ti wjn prip opo tubv ,irr^i^3 ^33 lajp m'jb" ,irrnutn 
"Jtn^rha ipMJ kS nw baai jm^p i^nai 13m m'jot 

.nniDo 

0W1D (DH'^JI) n^V N^ff .•■>9D'^t<JI03"D .TH K3S ^ff ."'T'J^K 

■ •wisao njf Sk d'js Dvma vni ,'"D'!3nDi o-Tyo D'lan ^a m 

K .'-'Dnaai ann ids Dt?D iK'sim its^bm mr ,d'^w31 

^1»jn rwD ,0'3iS«i (D'3^) citri D'3Dt?n nt?^» d'jj arriipB Ti?¥n 

rmtttip ETi^a noi rpi .d'b^h 'b^« ^Vko k ^3 103 wis'i 

i-jK^ion n»K Syi .i3"Kp ntn 1013 .nopi noii ^M? nasi n33 

•vhd ni-nan 't3 nS p'E' itdo "•O'TSDnB' rrnniiK by itok 

Bnan n^f ^sa nsiriK tbdd nViiwi ,msi3T n«B ant *'SK"Ti'«n 

H .ni«iani ^oai am «131d "«inrS ,niK'B ^30 rr^K «an 



CHAPTER VF 
THE SEDHER PESAH WEHILKHATHO 



The manuscript used in the study of this parody is part of a 
eo4iex (Paper, Ital. Rabb. char., 16°. 81 f,), which has been inade- 
quately described in David Frankel's Cat. No. $ (Husiatyn, 1904) 
p. 68 and 71, nos. 1020, 1047 and 1048. The codex is now in 
the library of the Jewish TheologicaJ Seminary of America, and 
contains the following parodies: 

(a) onDP naoD (f. 1—22); (b) nn'BDB O'^jw anv (f. 24— 31a); 
(c) D'Hi D-ere (L 32—35, 37—38); (d) [in3^m noa itd] (f. 

■^ Cons is a town of Spain, 47 miles N. N. W. of Caceres, on the Aligon. 
Il ii encloted by gnnite vslti of Romin otigin, ud tus a cutle of Che 
15th. century, a Gothic c^hedial, and feveral convents. Ktauu did not 
identify these two placei latiifictorily. >07 In Mi. C: nvn^. 

v^ Barbaroua, nilei of Algeria, died in 1546. 

»=S Ibid. (T^HSOWno. "" Ihtd. ohn P' l ' ll ' UX 

•1" Ibid. ■TOD.T. ■!« /iW. trtW, "J /^itf. K-plBlK. 

•M Ihid. DTTOOnB. 

»S Atf'. rman. Eut India Company, cbarteted by Qaeen Elilabetb in t6oa 

■<' In Ht. C: IT? niMI TXet. 



163 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



40 — 73a, 74 — 81). Folios 33, 31b, 36, 3g and 73b are blank. 
The first parody will be described in detail in the next chapter, in 
connection with Mai's edition of the same parody, and the second 
and third parodies will be discussed in chapter VIIL The 
fourth parody is the one under consideration. 

Another ms. of this parody is found in the Bodleian, de- 
scribed by Neubauer (Cai. no. 2581) as follows: [mo] hv ^p^pD" 
ipr^. This is the heading ol a poem of eight lines, beg. "CH 

n^nco r'Ni KBin. Signed kbt ]ra nir ..tkt ly ,,Tnp nippo, 

which precedes the treatise containing a travesty of the 7t? miT 
riDD, on praise and blame of women by Yonah Kohen Rapa? 
It beg. IT*? mw 'p^Kl m» »h IPK, fin. with the words '0 inn 
jnv (incomplete). Ital, curs, char.; fol., paper, B. 9." A copy of 
f. la which contains the poem, f. 2 a, and of the first and last 
lines of every page of this ms. was made for me by Rev- 
Segal of Oxford, and according to bis transcription the beginning 
of the parody reads ms »h ItPKl {?)n'3, just as Prof. Stein- 
schneider had suggested in his discussion of this parody (Lettfr- 
bode, XII, p. 80). Tlie copy in the Seminary librarj', however, lacks 
the poem, and the parody proper begins witli the words IB'HI 
rT'Tt? T'7. The words JJll' 'D IflK are not found in the Seminary 
copy, but instead there is the short colophon mnn IIE'D D^IPJl, 
which is not found in the Bodleian ms. A ms. of this parody, 
once in the possession of J. Kauffmann (perhaps identical with 
the Bodleian ms.), is described in his Catalogue (Frankf. a. M. 

1883) p. 12, no. 71 as follows: WW b^hz B"K JD Toam roiri 
niBiiffjm m'jirian S3 Sj) jn ua w'SinS i-i'y 'Sffv m n'Ti noi ni?p 
an3i Sd: D'HitPin 'Sanai nv nSina Sk r[tr}»r\ rhy n-uj ^loa^ 
mnant? ncD -no ]ohi lyS jrui j'cjiyi nnntu ■'itpsn bbco a'Tin 
SpSpD ms'Sc w\y\ -h ion jisSa min iitd Sa Rini] inn xsn 
[. . . n-nr nryoo mnn Tt? cy ynp nSy Sy aira p .jpnS jud Sy 

(See Letteiiiode, XII, p. 79, where this description is given). 
The statement in the brackets is certainly that of the compiler 
of the catalogue, but even the one preceding it must likewise be 
ascribed to some copyist and not to the author of the parody, 
because it gives us the impression, that the satire is put in the 



VI. THE SEDHER PESAIJ WEHILKHATHO 



169 



mouth of the woman-hater (1»in BDIPD 3'n« 3roi). whereas in 
the text of the parody we find that the satire is the expression 
of one of tlie wise men, whom the woman-hater comes to con- 
sult, as will be seen from the extract given below. 

By what name the author himself called the parody cannot 
be ascertained. None of the titles mentioned above is authentic. 
The title nOB hv man is nowhere found in the mss., iTUnn IIB'D 
is found only in the Seminary ms,, while ]prfj HID hy ^p^po, 
even if it were found in all mss., could not be regarded as the 
original title, because the poem and the parody were most likely 
written by different men, as will be seen from the arguments 
below. I have, therefore, chosen the title insSll HDD ITD, because 
it is found in the body of the text, as will be seen in the 
extract below. 

To the identity of the author of this satire we can find no clue. 
In the whole parody, the only personal remark is the following: 

."n-l^bn nnBt?3 I'iSh TOIK ,n'nnn (Seminary ms. f. 69; Bodleian 
ms., £ 7a), from which we gather, that the author was a 
bachelor when he wrote the parody. To ascribe the parody 
to Jonah Rapa, because the poem preceding it seems to be 
bis, is unsafe. For, aside from the fact, that the poem is 
not found in all the mss,, which proves its apocryphal nature, it 
is quite impossible that the author of Pilpul Zeman should 
also have written tliis satire. If there is no other reason, this 
alone should be sufficient to discredit the theory of Rapa's 
authorship, that while in the Pilptd Zeman ahnost every page 
gives evidence of Italian life and culture, there is not a single 
expression in the Order of Passovrr that points to Italy, or. 
for that matter, to any other of the Latin countries. Further- 
more, it is difficult to associate the crude and almost un- 
intelligible lines of the poem with the easy and graceful prose 
of either parody. But allowing even that Jonah Rapa, the author 
of Piipui Zeman. is also the author of the poem hy ^p^pD 
prt no, all we may deduce from its proximity to the Order 
of Passover is, that the latter was written by a contemporary 



I^O STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

of Rapa, and, therefore, belongs to the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. This, by the way, is the only means we have 
of determining the period to which the Order of Passtn'cr 
belongs. There are no names and no events in the parody to 
throw further light on this question. 

In conclusion, I reproduce here the poem, according to a 
copy from the Bodleian ms,, and two extracts from the pai 
a translation of which was given above (p. 43, 44). 



'\pTb njo ^ bpbp'Q 



I 



,it nsi ,iDKi .rcrwa tpw ,wsm tck .1 

,itwo EWsi fp3 Tvr\ ffa' n'sm htieti hz by laijn .2 

•Hii EnD Mp nano o'iddi j'lpm i>3Di .3 

Tl ^« ^3 nW k'?1 Dlt?D jT3 trn 1»B3 nt?M3 HVi K^ .5 

p^oa nay s*?! im3 3'bt3 m anio udd p'mn .6 
;vn BTDi pKff 1121 (nm «3'''?k) ^tTan 'snna ,n-uo3 .7 



■ Steins chneidcr published the sime poem in LiUtrhdi. XII, p. 79 frott 
> cop]' ma,de for him by Neubuiei. Some of bis variant* are gireo here 
below; for the T&lmiidic relerence^ I un iodebted to Prof. Giniber£. 
line I. The meaning is as if it read: T^vmm MBin ETK. 
„ a. In Leilerb. n-BUn, cf. 030 140b; Bin 03' woold be the bett« 

reading. 
„ 3. onCB I'-^e is a metaphoric eipression for an ox (Cf. Pt. Uii. 31): 

the meaning is that be abltains from meat. 
„ 4. Prof. Giniberg suggested to me the reading: 1^ X'^**° ^""^ T\ awW 

"XD D'^I'SK^ nr^ vhv. Far D']V3H compare ibe commentaries to Ecc- 

Icsiaslea, 11,9; for IID compare Jeremiah 3,13: jm '110111. 
„ 5. In Ltltetb. rr.T »b. Compare raff 105 b: mK ^ 1B113 WTff it i« Wll 

Jin -\-r ,11 101K '1.1; Sleinschneider'i emeodatioa HIB^ «W1 instead of 

ilffKa MBJ deprivej the passage of its proper significance. 
„ 6. In Lftlirb. pi&3 IBP, which is incorrect Compare aSam. 111,31, 
„ 7. In Utttrb. "snnai. For JWT im compare KX 140b in '"■n bcf.: 

rmio in iib6 . , . Jtiis. 
„ 8. The name 11B10 is not common in later Hebrew literature, and ii 

very likely used here only playfully. 
n 9. In Lfiterb. ;reVS. 



VI. THE SEDHER PESAH WEHILKHATHO 171 

p^no «'j3 (ni) ]iBiD '2T Msai mn npyoi .8 

EXTRACT A. 
(Seminwy in». f. 46—47; Bod. mi. f. ab— 3«), 

nwH Ktriin bd»d rw nni »n ^2 rrryj*! ■>ainK nyoif .... 
•UB inrna p'ttn -qt nos .nKue? nn«i nnnn nnn ,nK: ik mijia 
ro^b a-'H no3 •ici mvnai ;nMi nwi '3 not ion him .nniaa 'niaj 
IJfo? Taan innsni .nKooi rrnno nonas etn ns'DMi nwa ni-a 
."nKsr nr« noai riKsr nt?K non,, .nnosn n« nnn meo 
•3 "jji .pattT'? ne-H kb-u'? mip '^^ ^d^t '0^102 ]3ii«t «iav 
p'^31 131 aba .]i3sj?ai iitcna onnoi nixo bi3«^ aix a"n niiaya 
■tiy 183" 01m Kini .payi '^b ps?HTi o'" b''?o I'm .paw-n cry 
,inB3 *WP *ob non m 'in .inmn nw^oS n-Sw h3 icb ]3 nnK oii 
Tp r:s riK Tinoi re ftipi ,iniK nKSo ivh njnn ^ Dn^nni 
TfifK .iDipm -nai mjjiid^ iw ]'3'-is i^nyi .in-on "jskd pmrue 
•pbjf ijn nawmi .nom nya n tjd '3 .notr T3inbi n3iy^D ■<nraff 
^3 1K31 yae byo mScb .pt nby -jS i-io«'t? niip ,DiKon nam 
D'oan u'?3 ''imi .tnjn cna nb nn^ai ,erin nnw t»k niawnon 
D'oyeM or ijsa d'djjb n"KTa D'a"n San ,07at?n jniKS D'nai uSa 
TWPO rmn Van ,o'yuj?3i a'i'wna yray pinrbi niot?bi .o'vaiK 
'I'D mpV ■•1D3 nyo n^itnn wra .D'yiEfyw tS-t Tp' jaa .D'yinjin 
.np*i3 yrt «n' «"?£? na [nD''3a] id''33 un'i' looa t'cdp noi ,np'no 
naaff nnpV ,ni7n'b nV ibc [Read ■om = rssmn-q 'am nyaix wnai 
[Dib»] V '3 nyTi ,1^ aim "pes ]3 nwiy nrw □« .ncKiat? nyvsri nenn 
jwVsD nana nnont? 'jbo ,nn'a nne Sk aipn bs ikS dki n^niK 
n? mV T^y mso jinnn Sa ^1D3 I'lunn nVnnap intn 'ia nono ■urn 
D^iyi ,limi ant poyB i« [=]]iD"*n n-noy ,]iDip im cm ntryo D'ou 
.niDtaim myaoni o'Tcpm rrnysi .mB'Jsni a'D'arm n>Dayn mKBm 
.■nyw lb T« [ni3] ni Tiy: .mEoyom nnunni o'T 'nai d'ttvh 
-iBob naTon Sai .[naobi nsiKb] na^ai neito nh r\rh mso *6d d'3 
mim 02 in: naat? ,nbab nabn Dn«n 'sn nisp n^K jiait?D rn 
iMPD nbKi .obip yotM 'ba a-naT jni tdik jn ,Dbij)n Tjn abiyn jo 
nnnm nn '3 .Xi'lJ "Poi law 'Vk nnn ,-piBb iny« Tt?M 'wm 
I lyV m» -f} ■'nnii .I'tTp p'^i m'sbo -najwi ,D't«i5i nnwr 

a Cf. MiibQfth Htgieah t, 3. 




172 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

niMi inn Tssn nan n^K ^3 .tdd^i hbid^ ins^ni ddb inD 
Z'TTOK in:i ^^31„ mm wn npm iBrni 

EXTRACT B. 

(Seminary ms. f. 77; Bod. ms. f. Sb). 

2»i'' nnw yno noK'i .npysa i^y pjn'i ,np*H3 ■'ij?^ nmia ]r3l 
jj'j'D ninni nm«n hk inj; i^ .npino laiyn rat?i ,npinn tii 
Bmc2 1103 n3"n .cnffna^ it?3in nb t^jii nmoK k^ jti ,b'B3 
,D'nB nni ^3 n^mcia n^n i^n .o'sl'n ^y t3T D-o-BTin crtn 
Da^'affa jon it o a^i-noo crw t^bm .dt3 ini« nnaxo wn 
n^D '^31 nittpDi^j I'iKn wain 's ik ,Dnso '«si'^ di npya -wm 
.o'Dcs manK 'n nwy 's i« ,D'nDpi y23 



CHAPTER Vir 

THE MASSEKHETH PUR!M OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY 
The main points 1 intend to prove here are, that the Massekhetk 
Purim of the seventeenth century has come down to us in five 
different versions; that, while each of these may appear at fiist. 
sight entirely dififerent from the others, they are at bottom n'i *=— 
and the same parody; and that the first version is the one iioiKz=t ■ 
v/hich all the others developed. 



«n 1 



5 I. EDITIONS AND MANUSCRIPTS 

13 I3"S «n 'iiN oniB ,B3«1D': It? iw nniD KrDDO 

Version , , 

_ lyn .D3Kip T!>Ej)ip ]'« iys"« ijni m 7'^: ,d3«d'j piJ' 
,1K"TD ijn ]iti ynjjn i"t oiyii .pK'-'i' ]ib pji'n oTjni *" 

•1" 1013 IVl IVpino'J oyn ly ;yn ik s. l. e. a. [Cracow? 17th. cent.). 
The copy in the Bodleian library [Steinschneider, Cat. Bod. 
no. 3S52] is considered to be a unicum (See Letterbode, IX, p. 4/* 
no, 32). I had it transcribed for me by Rev. M. H. S^al of 
Oxford. It is not divided into chapters, nor into Mishnah and 
Gemara. It begins with the wofds 7xn» t?'K ni ^m nttHBa 3TO 

«^ 1^ nrn? inB 3110 m nVnnat? 101^3 .I'^in ]ii?^ ^m .dT3 jfi 



vn. THE XVn CENT. MASSEKHETH PURIM 



173 



'. . It njroM rp^, and ends with UlNm 1J«3» ^nU'B'l ''jni 'n» p^ 
.amiKon n*on 'oo nmm 'mpn ^s ^n t's ^nnaina isipn h»\ ^nhnh 

In LetUrbodf, DC, p. 47, no, 32. the beginning and end are 

confusedly welded together, 

Hk DmEn3DDs.l. [Sulzbach], 1695, S'-.Sf. That this edition 

^Hr was printed in Sulzbach is evident from tlie fact that 

^B Moses ben Isaiah Wengrow, in the preface to his ITTa 

^■n nOD. (Berlin, 1701), speaks of a Massekketk Purim that 

^Mbs printed in Sulzbach. Evidently, he must refer to the 

ed. of 1695, since the next Sulzbach edition appeared in 1814 

(See M. Weinberg, Die kebrdUchen Dntckcreien in Sulzbach, no. 34, 

in Jalirb. d. Jiid.- LiterarischeH Gesell. Frankf. a. M.. I903, 

p. 127 — 128), This version consists of six chapters, the names 

of which will be given in the table of contents below, and a 

hymn for the niglit of Purim, which will be discussed in the 

eighth chapter. 

The same version is found tn two manuscripts, 

(a) Ms, Rosenthal, . . . nino» VaW Dr3K ""T ^y . . . D'^IB HMO 

p"c^ T^on n'3 hv. ttidk np^W me yaoini icmi Paper, small 8'. 

Sq. char, tSp., consists of five chapters without the hymns. It 
was written in 1784 by Meir ben Joseph De Wulft. The copyist 
added later (l8l2) a parody in the form of a commentarj- on 
the Massekheth Purim tlie full title of which reads as follows: 

^ nnjK i?T?n m'td nuST x-ith nt'« iwra: 12 OTJipyt? yea tdd 
•njn ninao nn •!- ^jjj -annii id'hs it?« o'iid 'cm k'tdi K^ptp 

^Hh|>er, small 8°., Rabb. char. 21 p. It contains additional notes 

^Hjr M- J. Verkoze and approbations by Abraham Zimdorf, Meir 

Loonsteen, Isaac Lieden, Moses Joseph Verkoze and Abraham 

Susan, all dated 1813 (See Roest, Cat. p. 1170, no.6; Letterbode, 

LX, p. 47- no- 33)- 

(b) Ms. Michael. 011B rSDO consists of five chapters, followed 
by two hymns for the night of Purim. It was written in 1815 
by Zebhi Hirsch ben Judah Loeb Wanfrieden of Amsterdam 
and presented to Moses Oppenheim by his son-in-law Hertz of 
Amsterdam (See D"TI nrai« p, 358). It is now in the Bodleian 



174 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



Unary (Naibauer, Cat. 2285, 11). Sec also Lelterbode, IX, 
p. 47, no. 33. 

nrjiD 'B3 TTiDD .oninai n^ipi ':b^ ,d^1B todd 
Version .^^ ^p, ^^^^1^ .K13D31 Djioa SisSbs ,»fTO:m nitTcn 
•an ityn -Kiian w^ ntcy itrx tsan iik iTDina ,Kiiprt 
iPii^nM iDta nt?yr iod .D'opi d'3''i« td urns ^'sm ,D'Dny ray 
,1" ^i? oirn ^y »■>« ^3 p^ .lo'i '3tio^ tpk ]*yn ^y r6rue ,pm 
luiw b'S' '■■• ,niaa^n i^'j'i ihde" ijm^ .jvyai niiiaa it jood «v 

.pB .a^lj) TV! nnyn ,m2ini D'Snc it is printed in John Heniy 
Mai's "Bibliothecae Vffenbachiaitae"' (Hallae. I720. 2°. col 178 — 225) 
from an Uffenbach ms. (now ms. Hamburg, 241 ; Stdiischneidcr_ 
Cat. Hamtntrg no. 284), which was written in 1703. It consistss- 
of four chapters, followed by two hymns for the night of Purim^ 
all of which were translated into Latin by the editor (See Letter- 
bode. IX. p. 47. no. 33). 

Besides the UfTenbach ms. there arc three other manuscripts 
of this version. 

(a) Ms. Frankel. 1, .»n*B OV . . . D^plB ntPB (nsbn) oniDP JUDB 
.1»''1 nnp'? mi 'P^D'K •'"ro {Cat. S, Husiatyn, 1904, p.71. no. 1047). 
The manuscript has no title, and is part of a codex which is 
now in the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America 
(See above chapter VI). Besides the division into Mishnah and 
Gemara, it also has a number of passages marked KpDfi. The 
PITO is in the form of foot-notes and extends as far as the 
end of the tliird chapter- The last chapter has two glosses 
(ninjn) instead of the BilTB, and closes with the colophon 

wnpV vh\3 Tu^i .D'^na iiii H^ rhr\T\ .tnisp rooc o^ai en 
.oniBn 'D'a -inrni nnowi nnt?D 'D^a k^« The manuscript itself 

was very likely written in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. 

(b) Ms. Deinard, 0ni3» rODO Paper, Ital. Rabb. char. 24". 23 f., 
now in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Excepting 
a few unimportant variations, the text of this manuscript is the 
same as that of the preceding manuscript. It has only five 
chapters, but the first comprises all that is contained in the first 
two chapters of ms. Frankel. The BHTfi is here in the form 



Vn. THE XVn CENT. MASSEKHETH PURIM 



175 



mai^inal notes, and is found only on the tirst two leaves, 
ic glosses (niruri) are altogether wanting. It closes with the 

colophon ypin 11^ n^»' n .]mtt ^h^tH3 'norD msc roDo ^Sy pin 
tr \2'p rijntp'' do ir'i ,ab^)t 'p^s rmyo Mb nsyi ,di ^ipa itw 
jn'i^ ^p ^TTj n ni'SK rniyoS papiE' u^3 rrrui ,n'?:y siia nwo 
D^jF R-ns ^t*^ n:E' D^t?3i an o '3k .niip pi )i?iyS joitoi nfyo 
AM? .0^30 Tjra j-o'sa p^na 'laa o^iy I'laa 'n ijon:- wm 1 nr 

■OC'ril While the version as contained in this manuscript was 
composed in 1729, as is stated in the colophon, the manuscript 
written at a much later date. 

(c) Ms.Frankel.2, n''ll3B'n30D(C"aMi, Husiatyn 1906,00.188). 

iper, small 4", Ital. rabb. characters 9 p., in the J. Th. S, 
of America. It has the divisions of mi?D, KIDi and HpOB, but 
the WVB and ninil are completely wanting. In the arrangement 
of the chapters and the Mishnalis it is entirely like Ms. Deinard. 
The date of the ms. cannot be determined; it was very likely 
written in the early part of the eighteenth century. 

'™'*" 1k!;3 nrhv -y ddu i lannover, ]''t*3 niD rrrsim nar 

^ DJIK [1844], S". [6 p. The second ed. s. I. [Vienna] 

1867 ["Utn] 12". 24p., in Ihe New York Public Library, bears the 
imprint . . . I^n ^(^^3 nahvr T TUDD The third ed. s. I. [Vienna?] 

1884 [D'iwm nuij; lab iiin hk nj»], 12". 24p., in my possession, 

has a better text than the two first editions. This version con- 
asts of four chapters, preceded by a hymn for the night of 
Purrm, and followed by Bensew's D'lIB^ n3"Vo, somewhat altered 
in text and provided with a new title: ITUD 'B3 OniB^ mn'So "ITD 

^^VTlic same version is found in Ms. Franco-Mendes, Q'HB ro&D 
^pnra pn "U JITS'3 T "UJa KSDJ 'D^PIT it became later the 
property of Sommerhausen , who found its text identical with 
Blogg's edition (See LtW.. XI, col. iSi — 182, nos. 4, 9). The 
name jrrt "U jns'a 1 occurs in Blogg's ed. (18S4) p. 8. In Mai's 
ed., col. 191. the passage reads wy OV by r^^'S 31 lOt? Klpl 

frn pni "Ui. 



176 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



Veision 



naa la idsiu'Ji it todd cthd aroai wmm .jnr'vroi 
^nan iisE-n ■'T ^v nana niBDini ne^'TBi -oja cwrm 

nvano Sl-O ino Sulzbach, [1814?]. 8°. I2f. (Sec Rocst, Cat. 
Rosrnt/ial . . . Anhang p. 222, no. I160; Letlerbode, IX, p, 48, 
no. 34). Another edition of the same version . . . CniB fUOQ 
ninan na iboiju nnyi . . . ypnnoi T\yr«i niBSini rwTB op 
031 [of Sommerhausen] D'Hir ^'!?^ min 03 . . . Dtnn mBcnni 
oniB^ nin'^D [of J. L. Bensew]. Lcmberg. 1847. 8°.26f. The same 
was reprinted in Lemberg, 1854, 8". i6r.; Cracow, 1878, 2of.i 
Warsaw, 1S85, 8°. 24f, This last edition contains also at the 
end a parody (K'pB'O '31 «^lSn) by M. S. Rabener (See bdow 
Chap. 14 no. 210). 

The same version is found in Ms. Rosenthal, ]D D^^IB n3QC 

it?« o':n?Kin ID ions k^ . . - niBoini '■e't ''b op '^33 -nD^n 

. . * pSian nR'3'3113 nK'^nnaa IDBIS Paper, 8"., Sq. and Rabb. 
char. Title page and lof. It was copied from an alleged 
Amsterdam ed- of the year n'!5D33 wl? DniB -D' [1808]. (See 
Roest. Cat. p. 11 70, no. S; Letterbode, IX, p. 49). 



S II. COKTENTS OF MASSEKHETU PURIM OF THE XVU 
ACCORDING TO VERSIONS i. 3. ^ 5. 
VERSION 3. 



SULZBACH, 1695. 
Chapter i. Mishnah i. 



In Sulzbach ed. this Mishnah 
(rpnip "Dj is very likely contained 
in the first chapter as it is in 
Mai's ed. 



Chapter 2, Mishnah i. 

. . . T^TWh n'a"n ten 




MS. ROSENTHAL, no. 6. 
Chapter i, Mishnah I. 

e'en 

Chapter 2, Mishnah I. 

' Dr3 in'33 113 1^ rrne t 
. . . "rao 



Chapter 3. Mishnah l. 



^ Vn. THE XVH CENT. MASSKHETH PURIM 1 77 1 


^■' Chapter 3> Mishnah i. 


Chapter 4, Mishnah i. 


^^B>-i • • nrtn p7'nriD *no*KQ 


. . . nint?^ I'^TinD 'no'«D 


^H Chapter 4, Mishnah i. 




^m DTK y»n ^wks 




^H Chapter 5, Mishnah I. 




■ ... yanxs ^ 




^H Chapter 6, Mishnah i. 


Chapter 5, Mishnah I. 


^ft. . i^Tpa pinB6 I'r'n ^an 


Dnifi3 pirre6 a^n dt» ^a 




. . . D'fi^pi nraipa 


^V VERSION j 


^H ED. MAI. 


MS. KR-ANKEl, 


MS. DEINARD. 


H Ch. I, Mish. I. 


Ch. 1, M. I. 


Ch. I, M. I. 


^isn n« pj)2o fy to'w nva 


-iVy nt?Vt? or 


■tt?j) nahvf or 


;mnB'n^ iidki .niunn ]di D'nan ]d 


riK jnyao n«3 


'131 


owa nn'Vy tP^^' -'^ I'o or Tjf 


. . . DTsn 




.n^PD^l T" Di" nisno rwT ^3 






Ch. I. M. 2. 


Ch. I, M. 2. 


Ch. I, M. 2. ^ 


r« ora waa iia li" n-rw -a 


iia 1^ iB"» 'o 


113 1^ rv "Q ^^H 


.m 13^3 li^Ba' iiyan njnra 


. . . nma 


. . . rona ^^^| 


Ch. I, M. 3. 


Ch. II, M. I. 


Ch. 3. ^^^^H 


mr«6 iijn rm nona^ Tinu |"« 


pnu r» 


^^^^H 


73K ,rwjfD7i i"* or nisno D'o 


^ijn ,Tn nnna^ 


'131 nona^ ^^^^^H 


nrrv na'jai ains i" n.-6 nn!j r'"^'' 


. . . :■' 01' nisno 


^^H 


•1" pn 




^ 


In Mai's ed. this Mishnah 


Ch. n. M. 2. 


Ch. I. M. 4. J 


r*y nw'jtP) is found as a Barai- 


Tpp nwbaf 


itffp Txr'xf ^^H 


Iha, beg. Tn (col. 211). 


. . . n3va 


'131 bm Tt(t3 ^^^1 


■ ^ 



^^^^^^^^^1/8^ studies' in ;ewish parod^^^^^^^^^ 


^^^^A 


Ch. m. M. I. 


Ch. n, M. I. 


^^^^H D'liBs mr\ah h^n 


D'2"n Van 


B'a'fl "ran 


^^^^H ctsji intti D'c: -inK'i o-triK -thk 


. . . D'liD n"niP3 


131 rrre=^ 


^^^^^H ,^113 jns Tien i^Q inK D'^opi 






^^^^H .rmifh v^^n 






^^^^K 


Ch. m, M. 2. 


Ch. n. M. 3. 


^^^^^H ]n'7'<3B ]oi v^3m? ni'?nB '<:3>*n ^2 


'3"n ^3 


'3^71 ta 


^^^^H I'Ktri v'^ I'^^iD T' ayi^ dv3 


. . . nib'-ao 


. . . mlj'ae 


^^^^H n^nirs v^''" ''^'=i°i "i''^ -I^^^^" '^' 






^^^^H 






^^HT Ch. U, M. 3. 


Ch. m, M. 3- 


Ch. n, M. 3. 


^Enao D>-iiEi3 'jidkV laniff oipo 


unit? DlpD 


'laiunivDipo 


DipDi ,i"a K^« B'oa 1^»3^ hK 


^'^3 'VS ^3kV 




^H iVaw ^K a^iiDa -'hi b-avh inii? 


. . . cjmD 




^B 






^^^^H 


Ch. IV. M. I. 


Ch. in, M. 1. 


^^^^B ]-D& 21 nin&i' t'^b'-nno 'no>KQ 


l'S'nnD''nD>KD 


yb-nro To^n 


^^^^^t^^ pij 2T .ntsnn nvpe nyi?e td« 


. . . nnoh 


. . . nuv^ 


^^^^^^^^H .D'23Un HKS njWD *U3K 






^^^^^^^P 


Ch. IV, M. 2. 


Ch.m, Ha. 


^^^^^^^^^ T'' n3«^D fiiffy'; mB s-^n 


mDy^Bitti'Ti 


nwy^DTHm 


^^^^^B rmyo ^ani ,nnivD nv2-iK^ vci 


niTijiD 1 T' ai>3 




^^^^^H QVE1 Dvo ^221 .cDvs niDV nnc" 






^^^^^1 c-iQiK onntt I'Ji^ mcv nrm" 






^^H 






^^^^^1 In Mai's ed. this Mishnah 


Ch. IV. M. 3. 


Ch. m, M. 3. . 


^^^^^1 (D'HC n''>riC2) found as a Ba- 


D-iiD n"ne?3 


oils TT*rff3 


^^^^^^H raitha (col. 


...^l3^^)Vv^]'« 


•■•'n33pp^vipi 


^^^H Ch 


Ch. V, M. I. 


Ch. IV, M. I. 


^^^^^r nircxr ]-^ ,Bnis oiip f'onur ^'^ 


tnip fon» !« 


■131 iw»r 


^^P irum T in2 i'ksi' y» in^sio 


• . . ffllB 




^^B 







Vn. THE XVn CENT. MASSEKHETH PURIM 



fa Mai's ed. this Mishnah C«^ I Ch. V, M. 2. 

KC) is found as a Baraitha in iDHKI^^ItStlK^ 
a somewhat modified form, beg. 

vr p v:ih rn "rn (col. 207), 



EThis Mishnah i&nKW n-DH) 
in Mai's ed. a Baraitha (col. 
209). 



Ch. V, M. 3. 

. . . DmB 



Ch- IV, M. I. Ch. VI, M. I. 



Ch. IV, M. 2. 
131 HStS hI> 



Ch. IV, M. 3. 
■h-nnw n'3n 



Ch. V, M. r. 

]'3"n ^3.1 
■131 pirab 



^P Chapter I. 

trnsn p o'cn riK pyao tik tnnfj j' avb ^w Mishnah i. 

nicT hz Ditro irr^p i^si^i ,12 vo or Ty ininrn'? tidki .nrrsnn loi 
.n^D^i J' Di' nisno kso' "jsi 
mip Tivh r nv3 ^33 d-d hv 113 1^ rrrw ti Mishnah 2. 

.ini 13^3 i^3V yvi dth nixn 
nwTo DmB3 o'D nin?^ ^lyi rrn nDn3^ I'^'iis r** Mishnah 3. 
.p arm Kfrt? 12^31 ,3ito on^ nn^ ah'O'' hw ,niythi •wy nebt? 

Chapter U. 

onapi ova «i owik « Bni62 i" ninB^ p3"n ^an Mishnah i. 

.om rf-TW m3D3 n'^^i ni™6 i'3''n 0^0 Vna iro '«i i^ ■« .o'lopi 

OT'21 Ttpy nc^B' Di"2 inVae loi y":ni? ni^'^o '2"n ^2 Mishnah 2. 

.(niS3 y nin»^ T2"n noiDi tw .n'- j'sr'i j"3 I'^^'d it^ T:yy\», 
^JT^ "^t* l^'!'^' l*^ O'''^''^ ''^^O '?13K'? laniET mpn Mishnah 3. 
■■ .^3D bl3t6 11SM EmB3 '^ ^13kV UHW QipD31 

V Chapter UI. 

fljrptr njWD TEK paff 2-1 ,mn»b x^Tina 'nc'TO Mishnah i. 
.D''33i3n n*a njwD itw piii 3t .rrann 



I go STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

,nnij«j npsTK vd dvsi t'' nva rmy'j m« 3"n Mishnah 2. 

T3JW ]'i (iirtno nincii? f 1 ,aniB mip vonic p' Mishnah 3. 
.oniB nam n-- 12 ytav px win 

Chapter IV. 

01162 ni'KSTpai D'B^a pinp^i niot!6 o^yn ^an Mishnah i, 



n 



VERSION 5. 
Chapter I. 

.nnxnn toi wran p o'dh hk Tp^^ nwy nvaiK^ ii« Mishnah 
niyno 'J3 ^oa^ 3"n d'11b2 nsna ^^^ 1^ cc-'t? 'd Mishnah 2. 
.^B3 'oi^n n^PD i^'nt? i cniBa iT'an ^ ]" p-mn Mishnah 3. 

Chapter II. 

D'^av'| o'l^a 1"ki d'1?3« inK n"nt?3 D'3"n bn Mishnah 1. 
,r\\y^ rrn ntsna f]K idik TOff ai .niraP 

,1^*3 1^^310 DniB3 imne IDI VJnW ni^'30 '3"n fja Mishnah 3. 

•I'B'B'in ]'Ki Tnic TUi noiDi 
nni* I'ano !'« .Jito'? iidm m mrwh initr nipo Mishnah 3. 

.erbv TM 

Chapter ffl. 
^31 D'Djn 1" nintff^ IIDH nnio^ ^leD nniB 3iy Mishnah I. 

.li3M'n^ )" nmss nnB"» na pa»on vppor 

3T '31 VKXf 31)?.1D D'llBa ninE'^ j'^'nno ■'HCMO Mishnah 2. 

.Q'aaan nnso noK w a-n psff 

.13^3 ni*13» »h» DnifiV B"r I'S ]'« Mishnah 3. 
Chapter IV. 

yomnv )"i in'«io nan»3» i^a yin ninp^ itpa j^n ^3 Mishnah i. 
.DTs 13 3ipru» r^ 

.QniB3 138D nine-b IIBK D'HE Ollp ynnni? r' f^l'^" Mishnah 2. 

.aniB inK imon )d rwmb nD« d'iib3 ^'hatw nran 



Vn. THE XVII CENT. MASSEKHETH PURLM iSl 

•pinsai n'lupai n^sKs onaT -33 omea a^K 2"n MLshnah 3. 
DniB3 Dnov pinw^ mian loy kisd^ ^^nE'n^ dik 3"n Mishnah 4. 
.najrts mo rrrr in'inw!' 12 hsi's D'yein ^pi r32 ^jn jon ^j? 

A careful examination of the preceding table of contents will 
readily show that Blogg's edition [version 4] is identical with 
Mai's [version 3]', It is equally evident that the 3d version is 
merely an amplification of the 2d, and that the 5th is a still 
further amplification of the 3d, as is clearly indicated in the 
title (It naoo PTHD aroai trmnj). in other words, all these 
versions, in spite of the many differences in title, text and 
arrangement, are at bottom one and the same parody. It re- 
mains only to show that the first version (Cracow ed-, 17th 
cent) is the original from which the later versions developed, 
and not altogether a dltTerent parody, as Stoin Schneider would 
seem to think {Lelterbode, IX, p. 47, no. 32 and p. 50). To 
demonstrate this, the text of this parody will be reproduced 
here in its entirety, and references to parallel passages in the 

1 The textual eirors in Blogg's ediiioa are too muny to be eDDin crated 
here. But there are thtee passmjes, which are decidedly uoinleUigible, because 
of (he amisiion o[ one oc moce linei. Tbeie ate giveo here, with the milting 
liaes and variants JappUed from Mai'i edition, in brackets: WflFTI KiT< 'W rUI 

;<tmy\ ota u^ iin i-otci .tito dp opn m -itaoip k^ o^wi p^r 1^ i"" °"'^''3 ffB 
rovs] Vsa stdi cts jm ni !)m TDWio yr.-^S pbn arh tr i" ib^ cm itn reru 
;6n onb yn 'ana "to no 'ibd pisn ai iD»tn amr^ p^n anh ttti p iwpa dk »ei 
Tpro .oniBT "HBcn db Btemi pin li ob db 'jtiw o'lica j" vw »'«' "Jbd nTrt 
.TOh 0*a PD^ nB-mn b-x ro ^m KiB a'nv': i" tran itpi mn m nn i-u-u 31 n^ 
(Via 3n3i a-ra Dia toi ]" bbi a-fia "o .iin »»: (Blogg's ed. 1S67. p. 5; 
Mai's ed. eol. 181). 

I'D ova >6k iJB ni] I's^^ b'tj [mm n"D] .ipBO n^in 11*^0x1 «n wisib T'k 
.iVin 'n"n mn dbb n^n ai io« -a-iiBa dts mnrt "/or iw nils' t' nva] ^ai« 
ij-ma p nwVn niiii iomt m-n nam m» c-p^ -ia [n-rpa "o ^s tro 'upBni nmaa 

1&MB [TO O'-pS ■•^•10501 'I'O'D 1" rW^tS niBTPH lOB D-rtB rlftO D-p^ 151] iSkDBDI 
nWBIta ■llatSO {Blogg. P- lO; Mai, col. 197). 

vwt ^3 rnira^ YP^ma vm imi "imsa poB v.iw w" aia hbto in 

a-. TWO Kp j(m ovn nam rrrw loi nn ii'mai b.i^ niMri errrB^n uqb ns n^Sn 
nw 7»'in .p rrpB \m rw] o'liDa p ff-rw n-rfc -mip *rti vrnsB niait ^b -a-a 

in-cM Trm »p Kni .lai pmtrt a-n oik Va ^ncn tob o^bo »bib ai ibh 

prUB ffflB mro -Bl-p^ -nup trtl (Blogg, p. 15; Mai. coL 211—313). 

On the same page in Blogg's edition (p. 15) there is an omiation of another 
paaiage, which occupies a whole coltunn in M«i (col. aij), while the passage 
in Blogj \p. 13) beginning p'lW aiTtt '1^6 "a-a 3"n inu ai b not foond in MaL 



I82 STUDIES m JEWTSH PARODY 

other versions will be given in foot-notes, which will cleatif 
show that the first version was completely absorbed by. J 
later versions. 

S E. THE MASSEKIIETH Pi/Rm OF THE XVDTH CENTURY, 

VERSION 1. 

.'rrWt KDDDO 
101^3 j*^in 11166 ^'1 ,m3 jJB'i riDiK »'« na ^nn n»TD3 y'FO 
ymb ^n'l k''t .it ny'eaa n'^3' k'tp i"? n'nt? ^^B ano n: n^nn» 
u T^yz n'^s-B na'pn'? n'?Bn nj hb'jje' loSo ,,16?d i'ni ins rtwi 

.isff'i ,rit!n ,yo'i ,^n'i qn i^«i ,i"a noK: ]'ii a"' 'oia 3T BTI' 
iDun ,^l■D iD«'i .vp'i ,n'ninN DrrjDi is^'i .lo'tri ,nri ,mti ,^wi 
J'' nnitn? 'd Sae? ^^ ^nl^l min ^» D'ipy j'' Sy -fj loT ittk 
DJi .minn npy J"' n"p i^'Ka p'isn na napB" ids oniss isrirei 
in'jyo iMii nnoKi 'ano iKaw tj? kVo nj n^a mmn ^sa Kson «^ 
wiaflai o'jijJa rcrw ppfnn iia'wn n'nt?i voat? yoino inianrm 
Bson m"? wis .)" Knooa nni ncy TOona niii nvav n^JD: 
viiara ipisai iniaia p'isn nj kV« niaKno dp dw hV'Idh ^aa aim 
^y mina aina Kson Ki> aii [f. i b] .maK a laa n'>'3D3 dtijib ') 
D'p'Tsi D'Ton vnE" B"yK p'Tin n: Hv ainaw ma niaKno tap ow 
D'p^Kn nw nM D'on p'TS c'h nj ns ama «SDn n:3 'a ,anioJ 
'3 aina kS omaKa iiaw ,-'tst\ 'ana -j^in n'.TB iioita ,na i^.'wn 
inaia'i qm 'a aina «XDn nV a"3 pnyai ,D'Dn nvii ':b^ i^nnn sx 
rrn nt ^ai ,D6niK 3&r on wk d« 'a aina »b a'3 apv'3i ,'"' 
.iBncii o'liDa 1" nnct?i qt3 yoitr [nora] imaia 
Mw p'Tsn n: loa lanpii oniDa ;■'■' nnicE' 'o ^a piapa ai cm 
pnsn niD loVi «x .la ychvr- k^ cpvi 0*00 n^ia niffn ^a nwi 
ni pi D^iya ikot Ki>i D'payn iS'bm i^ia a^iyn ^a paoi ^laon nap 



> For the full title »e« above under EditionE uid Mis. Tereiou I. 

3 All lextaftl caireclions arc put in brackets. 

4 Comp. ed. Mai, col, 203 beg. . . . T'2 nBMJB ]ll ]" -UIS ■ . . Wjf) 1" 
■ ..rrflm "ps )■" tin iidmj pi i" ini.Ti "i-oii; ed. Blogg, 1867 p. 12, 

5 Comp. ed. Mai, coL 181 beg., YStBl ...il'TOK n^JM 11311 K^ nuj 
...n in nwam mai ,ia iw ruaiss mn ,aTai«iis rmi tdkib /n on 
cd. Blo^, p. 5, 



vn. THE XVII CENT. MASSEKHETH PLTtlM 



183 



Trip Tvra/ [maia] 101312 rrn nt ^31 nrna in« vn it?Ki rani ijibki 
13 ^n«i n3'n3 nniei D':3n2fi d""iid3 Tsneri^ Tnp rrntpi n-o vb'^ 
.'i3nffii nnp dv3 13 nni« yna di''3 
OT"' Tn td «in K^o^Kt? 310^ ckh initt list ]i3"i3 'i TOS 
D'»n» inD3n3 wn k^« j'-nn ajjo a'viv i-n k^ i^n 3'B3 a^iyn 
.D^iV3 1" min [nsrrn] n3nB" »hp ns n3'n3 nniot 
mSh dSs ni3«n bo ir3« pnt' 'ra vrp ins rtob iion 3-1 tm ' 
an nrwa ncn^ dk o [vn vh rpoy] n'n kV vpojn vo- Vsc 'ibd 
BTsn i^Ki ,[Tn«] nnw ot3 iIjtb yai «^ n'jiy^i ,min3 3in3» id3 
0^13 nii2Tpn ^3 3in3 Kson K^ 3'ji .[innssi] inn33i d'3'j6 i'jj> 
^30" Tobo p3t? 1 nD« [f. 2 a] .p'Tsn ni !?»3 "Vi^ ninu m •"' m'l 
inr ni ^c i'>D«3 wan nVyD"; mn fn^vi] n^iyi -n )"3 i3ipn na 
r» ivsrh i'dih k^i hok nt SjJi [mnon] nj nn 'n mi 3in3tr no 
.CTTDT?^ »h» mhih y» bTii mo mi ,'n'cy ^v»s pn b nK] 'n^n 
TDi nnam ''a 3'n3 'vrt? nion K3'an noa '■in pie it3» t TDK 
3"ni ,piTp3 iBiSs fn ^y imai '^S-n itmi iin;;'? nawn av n» 
yyi ,n^3n^i PiTp^ y [iS n^ni?] n'nci nat? rusins dsosS dim 
,pmn na-u^ v' 1^ "'™' '^1^ 1"^" "" iio^^ ^i3' "i^k pien naiaa 
ra .iniK toib irw? i"n '^1^ nuim 'jt: ■!«» b -ibid win rem 
3»Dni 3iDn yab tti nii*' 'S'b i i» 3 jnton ^y k3 hm sh 
.'inrw^ 3'Bom tvti'^ 3iBn ''■Vitki ]iff«in p yna [n-n] km i^'cki 
en TT3't? Mi-x-s '3 unnK*? 3'nom i" nnit? Kirit? n'TiS aion ■'b 
Tvnv no "js niriy Kin innac ^^no n'^^K oy rswyb poi! ni-K 1^ 
8*1-6 -psc? KSBn 1133 3"a .''annK^ 3'bdi nn>"T^ 21B Kint? kmj 
^n 13D mn ^3 nSj'Er -psi .pn p losy [Tyse] lys'c ^y mca 
.1D1301 TSyn nniTtn B'cn nKDia Tun^ n3 [npTp] iipTip nyi 
wf DTTD' toff "c'j ByBHi ,K3n oSiy^ p^n an"? fK nanan llT 
ono i^Kt? K^ o^yS) n-y 1331 ncoBi n"3pnD o'o •ran i'?kb'i dts 
no'3 p"' n'apnp d"j!ki ,ny'Bj3 isspi miK 'liaSaB coa ia "pnoi i" 
T03 nns TWO on^ n^ moa d'b I'jKtPca n3ii?«T3 mn '83 onw 
nrraa irjm nt S3 oj; .on d'td -3 mDO oti mnsS ib' kSi aifiap 



* BtriiAuk Kaiia eh«p. 36. 

) Cmap. ed. Mai, col. 215, beg, fMm ...*mil tfV\ htl Htm va nvt D» 
ri-jB mn -WW ■» om in 161 ■ . . . la d-b ins ai iftii cro frw i'"*- 
7« Cf. /V/a*.« io6«. ^h Ct. if^jiAwA S9''- 

• Comp. ed. M»i, col. l8[, beg. .,IQn D^^ p'Jtl 0.1^ \'* T310 TO TO '160 



i84 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



b'stpa rvn nti [f. 2b] pw'? [033'] oisi k^c t^ ntai o-on by 

.nan D^i3^ phn 

ninotpn '?3» td^jo »i3« as'? noB'- i"i a'WT no -o-o ai cm 
nni« enp-c onp np« mw we-iitpa 'a tb^i ks .i"n ^y jn n^ivac 
paff V312D nnw E'^ptr inxi j",! Sv I'ditb niaia nit?j?^ •ps 
^y p-niBDi pDiDi nnotp ^ipi puf ^ip rSv )noi«i i"n !?j? niaia 
n-ip*? t"n ^y iT3^i i"3 ns'sen mpy'? I'ls n^'o nnaa a-:i .pn 
^t? VD3 pn ID I'on^ T"!^'' b'cjjb '3 "n T'oia i^ tdi^i nV-b ar 
aab noB" ]■"! ainap ne inti ,)"n nisna lajnS 'la Dtjys '3 ■rt'n 
D'aiB D'pcon ba nniffi ^bD 'i^yD ba bai« rrn D^« dkp enw 
.nnoE'n mu ]"n 'a .not? ^y»^ yai? is^'K i« nmc ti'ki obipair 
'i« KniBi mr -bya nvii unnxa ^ik mn Kin Kict pD» T 
Minfj «in «miN nuSsa nnn ia KinK T'lni' ao tnon n-^T yrx 
n'byi 'b '!« 'DKi Kinh Knai l[npj)i] nyiit pyt 'Wion ■'b mvi ubi 
in^Bn hbsnn) '"' oTp •■bsi 'niaia hy V"di ao K^o^ ri^a n'-bi inub 
n'-on p'T3 ts"K iniK nwipw 'ipi p^ttn na 'p^N wn s bSono rrn pi 
naca 'a^an ^Ktr -pisVia ]13t m' o'lica lancae-i Dia yoiff maia 
'ipt nab nyaffiB" 'jnaca •]-ish ^l^Il K'nica n^a nint?b nxia nairo 
jfDiPi .pKn by D1S B'anb 'n'wy icto 'n ba ns nianb fjisis sbi 
n»'i 71 !'■' nsa rieb wo-'i ]"t3» -i 'j'y nn " bj-i inbcn rw na'pn 
.rr-imb n'b ^'!^l diti lam 
K2«o yoEftf aiob iiat pupa 1 ksk 'a«D 'nyoc y^M aT hdk 

.n^sK-Q 'o' ntptre ]aiD hm n«an nw 
,piapa "1 .p-ui .paiP an /ana an spn 'aai ]n l^KV [f. 3 a] 
•nB'B laKD iJ''Kt? TD iia jTat? n .jnat? niic rrn «in .pon n 
piapa '1 .Tcn t:"d ■^ .imbv ntps )ijij '-1 .naanon \"'vu ynn i 
D'itKO 133 [bKTtff'] noff ^3 vrf OK loiB H-H Kin .lb nan I'K 
jisc T by iTDK -ibia n» y^iao n^w ^33 pen -n anoy ]nap ■ni 
nwn rrnipsi -id'E" n^n »b» dt rrn Mbc 'ob pai? "i loff Kipa nob 



9 Comp. ed. Mu, coL 189, beg. I'rr nj ^» Via 'MB I^IT) 311 p» 1 TB 
ijiai nam nrrsTa %» ijnai |" cn^ rrn «Si ... -p-o laSn nm orBP rn b-m "bni 
r" 'jv ma DH^ loni] to ... b^b ^p; ed. Elogg, p. 7. 

» Comp. ed. Mai, col. 1S3— 185, beg. nu tns 2'h 1^ r.i D"TDiji Tveon ^» 
...]n l^m; cd. Blogg, p. 6. 



\'n. THE XVtl CENT. MASSEKHETH PURIM 



185 



rm vfx/ tjf i*B3 imioi rsia '?y jnis .Tn i>ik^ ^£^B'l n-nw i" nfs 

pDH T Sp noK .nB'B laKD li'KB T-B 113 KljSJ nt ^yi .-O'l IDlPn 

nbw BT rrn [t^ 3"3i nn« nion i^ n-m? dib-d i-usn t mxt unps nnS 
«^ B^iy^i T" [niN'jel n«'^o niyaT a iicnn by n-n rem iis-w rrn 
ir ni iicnnt? oipo o^eb -jhin n^n «■? b^ij?!)! ,ni3pn [vn] n^n 
<Tn in'30 Kst? lip Bv ^33 Tern ,rhy j^iipos' ]" mysT '3 vp 
31D mn BiK -aa oy imo n'ntpsi ,'n []■" n'yai] )"3 ■'ysi nnw 
IDin 3T iDt? Kipj ni byi nun ly Bipua hmi vao nsr rrn ;"no 
'JBD pi-u 1 lot? Nipi nob p3i: i by iidk .i3jnon i"'yD3 [pen] 
b"tn iTOKi nriK nB'i'?3 »■' .nnw nybas -n j" ivyzi nnic rrnp 
.imbv '■«?« p2-u K-ipa nt byi ,)-ui3 ni ■'^^ nn« n33 ibd nnwn 

UV3 TVfl B-O lb TVrVf 'IBD '-O'O 31 TD» «ip3 Hob '013 'T by ITDH 

1DT3D b'TsDi ibin n^n in'3 nnco «3t? omp ip3 b33i ib'Titd b»« 
IDB' Kipi m bpi 10T30 *n j" npt?D irm ioT3b lE'moai icmob 
me" *»D pnp3 'n id» Kip: nob piap3 t by ncK .tbh -cia 't 
Dn« inm pb ins 'n p' niM'bo [f. 3 b] ''pi3p3 ow -non nK«3 1^ 
nb'b3i .m«bo rn Toni ntoi nm n'nt? «b3 niCK -i ^bln rrn «bi 
rnw»no nbyob B*pi2p3 [iniw] ini« nbin n"n jtrb ibin n'nwa 
Tir mi [nbiy] nby ni vd -pnb jn'^bwo -nv n-n n3»:o n'iias micsi 
M33»« nvTO rby 'nyni? ^« .ib noM i'« pi3p3 i lot? 8ip3 nt byi 
[ont?] U'w? 0''pi3p3 Kb3 ]'3bin []J'k»] li'Ktr 'isatPKn Kson Ton '3 
.pi3p3 '1 Tsib Bn'Txa B'lbn 
Dp .TOrnffSi in»i ibsK .iniin sniiyos kti ^b [j'otn] ptn j<an 
nvt ^^l .KDrrKi n'by 'cm "ya HnnaB-D i"pnw in«i KTt ib lom? 1 i<3i 
fei Hin bi3on '00 miN inbsnp p'lsn ni 'pbK km ; ttst bi? inben 
73Bb anpntp 13-ipno nin':n nn n« nnTnci im3i3 n3'n3 uw tpk 
•msD ■•no'ip 3'i 'iHi D'fifi3 ■ore':i p' nnt?ff 1202 n'n nr bsi 
mucib KTt -lb no'bt? hibt mbpb -pDn «3 'n' D'iid3 >nT3«!ffii 
rw n^aTi inbcnb n-3pn yoci .Dnisi? 'SD3 nbn biyan bKi inin 
pon "11 ,i"3 ici: b3 I'mc 'dik pae" 't .Kin '«wn tvuibe .kti i 
'"i on .bsn nffyB" 'oik pi3p3 n .n-'3iy 'j'sin naon by dim? oik 
.pi3p3 'T3 nsbn pj-u 
BTU ipasy B-iu .nnor Biii ijn ibwi )"n by i-idmj onai :■' TD 
.mon bsbso ;[D"i'yn] crononKo .O'lfin o^ko ^ns^pn D'lu ,nix? 

tBD b'io jbit? cm inp-nip oiu ,*ii3t nnia jtio nbao 
.■■Di minn 'ip'y j-'b tot .hm^ dii: 



J 



l86 STUrHES IN JEWISH PARODY 

MODI K'lici KOT ^bya mm KmiN3 ^n« Kp mn win won *1K3 T' 
laoa iSap psB* 'ii ,i" nntp n^i j" hki k^ to'd 'T«a 'ii ,fDB' ~i fp3^ 
ini« [1231] 11331 [f. 4a] ninc^i ^i3«^ vjb^ d» ,k3P3 1301 niET tnn 

[31ID '!j3 or KStp K^D] «'tO^O 13^1 On« ID nil" '3'0 T IH 'J Vish Bff\ 

noi «in no vt «•? '3 ooirwDi Vnac lep npecn ni nttnea "TKa ii 
^J'K no"? 'I 1^ 'o«i iKo iy ■ii3''t? n'm vaoS 3tp'i ;-oo i K3i id» 
nnpi i^EP D133 im« dci i"no Tot? i np'i .i«d «in 31d "o ram 
nt 'n'«T k"? 'O'D n'MS t i"? S'-jni 'jns nntr i"? idk 3 ntti p3» i 
ao'i i«o TV nioi nSnj min ]i3C' '"i Tin'n .'n'ric k^ •d'di njwon 
2'tpni nnitf nriK noi i'7 icwi n'?n23 Dp'i i3 nocj iKtn k^i 13^ 
yBtrpai .i«o ly D'pinoi d''?i^s d'o ijd'9D3 I'mt? u« 'Ttta t iS 
'Di lav no 1^ loKi iKo TV n-ioi nbm np^n pjnri y\xr -i n 
rrpyw npvsn x^n '33t ^3 ijjotri .KniD3 s'd mni?!? '^sk mbn iH'an 
niKo T ["jipn] ^')^ '3 nnw v:n3i nnn njjt?ai nnn roa n^3 imi 
.m no ^yi ni no !?y nyi^ 0^3 v^k isap-i hdib niKo t ^y tidtb 
npyon pst? "i arh tdd'i .yin nwyon n^n no ib iSkbti i'^k wan 
D'iain ^3 nyi'i .k'iib3 «'o mnB''j in^aa Kat? nt^ 1^ yfiw jnn 
1^ i^KB"i 11K0 ODintTDi TmsD on'JB^ Ka-"! ."Twa '1 iiay inSeri 
■■■oy !Dn^ a^cm .^^ln nn« )t<Si nnx oy nfKoi «3n i'koi nn« is 
■>a«i .nB'3'n nKi n^n r» nry ni?K kt '3k mstrn pVw nwi oik 
.-[TV DP noi TD» no 1^ iS[tt?i .r»yD ni»y^ 'JiVb DipoV t^vi 
nni3 [ntp i3^] aab t?'i yap ixs 'Ty dpi .'oe 'tk3 dh^ a-wm 
'i3T ^3 layni m .n'y was prni' ■ffinw misano ''pinm D'at d'oo 
ly niiBTB' 'WO [f. 4b] m imM [i^^pi] in'j^pi [mi] iniTJi to'inm f^ 
lipT'^Bii lot? ["iKa] n'sa '3 rvy db-i idb" nan?! nyin 131td [^vo] laww 
in^B'i .naitpn ntfyt?! o^iy^ n'o [nne"] inB" s^tri ,Ka' mi ^h m 
13^ by 12-ih pon 'T ,pj-u 'T ,pi3p3 -1 I" '33T 'J nr ^aa D"a 1^ 
yopi .I'ni^yini i"n nmo i*: iioo^i nyin lanio [3iir»] X3W 
.Tn-r .niicKT .1^ lame nai^nn nti .nsipn niB-y^ I'^y ^api arrhtt 
no ^31 D'on by i^' kI'B'i n^ qip n«T n^cf [nicisi] D'cm d'ibt j 
i:na iiyi .1131? n'n' K^t? ot n'n'* k^wi v"3 ^Efiao [rm'] n^n-w ^aicw 
'n )" kIjo nvana nr '?3a D'oye 'J nnn n3» n^nt? ,mn« nai»n 1^ 
■^ai nyan '!?a laoo nincrb ^aTc? nrana ^3 ta ^^■T»l dttj; itu 



" Comp. ed. M»i, col. 189, beg. •^ iss imi miK m«nj rrrr nnit dtd aip 
. . . nin»^ run nvr lAi . . . p "I'D ^3 v»S warn d'^ibt ■wa paw; ed. Blogg, p. 7—8. 



Vin. UTURGIC PARODIES OF THE X\TITH CENTURY 



187 



rrp^ T^m vhv ^2pi nt?p nt bi r'nt? 't ^K^pl id» ni-i?! .q'tio 
pap 1 TOK .loy K'li o-'ia naini iT'inii nai \r\srtt loy wani 

*»mD Tpa*? T^^ DW a"n oniD o-nj) Btnn ■: pen "\ idn" 
DHi ^n Bv ^D2 ejJD DHO nint?^i nniB injj d'3ib nu" i^ t?' dk 
iVsK iTH win DKi .nniB^ p' nap'i i!5 v^a no ^3 noo- i*? ]-» 
-at 1^ I'M D«i .natr\ iyv; i^jisn i^-sk ncK wn am v'jye' ^aion 
"in« c^nj D'piapa 'Str I'^y Ton k»'t n'S^ n'ao ^kp't 7^' ^1DDV 
.[tppian'' h!ji] lET'ajin ^ki dhb 1"c inHi la^ )"d 
1^3 'nroma isipn ^ki t^o'? li'wm iyo» "tovi "yii '"« p!? 



I 



CHAPTER Vm 

LITURGIC PARODIES OF THE SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY 



These parodies are found under three different names: (A) 
niaiyo, (B) D'T» and (C) B'BVB. 

(A) In Mai's edition of the Masseklieth Purim of the 17th 
century, there are two Iiymns: (a) D11B ^P JH?KT VS a^Tjns beg. 

miana tmnai D'jpi onoc S'^ (col. 217—219), and (b) ^'^ anpa 
Dme "w '3» beg. Vi---s?\^ nya-w ora 'tniK (col. 219—221). Each 

of these consists of ten stanzas. The first hymn is also found, 
in a slightly modified form, in two manuscripts belonging to the 
Jewish Theological Seminarj- of America, viz. in the rtlTD 01377! 
m^ of Zachariah Pugliese (f. 22b— 23a), which will be discussed 
in chapter XII, and in Codex Frankel, fascicle 3. described below.' 
In each of these two versions, the hymn consists of sixteen 
stsfuas, but the text and arrangement of these stanzas differ 
quite considerabl)-. In Blogg's edition of the Afassekketh Purim, 
the two hymns are not only disfigured by many textual errors, 
but are also confusedly blended into one hymn of sixteen stanzas, 
>* Camp. ed. Mai, col. 185, beg. i|mD& . . . -pgi, mi tne cmp Di* vsthm irin 

■ See aUo kbove chapter VL 



i88 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



to which Blogg added two new stanzas with his name in an 
acrostic, resulting in what Steinschneider justly called a "Flick- 
werk ausserst geschmack- oft sinnlos" {LetUrbode, IX, p. 5i,c). 

(B) In fasc. 2 of Codex Frankel, described above in chapter \1, 
there are four wine-songs, parodying four Sabbath hymns, headed 
by the collective title D'llB nni:t?3 lei's D'TBOa O'^iyo D'W. 

(Q Fascicle 3 of the same codex consists of a collection of 
parodies entitled D'lDnil O'Ki D1DVB, which is made up oi 
(a) [a'lyo], mentioned above, (b) D'llD^ llff, a wine-song of Me- 
nahem de Lonzano, beg. 1" nnps ITiK (Comp, Monaisch., voL 46, 
p. 574, no. 94), which is no parody, and (c) B"H ^p ... IT 
imion era nniDn, a very obscene poem. All the hymns 
enumerated above, excepting the poem of Lonzano and,J|^ 
obscene poem, are reproduced here below. ^^H 

.'DniB ^ TT»«i b"^ anpD § I ^1 

3(1011* 3"nKi ipi nVip!? id ibw) 

nt^ m i»y>» ij? ,*muna in»> a'-apn cnina d'-i13» It!* .1 

.^G'STj? anyon ^'wa) mi' 'aw nfls 
D'UT^i ,»n^m ion nn tspk .nV^^n ni '[Kin] o'liaw ¥> i 
'"B3) n^'J3 i-DB"! D'ln iHt? p ^y ,n^sm nri 9[,nn'n] 

"ToiK ="n«i .Ti'iff ijji ^^ ijf w"p pipi ."(!?KTt?' Toy a'H 
•JD11B OT 'C'S .«in D'liB nv "1131 ,injn^ c« low .o'nuBf ^'^ .3 
.HD'iuB ^^3 .np» 1" nin»^ ,\^p-^ lapi i-ys ,DniB 

» So io M»ii in P (= Mi. Puelicsc): DliL (j'^j") 11PB; in F (— ftia 
Fianke!) this verse is wanting, uid in itE stead there is. the foUowtnf iUW" 
dnctoty vetse: Q'lina nan d'hb nnoBs o'liDtff b'^3 Diomi) d'twh ITIO W* 
D'aijt anyon ^k V(t ^^n^i nnin^, 3 Only in P. 

4 In M (»= M«i): mam nllrai O'^ja, s Only in F. 

5 So in F. and P.; in M.: tKl ^mv "Bra iltO 1" ,mi3P npWS "^ T* 
minsi p3 ntwn. 7 ■Wanting in M. 

« In M.: ...pn m-n ■mta -a; in P.: .. .pn vnta -mm. 

5 Wanting in F. 

'o So in F. and P.; in M.: n'jWI 7\ra inm. 
<< Theie directions are w&ating in M. 
" In F. and P. ...liDl ...nor; in Mai ...Dl" -3 lUt. 
U In F. «nd P. D11B in ^'^3. 
M The whole reise ii wanting in F. and P. 



^P vni. LrruRGic parodies of the xvutk century 

- vB'Tia ,n3'i'3 asn n*?? b^b" ly .Da'nffo wan 3ib i" .t?"^ 
,T33 na ^v K33 mo's ,T3B' ]dj31 wa nnitffn .b'hb 

-"w^a ,irp "jy aait? a^aai .iryi -lapt ^jj -m .ams 

I'3D"n2 ,rjin p \ih wan ,ij)'ja 110*0 pii .vh 
**.V"h2 ,)ia»B K^a aiB y-' K'^an^ jia* Kin nnpp lan .oniB 
'iiBTia, ,ixiNa p"i Tw-i" ^a ,i5 I'ca n^aiDTn .vh 
"*.t?"^a ,nnDe dt ^nit?' Sa^i ,nnaB or Kin .nnie 
»'.BTia .B'Bica nioia o'Tapc ,B'Dnn icjij coann .v~'> 
■".©"iia ,3Bn BjfBi ntpai i"3 ,r|mo2 B'spn b'ivj .d'tib 
''.fna .n^ipcn ]ci inaian p ,kVbi ^n: oia rcn\ .vh 
QB^ njBBi iniD^ imoD ,n:na J"[ia^'] ^'n ^k ^no .d'Tib 
,n»3 nnK djib b^ijj^ npjt' lai .naiy ^aa nnob 1^ nvpi 
j'-o'iiatr y^a ,nMi3 ■inots'3i mna n^aa 
•S II 



»S In P.: CTBO "ItWI yrMTQl »B"pll ,0'mJD il3«<^ ms a-H; in F. ihis TCrtc 
ii iranting. 

'6 In F.: rmVTt or mn di" rta ,nrr ^Da mnr^ oy^S i^sp; in P. ihii »etse 
ii wanting. 

'J In F.: M3 BBh KM' ll^B IJ ,D:in"nB .Tnn 310 1": in f- »3T D'""! 1" 

ess Bsn n-n" nSw -w .ns-neo. 

»* In F.: TM ^a ra ,. .liVTi IDn CD nplBH; in P.; ...IDn OtS nfHtW, Ihc 
nprcstion *DC ]D{n miul be construed xi "OV I9V131 Or elie read pn'pl. 
«9 Wuiting in M. '•> In F. and P.; nn'S^- >■ In M. Ufx. 

■■ The whole ferse ii wanting in F. and P. 
•J In P.! iT>n '>s .Tbni;i pn ^p ,tBta noic 11 "rii in P.: ursn irts wwr pi 

...Ort; in M.: ...IBIT J"!!. 

H In M.: ... ItSs r --.IJ^" OMpP,,,; in F.i ...lAs T . . . T^" °"T» - ■ .! 

i« P. : sio p nijfft 113' mn . . , 
»i In F.! iJon p inw ^« ,t( aTB im rcsism; in P.i ,i» d.tb dk flwnan 

two WT ^K, 

•6 In M.: ... "c ... mrae di' nan; in F.: ...nrow nv ki.t; in p.: di' nw 
nrrto D13 ^intr W nrraei Trran. 



I'T In F.: 

' In M.: 3*11 1W331 pS; 



,01)01 onin 



mnb; 



1 P. thii 1 



I wantini^ 



. . <^m03 O'^pi TPT ; wanting ii 



» In F.! rAwDl It'JBlB imiO."! p ,»rtol -n 013:1 TTX; in P.: IWTJ DD.T T 



« In F. : 'H Ufi IWB" 131 ^1)11! ^33 rV3n3 ■ 



. n»ia 13^* ^'n id V-no 



^H 


■ 


STUDIES IN 


JEWISH PARODY 


"^ 


^^H The difference 


in the arrangement of the stanzas 


in the various^^^ 


^^H can 


be 


een in the 


following table. 




^^B 




Ms. Frank eL 


Mb. Puglieie. 


Ed.BI.CE. ^ 


^H SUnia 




1. 


1. 


*- ■ 


^H 




z. 


2. 


"- .fl 




3- 




3. 


3- 


s 




3a- 




wanlinE. 


»«nting. 


's. H 




4. 






4- 


.uu.,. ^H 




4«- 




4- 


wuitiiie. 


^^B 




. 5. 




14- 


6. 


^^1 




S»- 




6. 


7. 


^^1 




6. 




S- 


s- 


^H 




6t. 




wanting. 


wuning. 


" ■ 




7- 
, 71. 




7- 
8. 


9- 


,; ■ 




. 8. 




9- 


10. 


...,1.,. ■ 




, 8a. 




IOl 


11. 






. 9- 




u. 


wintiDE. 


: ■ 



.D'*TiB ^ "xr 'yb anvD 



ill 



J3.n':u' !j3 TDnbi ^bn^i nnir6 ,d'33131 nripa an-B n« D'nniB 

,mn3 Dj; ^20 ■\•atff^ vma ,mnm yn niot?^ ni dts .: 
j'.msT 1^ m nrs ispi f ,moK npsi ]*« oirm 

11DX D"ii:i:' Vj [verse i6j iiDK" tKi ,iiDB ptn IS nj)T3 iisrt 111 ni'Ta ni'ia ^"un 
cwn 'jsi ,iDi»a D-nsDio d-odikji i"n -t.t -jiibi dDura ioibb bk '3 tdki tn'm 'ya*^ I 
mi nnnKQi ni"i3 rt-ja annDn iji iww in ni d'twi .ioki idk ut; in P: 
iDin 0"n(o nB»i i» -13) '31 foi nnom ... dud iot' 13i njis '333 mrtBh in^ra .t 
^10 tytm no "piai ,io»3 jjibo an -3 lotn bi^n ^i3«^ •nan B"iav i-h [verse 
i»B ptn T» 131 (nsi n'jisi -piis' n] i'j"'n nom nc isc iiw in m im« iw D»n ';: 
,Q"[n nwir rrannw tb ,Q-priaD inn b-itbo i'jsk o-tidb ^-^t [veree 15) low s'Tn 
•pi^B n3o IB '131 MTsan .^Kiw ii«i '-(ts .o-pnV i:b'33 lan D"pnn "BSi naon ^' 
^J3" iniK ^ran di ,»»' wiw n'O ransm .oiiit I'n m3 n-nm rii [Tctse 1 



' '» 'sii '.T "iBio rm rem ^ti i 



"•13 .01 ^B ID'BTl. 



3" Re»d 31 msio i" ymv Cr. Esther I, 7- 
33 Cf. Ect. Blogg, StuiM 1. 



4 Cf. ibid., Stuiia 1 



I 



Vm. LITURGIC PARODIES OF THE XVHTH CENTURY 1 

»\M2t6 D'o nnipi ,iTTt3 rvfy ipk P'Kn .onop ^''? 

i^.D'mD jn 'o'a ,ti n-na wy piay 

TV 'D^ijj^ lonnn^i ,T3 inisn^ 'iKi ,td nniip ij'«» ^3 .vh 

JT,nrm innn!? n»y i'?k3 ,wn in'an^ ncy -ck b^kh .t?^ 
.B'na nin e'jiya h^p- i-aen 
.B'Tia ia!j ^p KB" liijn ,12 vdi nnv nio ,m'' tiaa p^inn .p'^ .6 
^3 nasi ,ioBn f^a pi ffenc'' ^ki ,)di»3 iStpan ntfjp ,P'^ .7 

3*.B"n3 ]D« oyn 

,P3^ ssnaa n^^p .trana D'iJioo o'njM nwjj^o jijion .t?"^ 

.B'na pan' oniDun iraai 

yiTa ^n^na nypn la ypim .n^yn'? rran^ iDia o^ion .p'S 

.B"na n^nj"? 'inii 'pa c"n kito 

n"HP '^ya ^yi ,D^yn' d^j) ]E?"ai nyi ,ai^n 3-.p' ysitPD .vh .10 

.B'na .Di"?!? naiD ditb' 

.D'liD ^c? ■'W ^'^ anya p'^a 

.cn'SDD n^^ CT'-i^t? § III 

.aniaff ^'^a n'liB nnaea lotV 

nain o^aano imiye k '?a iibjb inK"? o'liap ^'^a 

DTiKOai DBPa D'Kipsn on ,r6m mian ot? o'E'iyi bihk 

niPTH viiyi ,^ny Mnbo kh'' a»i ,Kin bc ^nai iiap k aipaa 
,]'3i^ nnipy ■« 'ja niSna nioiai ,D-'«^e aia )"d B'jpapi B'piapai 
(Salame) t3«Skb a"3i .I'Wan nain ay B'oyaDi oitb on'JBSi 
Di' mn D'naB6 lanan av IfC i:"iye onan ikpi (?) 'oibtbi 
.omac ^'^ ^1? nn'Bjn I'^'nnoi .a'liBn 

(tn Vrpa Dncim jimti D13 j-jiid) 

'«a npina ki" 'wna »v 'wna ,naT nnoffa ioi« n-i-w ^ipa 
.(S'nn- s-nn) .K'T: K^a Hi" ['Kna] 



ii C(. the previous hymn, 



t 3'. 



, whicli bu Ihe reading ivia*rt ]" nmw I'm. 
I 37 Cf. llie pievious hymn Stanza 4a. 
[ }■ Cf. the preiious byrnn, Dotc 31, F. [vene 16]. 
[ » Read nu Cf. Ps. 109, 19. 



16], and alio Ed. Blogg 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

.ononn av hit d-'Iib dv 
•nnnni D'nii? niDiD ntw^ '3 

D'ptPD ■!«» Ni'l n'6 «'?3 310 p 

B'iBpi o'''?n3 c'K^a D'lpipn ^3 



□'«^D 0*73 mC'CXl D' 



'P13P3 



'njnt" 



.[]'33iD jn^ bj) nvn"? do'ts niDoi 
•p'^n* S« TTTiff mso3 

T3D«^ t?TI'l tVk Hip Dip 

^3'1Jfl DJi 'n ^3 lyoffi 

■pn 133 '3 nnD»3 nn» 

n3T n'Tit?! tpnpi nn^ oiyii 

n3'i3 mil E'Dj/DD 3na 

n3 D'"ont?Dn V3 3ie 311^ isr 

.M3n n'?iy "n^ ^nij nK'33 

,imD» B'Kn 'TtPM ,Kin not? d'iib dv<' 
;inT3» )"n oyi 

,13 pHl pn D'3n ,13^ h» Dtf ^Kl 

.I3in HK yTB' nun m^ o«i niTi new 

,D'3i3yn3 ncn' ■?«(!) ,D'J1i j" ■i»3n 

jffas ns^ n^M ns d«i 

i3"3 ysrt !»« i-oi? nvT m 

.1013 riK iyoa3 «3o n'y3 p n: 

.■poD v^y 310 i'^ ,^nJ) niD jn^t? a«i 
.p^^b rrn" ijnt ,in»Ki i'i3i «in ima ^pa 



I 



*° This poem parodies Ihe Sabbath Etc hymn cmn^ "IW anBWl HtlUB ot 
Rabbi Moses. See Zuoi, Ula-aturgeich. JS4, no. 64. 

4> Faiodies the Sabbath Eve byinii Hlrt Vip n3V D1' of Rabbi Jonathan. See 
Zanz, Hid,, p. 486. The paiodj bas the same acrostic at the origioaL 



Vra. LITURCIC PARODIES OF THE XVHTH CENTURY 193 

nmi K3 aniB m ,nnaK3 '3 vai 

,p^»n ^7 D'niiD nn ibk »>,pn 'atK ib» wb 
•1^ 13n''T Miom y^2 DroyDD ikisi 310 p ny 

nsVon TTOKi '3Tio^ m>Bi n2» un 

.nai Ti mji^ ran nnw npi nntc "p 

^ispnrrn in^ o-oyooDi .nip'Sin nna oici 

;nip"Dn iiinm 

,Tt?w aniD ino^ '2 ,inD!jn3 n'^^ason men^ 

.^Tnoff nanjs 'in nnoji ipoynii nnt: wi 

nran )tBW2 nosa rrot? iSk o'pn 
nmst?! nn»D rt? oi'a nitrv^ 

•irrliap nnwa 73n^ ^p o'-iii iwri nuno oy 

,^HX" 'i3 lOj;^ ,^K DIP -BPH niKH .Tt 

•^Kin jon oniBa '3 
.laj '5 hut Ton 'Vi^ ,ioi "raK inwj?^ 
.T( ^trtr^ TIPS K3W ^3 TDcna nnot?^ 13^ 73,131 
any 

,]1«^D' 31D 1"D1 .11S13'' niDlSn ^3 

,11^13' on o'aep om 

,0^1p ^B3 TBf 711x2 ,D'?133 IJIT ^Kl 

o^ip rrn» T't? im iiaen 0^3 d'tti vet 

T -n33" 

» nu'iu ^'W 3-'nii) 

L** Tie •Eprcsuoit '']0!\ 'JIM" u aUo fonnd in ■ poem bj M> & GhirondL 



194 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



npiriD MJ" ■'Ka ^nK^p^ pni pa 
^^^^3 |" nirr^ nnitsn naa wa^ 
.K"o 12 in»n «Si rv"rit?n ^a ^ani 

.D'pna oral ia ^i3«^i 

D'owiao ma" ninp cits noa inp^i 
B'ojJc na-vT nintpiji ^dk^ O'Itjid 'pMBni 



131 nawn^ 



Tai Tsrcrn^ 



131 "Qn»r6 



131 T3Jl»n'? 



lai T3n»n^ 



n'jna d'tsd 'b »i^ apr iSna 

nSwa^ lat'i ani Twy irmaa* 

n3^n3i m3 rtovri dh ciib or 

n^'M D'liB DVi itajin n'o' ik» 

niTKa aisnb oai d'iidn niDts ^a 

male nu" iS j^k dm cviia rvtvb w 

ninE6 ]•" D'y-n-' yn □« mpu'n^ a^ 

pnnm mi's !?aa □'not?! D'nim 

nnifiS Kin jsij) nrea wnn inVas 

enyt nann nnenira nnawD n'ns?ni 

D'naicD nu" hisd'j nnot? K'n »Bi jaa 

na'ffD m »b3^ mai na^na 

,nniiD Kin a-niB nr ,«an nbiy ti?d 

;nnD» an^ lai' ,n3 n'lanBTsn ^a 

naT3^ i^v ,n'E'0 ■^ano 

nnj«i ]ia' oai .rros' li'nnB 



41 Fuodies the Sabbath Etc hftiin nAon mv HK inniW DTTV ns of Rabbi 
HeM^m. See Lutdihuib rmun -nov p. 195. 




K. THE BURLESQUE TESTAMENTS 

m 'JV I"3 Tl3t 

onisi? '13^ 1333 orn 
D'lai ni3K nD»^ c'Tni 
D'K^o niBi3 'ntsa pipn 

.HD ^'OKl n-iW 3110 



fcTlBSD W"" 

{D'DJIC n(CO ip li'EI 



nKS' Tt?K Dvn 

msDH n»yi 
K3 TDi^ -mr 

11 Tj-SB 'PIT 'iron -jm Di; itw 3"niii) 



» 



CHAPTER IX 

THE BURLESQUE TESTAMENTS OF POLIDO 
AND COLORNI 

... t:31 ... ion ^ n33»ni n«iis WW pTa Leghorn, 
1703. 16°. 15 p. Besides the introduction (KTlpn \<)f ^K), 
which gives the parodist's reason for taking Haman as an ob- 
ject of satire, and the postscript (CIJH^ pin), which gives s 
«vid description of the manner of celebrating Purim in thu 
author's da)-3, tliis collection consists of the following parodies: 
(1) ri3!j . . . pn niSt? nwiisn in two parts. The first begins 
with a few introductorj- lines, telling of Haman's life in prison, 
followed by the parody proper which begins with the words 

-iniKr TIB ^K lyon ;sp'yT\ 'm ipon isapn urh tdki ria^ mp 




196 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

D3'2«, the second with the words "jjn ,*«33n 132 MmitriDb IT^ 
B'TSD^ '2 ,T^P ^BID ll'K "Tp^** 'fl '^^^.f TO"' T1'™'T 11'?**^ ^^^T 

. . . "pnUK IIT M^ 

(2) pnh niBpn beg.: . . . D"n ■n'jK ini« mi Dini*. 

(3) prfy naspn beg.; . . . «son I'Kd nmnm. 

(4) mnw ny beg, : . . . fy^nh runs idk -j^in 3t no. 

(5) ninit iij) beg.: . . . nsinnnn Hoina naioi nsue. 
Abbreviated, but otherwise only slightly modified in text, 

these parodies were reprinted by Lazar Farchi in Pint TBB 
D'TB (Leghorn, 1887, 32', i/f.), f. 14 — iS, which contains also 
a history of Purim in the Maghrib dialect (f, i — 14a). The 
parodies in this edition are divided into two parts: 

(1) y»in ion ha r\»m identical with the first part of the n«ll3 
in PoUdo's edition, and 

(2) JJEnn pn bu naatsn which consists of the following para- 
graphs: (a) J2"iVh mss ^tJK inn'pi 21 no, similar to no. 4 in 
Polido's edition; (b) 1100 ]'KB ncinni, similar to no. 3 in the 
same edition, but very much shorter; (c) naiff'i miSi nnW 
niinnnn, similar to no. 5 in the same edition; (dj J?Bnn pn 
. . . ilKDlBn nil . . ., expressing the same sentiment found in 
no. 2 of Polido's edition, though very different in text, and 
(e) p»l bs 'Ton l"3tK a poem by Abraham Hajyun dealing 
with the history of Purim. This little volume is found in the 
New York Public Library. 

Comparing the above description of D'llB Hint TDD with Stcin- 
schneider's notes in his article Purim und Parodie {Lelterbodi. 
VII, p. 4, no. 7b; IX, p. 53 no. 39b, and p. 58 nos. 55 — 56), we 
find that the second part of D''11D mnt D was already printed in 
aniB n nW'-il'bK (Leghorn 1875), f. 79b— Sob, and in 'O mP 
'aiy'7K2 ^10^ (Alexandria, 1869— H. B., XXI, p. 44—1879), 
p. 16 — 19, where the rrnaEVl follows the poem of fcTayyun. This 
poem is also found in n^30 ^K mt? (Leghorn, 1759), and in 
D'-llB *7a D'JIOID (Salonica, 1875). 

A still later reprint of Polido's parody is found in nUD TTD 
aniB (Bagdad, 1SS9, 12°, 12 p.), which contains also other 
matter (See Zeitsclnifl fiir Heb. Bib. VII, p. 116, no. 19). 




DC THE BURLESQUE TESTAMENTS 



197 



S U. 



aniB jnai TDD (also B"11B inat ITD). The codex of 
which this collection of parodies is a part, has al- 
ready been described above in chapter I § 11, sect, 6. The 
author's pseudonym is found in two postscripts; one on f. 130a 

reads Tyo ''pa man -ipn ''mepni . . . I'iai pn ni3DPn . . . nn 

wniD and the other on f. 131b reads . . . 'nKO niam nt<l Di 
WmDD ■'■■pD. From the last postscript it appears that the writer 
of the codex also wrote the Burlesque Testament, inserting each 
parody in the order in which he composed it. 

The contents of this collection of parodies is as follows: 
(I) w^ pn n«iis beg.: cr rut?^ ewa . . . «3i Kp^KT «ec'3 
jrin T . ■ . nno ki:« i-jfiino . . . nran ytm no id'3 enn^ aitj 
■o , . . nriHTon na . . , pn . . . lav n nKiisn iwyDts wnwii Kwya 

. . . «*1"DK n'an HT'' let?. This Burlesque Tcslametit contains an 
elaborate and enlarged form of the narrative given in the Targum 
Shetii on the sentence njl3"n lOW'l (Esther, vii. g), and also 
HamarCs Bill of Sale (KJ'St IBE"). beg. : nnKTCn 13 pn «)« 
lailK ... (f. 8 lb), the Epitaph on Hitman's Tomb (pn naso), 
beg.: nyaa "p?. bp niolKn nU3 (f. 103a— 103b). which parodies 
3 Samuel, i. 24 — 27, and the Lamentation of Haman tnj'p), 
beg.: M1T3JJ n n'33 310 Wi'J? inrra TO'M (f. Ii6b— 119a), which 
parodies the second chapter of Lamentations. 

fc(2) KytPT pn n33»n beg.: nsisoi jimi nam: rDi30 (f. 124b 
125 b). 
(3) nieo nSiyn rnnn nasffn beg.: m'Hi Kmn pno noinm 
.ibID aipo (f. l2Sb— 127a), This varies but slightly from no. 3 
in Polido's ed. 

(4) n«310^ 'IK njJI npK, a poem parodying Prov. xxxi. 10—31 
(f. 127 b). 

(5) T\iyaT[ beg.: «nio-\n i wo-in (f. 127b— 129a). 

(6) naSi pn^ niDpn beg.: B^iya pSa loinn (f. 129b— 130a). 

(7) pn^ TTK beg.: KIT' H-Ot? TWm ppH' (f. 130a— 130b). 

(8) pn ^ ins^ nnnw nasern beg.: n^Vi '33i n^na nnop 

(f. 130b — 131b). This is followed by the postscript n3'T0 Dfl 

trviH onaT aj; inaacni ]Dn nsiis dji . . . ciib racci nsiai i«3 
■3 vai ib-u TBD^ ,n^asn ^lDD i'j; tc airo^ . . . "^'Hrn nny . . . 



S I". 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

• . . n^pl IKD. The poem referred to in the postscript begins 
)lffff Vlpn inw ^^Vf» and consists of 312 quatrains, closing with 

the words nis'i S«^E*' jnN^ i3K'3nV ,^«un K'^an^ ptt-i nnow v 

bwi IVSS K31 >nKm tflpDH (f. 132—170). 

niBpni ,niKn3 o'KSoa lai nnno n^JDl Dn^ TSD 
nnspni ,niD»a ttdii ,niBpnn inn D'pioBi ,j«?nn pnS 
uiK ly^t jnn lyii nM'c t"> .u'vu^r: h^b D'snji o^mm o'^i^'pi 
mno nViKJi D>ns: nsj^ o^nn p«a D>wiuni n'a^Enoi d''3b^bd 
DmsN 'nr: t'ds ^Kin -in . . . no'i i-an .Dnonjn via^ nno nSar 

pth nri'DSS ^n■'QK3 rue ^'t IT^IB. Ms. Paper, 16". 24f.; foL lO. 
21 — 33 are blank. 

This manuscript, now in the Library- of the Jewish Theological 
Seminaty of America, was bought from Ephraim Deinard. 
Only part of this collection of parodies belongs to Polido, the 
rest is taken from the B'l^B piai of Colorni, as is evident from 
its contents given below: 

(1) TEon noipn (f 2), which is identical with the introduction 
(»nipn yy •?«) in the printed edition of Polido's parody. 

(2) D'lyan pin (f, 3—43), identical with the postscript in 
that edition. 

(3) vaaV pn nsnx o'Iid itui beg.: isapn on*? idmi vaa^ «Tp 

Spyn 'Ja IJfOBl (f. 4b— 9a), identical with no. i in that edition. 
(4} pn^ niBpn (f. 1 1 b), the same as in the printed edition, 

(5) pnS niBpn nj)3» (f 12a), not found in Polido's ed, but 
found in Colorni's collection (f. 129b — 130a) under the title of 

Yizbi pnh niBpn. 

(6) )Dn'? n33t?n Ollp D'plDB (f. 12b— 13b). This part consists 
of (a) . . . jn?T V'by TpBn, not in Polido's ed., but identical 
with a part of no. 3 of Colorni's parody; (b) O'lnw lip b^.: 
. . . ^alO 3T no identical with no. 4 in Polido's ed.; (c) rtDTim 
. . . JOflD not in Polido's ed., but identical with no. 3 of Colorafs 
parody, and therefore partly repeating (a); (d) DTTIK Tip beg.: 
. . . KTOn ]'K0 nmnm identical with no. 3 in Polido's edition; and 

(e) cnti' naxTi oTip o'piDB beg. : nKsio^ 'i« nri rw« not in 

Polido's ed., but identical with no. 4 of Colorni's parody. 

(7) lDr6 nawn {f. 14a— 17a). This part consists of: (a) TOW 



X. EARLIEST YIDDISH PARODIES 



199 



ITPTS lOfaS which differs both from no. 5 in Polido's ed. and 
00. 2 of Colomi's parody; (b) yaTlh 3 n33»n, same as in the 
printed ed.; (c) Jnn« ny identical with no. 5 in the printed ed.; 

(d) rnnK lip beg.: nyhtvi ]iyDi ^p»n nipo . . . miD) roias; 

<e) n jonh n33»n, not in Polido's ed., but identical with no. 2 
of Colomi's parody. 

(8) niOPi ITDI (f. 173— i8b). This is a slightly modified 
version of no. 5 in Colomi's parody. It begins with the words 

. . . BTvnyo DS'naa i»n n^wDisni oniTMn »b3 ay njn^ o'on -nsr 

> • • penn pn V&l rut which arc not found in Colomi's parody. 
The fist of men is much longer here, and so also is the post- 
script 

(9) trvb n33t?n (f. 19a) identical with no. 5 of CoIomTs parody. 

(10) pn na w'j'aiic K^'rm nna na3»n (f. 19a— 19b). iden- 
tical with no. 8 of Colomi's parody. 

(ir) TTBO inana pua »'Tp Oipoa (f 19b). This is similar to 
no. 7 of Colomi's parod>', but is more complete. 

(12) '1H"^B'«1 XniDE'K jn3D3 ]1J'33 Tn« Pip (f. 20a), not found 
in either Polido's or Colomi's parody, 

(13) ni^Sp Dipoa niaia (f. 20a— aob), not found in either of 
the above named parodies. 

(14) On the last leaf is found Gabirol's poem '1" tvfJX in five 
stanzas. 



CHAPTER X 
EARLIEST YIDDISH PARODIES 

A. PARODY OF THE CONFESSIONAL 
brdche: Sug Wide Wort in Wort, 

Wet sech dir setzen a Maie (Geschwur) asoi groiss 

wie a Kwort (Fltissigkeitsmass) ! 

SugL HamaJaeh — dcr Gesalzener, 

HagoUl — dcr Imgesiptcr. 

Oisst — mir, 

A Make dir, 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Makol — der Stecken, 

Ro — der bejser Stem, 

yeworejck — er soil machen knieen, 

Es — in, 

Haneorim — di jinge Lompen, 
Wejkorej — in es soil wem oisgerissen, 

Schenii — dein Numen, 

yetnack sc/ienwi — in sein Numen (wast af Hutnenefl}; 

Awrum — der Schinder, 

JtBSckok — der Blinder, 

Jankew — hot ungemacht a vill Sackele mit Kinder, 

Weidgu — in soUst unlejgen, 

Bekerew — mifn Kopele, 

Hoores — in der Erd aran. Vmejn! (Amen)." 
{M. Grunwald, MitUilungen der Gesellschaft fiir judiscke 
kunde. XIII, p. 9 — 10. Line 320— 240). 

B. MORDECAI AS MATCH-MAKER. 

"Mordche: Nu, dus wet san a Pur Flocken (Entstellui^ aus Ptta 
Volk ■^ Ehepaar): Hor ze ois, ich hob vin deineC- 
wegen a Schideck (Fartie); a Schidechei as ihr scUt 
bejde geschadigt wem. 

A Btuher (junggeselle). 

Is er asoi groiss, wie a Wedjel vin a Kuter; 

A Puitem 

Vin Moiscke-Gnmem; 

A toiber 

In a blinder; 

A sdmmer 

In a krimmer; 

In a standige Pamusse (Verdienst) 

Mit der Torbe (Bettelsack) in die Haser 

Hant klmm in a giter Scku, mit Broit host di scbota 
ken Deige (Sorge) nit. 

(Ba dem Mejlechi) In a giter Schu 



X EARLIEST YIDDISH PARODIES 



Sant ihr Bejde du. 

Setzt sech anider bejde, 

Ich bin eich an alter Sejde (Grossvater), 

Gejt in der Erd aran bejde. 

(zi bejden;) Nu lejenen (lesen) dch die Tnoim (Ehe- 

vertrag) ? 
EjU katnotm (Das ist der Ehevettrag) 
Ilir sant (seid) bejde groisse Goim; 
EjU habgttdem (die KJeider) 
Kaduclus (Fieber) mit kuschere Fudem; 
Nadeii (Milgift) gieb ich 
Kan (150) Sciiok Ric/ies (Geister); 
A Dire (Wohnung) in Hegdesch (Armenhaus); 
Msoinois (Kost) in die Haser; 
A Platz af dem Bejs hackaim (Friedhof); 
Haktnl sstirir wekaim (Alles soil in Kraft und Geltung 

bldben) — 
Awckgejen sollt ihr mit Ejsch (Feucr) tn mit Maim 

(Wasser). 
Masellmvl — Git mir a Rejf vin a Pomenetze (Spiil- 

biitte) wel ich mekadesch san (trauen) dus Pur Flocken. 
Hart (wartet), Kinder, sugt mir nuch Wort ba Wort, 
Wet eich setzen a Make wJe a Kwort. 
Hartj — (Trauungsformel) 
S' soil eich san wind in wej; 

,At 

massen soU eich der Kiewer Kat (Henker), 
pNt der Odesser — 
Er schmasst besscr. 
Mekadesckes — 

Jak Ssobaka breschesch (du liigst wie ein Hund); 
U — 

Darfst ligen in Krementschug in Hegdesch, lig hi; 
Betabaas — 

Wem sollt ihr geschwollen wie a Fass; 
Kedas Moiahe weissruel — 



302 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

A Kapure (Siihnopfer) sollt ihr wem far mir in far 

kol (ganz) Isruelt 
Maseltirw'. Maseilow!" 
{Ibid. p. 13 — 14, iine 379 — 427). This parody is not found in Schudt's 
Jadisdie Merkwurdigkeiten. 



C PARODY OF A "TEmNAH". 



moge , 



'Esther. Jeki ntsoin milifnej lewtni schebaschutnaim: (Es moge 

der Wille unseres Vaters im Himmel sein) 
Allmachtiger Gott, ailmachtiger Vuter! 
Ich bin gekimmen var dir 
Asoi wie an Uni (Armer) var dieser Thir: 
An Uni var dieser Thir thit bejten a Nedtave (Al- 

mosen) scliejnken, 
Asoi bin ich gekimmen zi dir, as di sollst amchu (dcin 

Volk) hruel zi allem Giten gedejnken. 
Jehi rttsoin, etc. 
Allmachtiger Gott, etc. 
Di varlost sech nit dus klejnste Werimel (Wunnchen) 

intern grossten Stejn, 
Asoi bet ich dir Gott, as di sollst imnehmcn mein Ge- 

bejt un mein Gewejn, 
Jehi ntzoin, etc. 
Allmachtiger, etc. 
Erbarm sech iber dein hejUg Volk 
Wus sej schreien zi dir dreimul in Tug: Schema 

adonoi echod. 
Jelii, etc. 
Allmachtiger, etc. 
Thi mit die Jiden groisse Winder 
In mach fallen Humen-AanwcA*' in sei mewai 

Gesejre rue (das bose Verhangnjss) vin die jidiscbc 

Kinder.". 
(Jbid. p. 20 — 21, line 673 — 690). 

The Parody of the "Selihoth" found in Schudt, vol. 3, p, 215, 




XL MASSEKHETH DEREKH EREZ OF ISAAC LUZZATTO 203 
begins as follows: T'K ^'" T"* • ■ • • ""** "V^ (1"3K 'STIO BDTp) 

rSn onjni kh ,tnjni k't d'K I'^st I'ov I'ik ,]'ij"i iv '?ki tokib 
. . . pny) TO o'« !« Swt bkj kh ,py lyv/t mn 



CHAPTER X! 

THE MASSEKHETH DEREKH EREZ OF ISAAC 
LUZZATTO 

i«i-in Bsnn 'vd Jiko n-noa .iinj •» pi ^jj pK yn rooD 

3'^n "jH'an [po] lyo IBMSI^ pnr T Ms. Paper, Sq. S". I4f. Cur- 
sive Italian char. (f. 2a — I2a) and Sq. Rabb. (f, lb, 12b — 14a). 
It is the identical copy described by S. Schonblutn [Cat. tTuJte 
CoUeclion Anconienne, no. 50, 2> and mentioned by Steins chneider 
in Letlerbode IX, p. 45. Schonblum has the reading • • . /WO 
^riT P"03 IBKT^ pns' instead of ^traT 100, whicli misled 
Steinschnddcr to ascribe it to Lussatto b. Daniel, The ms, 
belonged formerly to Halberstam and is now in the Library of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. The parody proper 
consists of three chapters, the first two of which are composed 
of Mlshnah and Gemara, the last only of Mishnah, and is pre- 
ceded by an introduction (f. i b) of the copyist, which reads as 
follows: crn 13 icpff "vw oniB nrn naroj \hr\ ^^K "pT T-cxia^ 

ITW^ '3Ttt3 Tl-Q 1'3 yT K^T iy KniB3 *D103^ XS^^A 2"R V'l D10K0 

171 kS ,d'iib DV3 rmoffn ^ui^ n3n3 ^p'ls? T3non n3nni -ion 
nawKT ns|wn3 nwii» id3 p« ttii 'n n«T min iDirro n\ii? 
Tom poT3 min ^-a v.-^t^ hstth 'S ,nvti "pi i^to ^' lO'ioiipti 
■«?»t3 Toni npis3 D'^in KBni np-a ^y3i d'31d n nKT3 k^dio 
TDpm DToni D''D3n ]3 n-n mm .n'3nV i3t -ays Vs i*^ iTjin 
.^ nKiBin roj('jo3 ^na n'CiKi □•-6k djj 3ib Torn can p p oa 
,Ti nio'ai nnsna nosns d'tim d'tbd 3"3 lan ntn ■i3nDrt canm 
rn*6in 'o p w T3m -o's^Bi n''Tt?3 n'E'«T3 luo ^3 nn D3inai 
."«'^ii n 31 .pnr 

The first chapter begins: no'isn IDI J-'jvino 'flOKD .naK) 

n^Bn ^npn lo'^rv ly ovn ^3 tbmsdi pmiTi irwn Tioy nVynm 




J 



304 



STUDIES IN JEWSH PARODY 



3»n 3'raT 'Mp K^pK Kin .tdkd 'snpT 'Kp K3'n Kin .'oi .n'aip 
. . . ■'sn ]nn tdk pa -mn -pnun 

The second chapter begins: miK I'VoKO minol? KSVn .rWD 

U'DipD"? «2» linn ina -"ana rwyo .imina I'a ina^bna I'a nia'abn 
vbpi in« era niDin b-ojib 'j i^aKff «so3i bt- Tipac itj^ iim 
pi ^"D^ i^'BK K^K naija mine w^ .'dj .irrhr- 'tpk -aw wn 

. . . «in 'in 

The third chapter begins: ,yip bv ,m3Ci *?» .on D'li2 o'je 
I'ip ^» ,va« ha noin liao inin I'dji nwo !?» .ncinV la Diari 
bjTa -m-i iniK i-'iae'DD noin^ la oiait?i .itjj!? yin la kxti wai 
.Tffir^ in'JOl and concludes with: inK ^j? nesff niD^nn ;o i!»r 
nncB-n nm pintjn nn ^'lan*? 'la cs^ aeioai Bnytpn mn tnrei 
.K"iiBa 'DiD2^ iri'K a"n VtnKt? no ya^pts -inK B'-iib era At 

the end there are five additional leaves, containing two legal 
Responsa by Simhah ben Isaac Luzzatto of \"enice. 

Samuel David Luzzatto, who had in his possession a copy of 
this satire called it by various names: ^K'SliO naco (Ticn ID, 

p. 54), ^K'iiiDT nviWD {V'n,v niiJK, p. 786) as well as TIT n»a 
}'1N [tSrd. p. 814). The statement "nX/n ytBfh llE^xTl,, {iiui. 
p. 786) is incorrect, since we have seen that the parody imitates 
also the Gemara, E. Deinard also has a fragment of this 
parody (2 leaves), containing part of the third chapter with mfiDW 
and J'iyn llKa. 



CHAPTER Xn 



THE LAWS FOR CREDITOR AND DEBTOR 



ZACHARIAH PUGLIESE 
The full title of the parody is as follows: iT1?D rilD?n " 

Tjjsn ■'nsDi 'iao 'oai nnis'? K'aai b^ib H-hH d'ovb la ci 7sb[ 
,p-tb [1795] ]iin Dnn^i nit? d"B cma« ^^'■1B^2 's^^ib rr"ot Ms. 

Paper, 16". 27f. Ital. Rabb. Char. The title page (f. 2) 
illuminated, and besides the fly-leaf there are nine bl 



Xn. THE LAWS FOR CREDITOR AND DEBTOR 



205 



at the end. It belongs to the Sulzberger collection in the Library 
of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, and was obtained 
through N. S, Libowitz. It is most likely the identical Ms. 
described by Ch. M. Horowitz in his Cat. 6 (Frankf a/M., 1884) 

p. vi. DO. 196, as follows: Jfisbn Ty r-id:i Himaa m^i ni!?o ni^Sn,, 
"8" D'ln 27 «jpn -H-^t-w .'P'^iB TTQX •^V) pi2p3n 'di oniD^ anvo 

It was undoubtedly this description which misled Steinschneider to 
say {Monatischn/t, vol.46, p. 277, no. ild), that the 7\\hn tvaHn 
rrfel was a parody in the form of Mishnah and Gemara, and 
that it was written in 1791. The first of these two statements 
is decidedly incorrect, because the satire of Pugliese parodies 
the Code of Maimonides, while the date is made uncertain by 
ihc contradiction between the statement in the title given above 
and that of the colophons cited below. I also venture to suggest, 
that the parody described b)' Rabbinovicz {Cat. No. 7, 1884, 
p. 4, no. 52) under the title: .nno HTatrm D'XDin fiiyT ni3^n 
trwt BO 7^3 -a'plC K ' and mentioned by Steinschneider (Mo- 
natsschrift, ibid. no. lie) is no other than the m^l niVo nu^n 
of Pugliese, for both contain eleven chapters, and according 
to Steinschneider, the ffMDin niVT nuSn parodies the Code of 
Maimonides, which is true also of the parody of Pugliese. 

Besides the bibliographical note of Horowitz there is a short 
note bj' Rabbinovicz (Ca/. 1889, p. 30) which reads as follows: 
WKOTiTl ^in'nn yna O'pTD W-a m^ m^O nSOD and a lengthy 
description by della Torre in Ben Chananja, vol. 7, coL 196 — 197, 

The parody opens with an introductory paragraph beginning: 

. . . TOyn «^ niXO and closes with I^St D'pTBa l^JK HIXD ^^R31 
(f- 3 a — b). This is followed b>' eleven chapters, closing with 

the following colophon nv2 3in33 nnyi .mSi m^D nc^n ion 
p-niren .pn^ tt^ ppincn pmmi pin .onifiS »'23i .oniB ^'^ s'lyo 

IB DTD TBK1 IDV I'Vyai TJJS »"K (f. 21 b), after which comes 

lin nya 13 wip'? nisTJC ^p «'3jn piapan tbdi ,DmB y?S a'ljfD 
n'3 T31 *0T3 n'3 T3 m loa isic jiiontei 'ipi^na ^p nniBn ii'3 
n» [1791] JB^ Kipnn nBin '^y !»«» Tysn 'W 'npnyn .nM2 

^^113 p"B^ U'D' Kfl'ip If 22a— 23a). The 3'iyt3 has already 




206 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

been discussed above in chapter VIII- On f. 233 is also found 
a note by the copyist, which reads as follows: HTUp IDOTI IH 

■n rs' 'D"^iD iT"oi 'pn ,'^'3 pi ■'IKE' ;b nto y-o *3irw ^ i«r 
nip noK picBn D"p^ inin nan .nsnyi ^33 miot? ,n3-an r« uw 
rhrh ran 'n' ir«T^i imiav^ VP ]'« ^3"^^ °'ibo f^iip^i iison "wi 

■T'^a .Kn"^jra ■'^"ci 'n nso nra Kur ]32i .«nV'D wVn FoL 23b 

is blank, but ff. 24— 26b are given to the D'llB^ «'33, whidi is 
identical with the pi3p2n TED of Levi ben Gershon. On the 
same page (26b) is found the colophon K"V "3'K p^nVDil TPSn 
vr ^IB jTiai p'n ly^ O'D and on the following page (27a) there 
is an additional note by the copyist which reads as follows: Dfl 

IsTE-n ,DnoMo .TiE'yn loijiy nt?jjt? 'n ^k^ nbnn ,Dnic h» H'M dSpji 
'npnym .nnn nn^i iv 'iv^ d'ted p'nvnS 'iar wini ,d'-i-6i pn'j 
b'aron Him .'-iKai li-a ncr^oi K'2in m ■nKci 'y-11 '3vi« lya inw 
po ,mi3a IK vni 1^1 ,min ^b nnon^D arriK O'Vim np'n Tinan 

Hia- '3 TV TK' T~ia 'D"blB rfTai 11D1K DWa -Ql TDIK .nWtt^ "OT 

.i"*a rrmc nt? p^^ I'ap'i m-roa upTS m» 



CHAPTER Xm. 
THE SATIRE FOR PURIM 



^ 



JUDAH LOEB BENSEW 

nnem aniE nnccf na niain^ ot-bh ns'^jo i"? oniB^ ns^ 

P"B^ rpi nac? fU» O'liatrn Anon. s. I. e. 2. [Breslau? 1800?] 8M2f. 
According to Roest iLetterbode, IX, p. 51. note I), the rtT^D 
D'llB^ is only another recension of D'llB^ nrr^D [Breslau 1796?]. 
Besides the introduction in rhymed prose (f- 2 a) and the opening 
lines Hlp'l ViD "jjf Diart "najf^l If. 2b), the booklet contidns the 
following seventeen parodies of liturgical hymns. 

(1) i^y WPK "pxi nB nsBK naa'n .a"« b'v n-iio^D. parodying 

the nn'iJD of Elijah ben Sheniayah, which begins with the same 
words (Cf. Landshuth, miayn 'niDV p. 17, no. 5). 

(2) D'siiy in^ n»y npaiK •>!« .a'B B"y . . . rr«?. a travesty 

of the Piyutic style in general. 



J 



Xm. THE SATIRE FOR PURIM 207 

L(3) mo 1^ tnsf DT •«?« "pjl mn» rWT .p»>B. a parody of 
;n Abtgdor's TTrbO, beg.: ntO ^^ 101 T»K -pp DTI rtTl' 
(Cf. Landshuth, tUd., p. i6; Zunz, UteratitrgeschkhU, p. 348). 

(4) miK 1B3 no n? 7« ,2'k b -y nrpy, a travesty of the nrrte 
beg.: niS *>*, 'D^BD by Mordecai Ha-Arukh. In the parody as 
in the original, each stanza, excepting the first, opens with the 
word *lp3 and closes with a Biblical phrase, the final word of 
which is likewise "Ipa. 

(5) irna B"31Jl D13 KtTK .n'iwVtP, a travesty of the anonymous 

ItBT'te beg.: D'DllK 0"n. It is constructed on the same plan as 
lb> 4, with the word D'Tl as the repetent. 
» (6) TDina nw '3 and (7) p Q:aK parody the anonymous Piyu- 
tmi, with the same words. 

(8) Drn mntpS l«0 ^BK, parodies Kalir's BB»^ IKJ TBK (Cf. 
Zunz, ftifi/,, p. 53; Landshuth, ^id., p. 31, no, 10). 

(9) T1"U1 Pna . . . ni3'3^ '^31K\ parodies the Piyut aPl"^ 
ni^fWl of Meshulam ben Kalonymos (Landshuth, ibid., p. 271). 

(10) 13B02 ^^^ mK, appears to be a parody of 'BT Y«^ ^"^^ 
Hif Moses ben Benjamin (Zunz, ibid., p. 4^5). 

^^ (1 1 ) npt?oi nnoc^ pin ni o-niB or, a parody of r\\ O'liBa di' 

^Dy Rabbi Isaac (Landshuth, /(^/i^., p. 1 29, no. 19I. 

(12) ion nn-iD ,m'33 oniM, (13) inoM niwi ^y *"it?K, (14) 

T^on GnuyriH K^ uS ^W nnjfOI and (15) Ub 1"3 U'yn parody 
the I'iyut of the Abodah (Landshuth, ibid., p. 274—275). 

(16) '\ye 13^ nne and (17) nriBn mno ^-n 'lyc parody the 
anonymous Piyutim lyB llS nriB and nnon miTD pDIR 'TJW in 
the closing service of the Day of Atonement. 

Another edition t^nan^ . . . nn TjT »'».., "QTI d^ibV nrte 
rrnyon jimn"?! nnocn s. L [Wilna]. 1816, 8". [16 p.] contains 

also fiTn' 1B3 DO nmp^ D^IB^ nw TI? of WoIf of Rosienic, but 
lacks nos. 6 — 9, 16, 17 and the opening lines ■ • • D13n ni3yi. 
This omission is not noticed by Steinschneider {Letterbodf , VH, 
p. 12—13, no. 28). 

The omBS T\TCh^ in the various editions of ^«'?n p DnU) fODO 
Dnoff b a reprint of the nySo without the introduction. The 
BHIBV nUT^D T1D in Blogg's DniB 0300 '^33 TTDbjl is another 



208 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



reprint of the iTl^B, in which the editor takes considerable 
liberties, omitting the introduction and the first two numbers, 

changing the text in many places and adding to no. 7 a verse 
with his name in an acrostic, just as he added two stanzas to 
the Hymn for the Night of Piirim of the seventeenth century 
(See above chapter VIII at the beginning). On the whole, the 
editor shows inexcusable haste and carelessness, but, nevertheless, 
he is unjustly accused of plagiarism (Roest, Cat. Anhang, no. 
1 162), because he styles himself only editor ('"V D£n3 or '"p TTWD 
are the imprints of Blogg's DIID 00). 

A ms. copy of the HS'^D, in possession of A. L. Germanskj' 
of New York, omits nos. 5, 10 and 11, Another ms. of the 
same parody is described by Rabbinovicz {Cat. No, IV, [1883], 
no. 99) as follows: Qt?2 n^tO D'TtT 1B1D21 ,3KT pO DniB^ nS^B,, 

j"»oTi 133D nDiTK JTit? wwiDi .'unj nns p'Sia ID pn pp^n 
".4" .iDwcs D'iiB3 -antrnb mso -o 

Bensew's claim to the authorship of this parody was disputed 
by Sommerhausen {Litbl. d. Or., vol, 11, col. 182), who had a 
manuscript copy of a vr^*h nn'^Dl ^^I^D by Aaron ben Abraham 
Offenbach, which contained a number of parodies similar to 
those given in the D'^IB^ nr^D. Sommerhausen maintained, 
that the ns'^a was an abridgement of the llino. However, he 
stands alone in tliis opinion. Number lO, with 3'^ rmrr in an 
acrostic is unquestionably Bensew's, and so are very likely all 
the other pieces (nos. 11, 13, 14), which treat of the same 
subject, the history of Purim, The remaining pieces, how ewfi 
may have had some older models. 



XIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 209 

CHAPTER XIV 

DESCRIPTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PARODIES FROM 

THE BEGINNING OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO 

THE PRESENT DAY 



Abramowitsch, Shalom Jacob. 

[ITHD' lino nmo] A satire on poetasters, in his D'jam nUKiT 
(Odessa, 1868^, p. 61. 

Ackerman, B. 

jrn' 'O inn A socialistic satire on capitalism, in lins"31K 
1J"TB, vol. 3 (1888), no. 12. 

Affus, A. D. 
. DOO-fesp^ niDip«* A satire on the life of the Jewish 
immigrants in America, especially the working man and 
the pedler. in 6"m«« K'T May 30. 1936. 

Amram, David Wemer. 

*Sepker Nun Beth. A humorous description of the game 
of whist, and a satiric characterization of the members of 
the whist society, of which D. W. A. was president. It 
parodies the "Ethics of the Fathers", and is preceded by 
a humorous introduction, setting forth the claims of the 
"Scpher Nun Beth" to antiquity, all of which forms part 
of his "Talmudic Miscellany", which appeared in "The 
Whist" (p. 18 — 26), an anonymous private publication 
[Ptiiladelphia, 1896. 8". 100 p.], edited and published by the 
members of the above mentioned society. 

Anonymous. See below nos. 348 et seq. 

Apotheker, David. 

See also below under L. Friedland ppTin TBD. 
13Tin nitnii mjnwo A satire on the life of the Jewish 
nigrants in New York City, published over the pseud. 

D-^jTnaj ^KT n, in napn, vol. i. no. 8 (N. Y. 1892). 



' Puodiei not exelanvtlf in Hebrew *t* maiked iriA sn mIctuIi. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

p'DB n^JD hy^ nUD UTjn m«TU nijniKD A polemic 
against Ephraim Deinard and M. L. Rodkiason, in the 
style of the "Megalleh Temirin"; ibid. vol. 2, no. 7. 
I'TOB n^30 ^yao niHnii niJPlKD a satire on the Galician 
Hasidim in New York; ibid. vol. 3, no. 14. 

-jT'iaj) riDDa ,Kp'nyeK2 b's^^kji «'Dn ^b\i "no niinu nmp 

Tl'3 1« [Breach of Promise] D'OKTB ^K CB'-fl . I n'iBaTWrt 

D'3^^ B^trno K^t? nnK2 rfipi nt?Kn, with nasp noTpn 

TSp 11K'31 [by Abraham Baer Dobsevage]. Appeared 
anonymously in '3iycn 13, vol.: (N.Y. 1895), no, i. p. 9— 20. 
For a criticism of this parody see "laS.T toI. 5, no. 5. 

liB ^3T3 nns DVD w"t?-ij? ,:ni3"s yybjya » Denjmpn* 

^ICSe' lyjnypi'n A satire on tlie socialistic paper DBIJHTWfi, 
in VOO'Dt? iyt5"3nK V""©, vol. 3, no. 38 (N. Y. 1902). 
Tpffiys »Tn tPK-iS ninn* Known to me only by name 
a private communication of the author. 



: from J 



Bader, Gustav. 
. pinayn a'TDIOn b^h mjn] A satire on the poverty of 

Hebrew authors, in his HBISn, Cracow 1890, p. 2 — 4, 
. nn-br: ttrrrD '3D Two satiric chapters, one in the st>-le 
of the Talmud, treating of Antisemitism, Napoleon and 
Bismarck, the other in the style of the Zohar, pleading 
for the revival of Hebrew Literature in Galicia, 
Baskind, Joshua. 

p«n'« K ]iB in-yjKB tt iib yjDiJjiaD'nK JTBMIiK^a »* 

"D3«CS31KO KT' ]'« IJimHB, in the Jewish Daily News 
{N, Y. 1905 ?), no. ? 
Beaumache, Isaac. 

. Dnincn eyoo ^biw^ htv ntnnn pK3 "iBKon" by liwrion 

Parodies in 13 stanzas A. B. Lebensohn's lllOTini piKnci, 
[with a motto and a note by T. P. Schaprtro]. Anon. 
N. V. s. a. [188 1 :], 8". 2f. Printed on one side. It is the 
first Hebrew parody printed in America, The copy in the 
New York Public Library is perhaps a unicum. 



15 



1 8. 



BIBUOGRAPHy OF XK CENT. PARODIES 211 

ra Gideoni (Pseud). 

ainD^ no bbs bi»E piv 'i'K A satire on current literary 
topics, in the style of the "Megalleh Temirin"; in najin, 
vol. I (N. Y. 1S93), nos. 9, 10. 

Ben Yashar (Pseud.)- 

16. B'BD'^M'SKDn 'ip'JJ r A satire on socialism, in 'OHhn (N. Y. 

18S8 — 89), no, 16. With slight variations this is reprinted 
in Deinard's Ollipn IBD 143—147. 
Ben Zebi (Pseud.)- 

17. notih TWywn rnb»V* Jocose questions and answers, in 
M. Chinsky's V'K^KO HDC, N. Y. 1901, p. 8—9. Reprinted 
in mn VD'n tn, [N. Y.] s. a. e. 1. p. 8—9. 

Benjacob, Isaac A- 
rran A palinode of tlie poem nomn (IDBOn 1810, p. 8—9); 
in his O^DrCD (Lapsic 1842), p. 140. 

Berdiczew, Aaron. 

Dnilpn "^CD VVilna 1824. 8". According to I. B. Levinsohn 
(b3"'T Dip*?', p. 23) this satire was originally written by a 
Lithuanian Jew and afterwards augmented by A. Berdiczew. 
Sec also Benjacob, DTHH p. 524, no. 226; E. Deinard's *U>0 
0^31p^ (Newark 1890), p. 5 — 6, and below s. v. M. Landst)crg. 

Berdyczewsid, Michah Joseph. 

. . . p?ij p?' 3n3o \pF\yi rnnoD nnJK in his b-itdh n'3 

Cracow 188S, p. Ill — 112. 
Bick, Jacob Samuel- 

[nnnD TiWD] a humorous letter with the names of the 
wceklj' portions of the Book of Genesis as a frame work, 

begin-: D^iyo ^c'K nms a^'n Mb yvmTD0op2tt JT^Kia 
... ni «^; in ion aro. vol i, p. 82. 

Blumenfeldt, Simon. 
D'liS^l niyi:!?^ nainai D'«M1 Ms. Sec LetUrbodr, vol. 9, 
p. 58; Jewish Encydopedia, vol. 3, p. 274. It is probably 
no original, but a copy of Nagara's D'Wn. See above 
p. 35. 



2 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Brandstaedter, M. D. 

TC '^ya Dn» ^33 '^y 1BT8 A travesty of wedding jests, in 

•\mr^, voL 4, p. 469— 470; also in ■wejnwni«-o 'tidd b^, 

Cracow 1891, p. 115 — IlS. 

[I'M'jJf ]'n] A satire on the I;Jasidim, parodying their style 
of exegesis; in 'aiyon Ti, vol. 2, p. 22. 
Brill, Joseph. 

ni3DDD min'-]3 Kcir -b nu'pn tddo 3' n^ ni'p ruW ^K 

TT A satire on many phases of Jewish life, mainly on 
antizionism ; in m'SSn, vol. 29 (1902), no. 170. 

i. 'yy^ HKO rfSpn n^iO a midrashic parody, treating of 
the persecution of the Jews, Antisemitism and Zionism. 
The last is a panegyric on Baron Edmond de Rothschild; in 
htt'Tf nD33, vol. I, col. 593 — 605; continued under the title 
'OJpDn hv Wno n'30 in TSan, vol 32, no. 28 and again 
coiit under the title iT^'^ 'pTB in D'H-ffl ]3 1893, p. 151—152. 

'. 3t?in '3VK hv D^BDn -B1N2 '3 KSOi "«?H D'HEllD CmO 

. . . 11H3 nccjina ymh ttT) .jhiid ninoa ,i"yn TP'* 

A critical survey of Hebrew Journalism from 1784 to his 
own time; in TWn, vol. 10, p. 81—87, '37 — '4^^ '95 — 199. 
562—567, 622—626. 6S3— 689 and vol. II, p. 105- in, 

17S-183. 

i. Dneon 1S1K3 '"a nxsna . . . onipa raoD ik nnp3a rUBfO 
iiN^ nnsri ,n'iio Y^»2 -vyn vpTio spin .rrns p nrn ^p 

. . . iwa riBDina A guide for authors, publicists and literary 
critics; ibid- vol, 8, p. 317—324. 
3. ... oniD^l Dno^nV "pny jn^t? llSp A criticism of the 
system of education among the Jews in Russia, consisting 
of 151 paragraphs in 13 sections; in Graeber's n^'Ulon TtlB, 
vol. 3, p. 17— 34' 
Brodotsky, Isaac Zebi. 

D. ... fKTrr inaij 'jn:D by... O'lp'TS ETilD nso A Talmudic 

parody, criticising the extravagance of the Jews in dress, 
preceded by an introduction which contains 'Kl^nn^ mrrfe 



■ S^na >\BV •)«. 



' pDl'O. 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XK CENT. PARODIES 



213 



D'1J3, and followed by B'p'TS tmoD JllD^ -pat Bcrdychev 

1899. 8". 38 P- 
Brodowski, yayyitn of Berdychev. 
. ni'ip 'p^•:p•l rODO Satiric sketch of the life of the 1 [cbrew 

teacher, parodying the style of the Talmud only in part; 

in Vipn, vol. 3, nos. 25, 26, 28. 
Buchbinder, Abraham Isaac. 

. . . . ip'jyon ]'« ]jnv kt iko r^BTi jrJ »' In lJ'oi''3 lyi 

IPBIKJ, Wilna 1885, p. 33—34- 

. mem hv' ibid, p, 4—5. 

See alio below tmilec A. B. Gottlober . . . bttbh^ah .ibcfi 



c. 

Cabn, Abraham. 

34. Xt .TTTO If 1* A socialistic satire in the style of the Midrash, 
published over the signature T3D TyjST'lKByljKTfi Tjn; in 
DB1J?in«B 1903. 

I Cassel. B. M. and Pik, A. D. (Editors). 

35. 'W?^ ,inK •viH* 

I'Bllp-K; a«3 1KB IJny A Jewish folk-song parodying a 
Hebrew hymn; in "Evreiskiya Narodniya Pycsni v' Rossii" 
ed- by S. M. Ginzburg and P. S. Marek (St. Petersbourg 
1901), no. 3;i. 

^* '«• 

nat? « ivayj tok^ 
. . . irn^N «"ii2 mx 

Passover rhyme "jni' "8 Tnn". 

. . . TOM K T** T'O A Jewish folk-song, parodying the 
benediction pronounced over water. Ibid. no. 370. 

JJ'^N? IJ — !"«• 
. . . U'^'llS l< — "11^ A Jewish folk-song, parodying the 
Passover rhyme "JTIT "o TTW". Ibid- no. 88, 



A Jewish folk-song, parodying the 
Ibid, no- 259. 



214 STUDIES m JEWISH PARODY 

39. 2pyh 'n iDK* 

'.y ,*lJfOH5 ,V; A Jewish folk-song, parodying the hymn 
for Sabbath eve, begin, with the same words. Ibid, no, 19. 

40. — '13 1»* 

21B DV 7W ]ViMtO 1'IN A Jewish folk-song, parodying the 
hymn in the prayer for rain, beg. with the same words. 
Ibid. no. 363. 

41. iv^'TTyT IS iJia^'niK tdk^* 

. . . IJJTK yiVOIK ]1B m^yo IOT A Jewish folk-song, 
parodying the hymn •TlDin 'SB DW. /Sk/. no. 25. 
Chaschkes, Moses. 

42. com K^D ^K On the persecution of the Jews; in HBDll 

iToan no. 4, p. 56. 

'}»-&* DJ?"? niDIM m-Din On the same subject. Ibid., ibid. 
*n^''2Ua "1 bv n^enn inon A satire on the life of the 
Jews in Russia, parodying the prayer book under the 
following rubrics: l) ^lJ^t? Dn*? yvm OniT 1^», 2) 'HViI 

«'n nnay '3 nnat? ncci, 3) anisy «"\ 4) na» ntap, 
5) 11S3 orb, 61 mijitjin, 7) lyjnt? o^piB ik ,n'2iffo -n tjtd 
apish, 8) "?«-!»• n's*? omisn cnicapKTjnn h» rfryi r!JBi\ 
9) noon hy '"njin ^p yoB' nit'ip, 10) i^ ini. In 'y^ 

vol. 3, nos. 37, 38, 40. 

ffinn TTTJJ jn^ a short poem, playing on the words m, 
nyn mr and nn; in his 'n ^h ninan, Cracow 1888, p. 45. 
Cohn, H- 
'iJcr Barrier von Sckuschan. Parodistisches Purim-Spiel 
mit Gesang in 5 Akten, mit einem Noten-Anhang- 
Frankf. a. M. 1894. 8". S9 + 24 p. 

D. 

David ben Abraham (Pseud.). 

JPSp(nyv^3'"BD «n* A polemic on the personnel of the 
Jewish Daily News, in the form ol a newspaper, pub. over 
the signature Dn"D TB1D omaH p Tn, in DDTpllTKB? 



' Bjiponn •« ja a 



XIV, BIBUOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



2IS 



5 

I 



David Zemah. 

B'Tl nilPO On the methods employed by modem writers 
in Hebraizing foreign words; in T3on, 1902, nos. 6, 7. 

Davidson, Israel. 

rhTtp ]^ Parodies chapters i, 3 and 4 of Ecclcsiastes in 
describing the life of the pedler and the working man in 
America; in 13yn, vol. J, no. 13, 

]TOi*I '131 Parodies Psalms i and part of the Ethics of 
the Fathers in describing tlie proverbial poverty of Hebrew 
scholars; ibid. vol. 2, no. 8. 

Deinard, Ephraim. 

DBii . . . D^ijin bi iy2 n'%3 kdjjikj . . . pwiyn^Bn tbd 

JtpilSilDSKaa A collection of polemics on Hebrew periodicals 
in the fonn of a periodical and in the language of the 
"Megalleh Tcmirin" with the following subdivisions: (i) in 
Tin, an attack on the llisSl; (2) yitHQ hip, an attack on 
the 7ipn (these two polemics first appeared as feuilletons 
in '0«^n, N. y. 1888, nos. 1—3, 10, 15); (3) Tfin. an 
atUck on the m'BSn; (4) IDIDH, an attack on the f^on ; 
(S) •i:n, an attack on the 'Mn. 

Anon- s. L c. a. [Newark 1892J, 12°. [4] + 100 p. with comic 
illustrations. 

[KVp\ Diiip] «'n . . . aait? -o hbm . . . 3T iian DlJlpn idd 
osra .lysyom lys'^Ms .ud^t ,«d"^ ,mn«t ,\-b^6 nasa 
Kfui otiip .nran ditd hb n^ivn nK-Ta 'mi^ Dfonn njpa 
na .HpnyoMi ^kt»' pK ,i:K^3iy .nBis ,n3t?« inioa 371 

. . . Twzn B13!I An indiscriminate and rather coarse satire 
on socialists, rabbis, preachers, antisemites. physicians, 
actors etc. in the form of the code of R. Joseph Caro. 
The satire is interesting on account of its description of 
the various games, diversions, frolics and sports common 
among the boys in Russia. The term Olllp stands for 
gamin, practical joker, mischief maker and rascal For 
the etymology of the word, see Senior Sachs in his 
introduction to L M Dick's nr-iP rODD (Wilna 1878), p. 9. 
In the same parody (pp. 27 — 28) is also given a brief 



6 STUDIES IN JE*TSH PARODY 

characterization of the BlJIp, beg.: 't intx \ap hirer m 

mixp ne/yi niff. 

Anon, s. 1. e. a. [Newark 1890]. 48"'. [4] + IV + 200 p. 
Printed on colored paper, with comic illustrations. 
Dick, Isaac Meir. 

. . . Dim n''»n &wc ay aahy tai iioVn p nvay lUDQ 
inano mnani a-irnn niEDin na "BDinn . . . pspn ^y rmoii 

. . . D*a^Dan •'ipl A satire on the manners, morals and customs 
of the Russian Jews in the middle of the XIX century, 
especially on the usurers, teachers and Hassidic rabbis, 
with an introduction by Senior Sachs, which contains two 
small satiric parodies, entitled D^33n nSDQ and HiriD rcOD 
rotPn, directed against Reform rabbis. S. Sachs also 
ascribes to Dick the following unpublished parodies, viz. 
(1) p^31 pbm Hn^TS; (2) Bin Bip^'i (3) B'J'D BD, beg.: 

piDD r3iB3 -jmnn n )"o ini'K; (4) npba ■dd, beg. 'rtst* 
nnin ip'^TDO oninM nip^n^ V'ynnc; (5) st '31 triBO 

'B'3D-a ^aitiE' which has reference to Samuel Holdheim. 
All these, however, are undoubtedly mere fictitious titles. 
Anon, in S. Sachs' TilV 'B33 (Berlin 1S48J, p. 3 — 20. 
Reprinted Wilna 1878. 16°. 32 p. 

Dlugatsch, M. 

miDi: B^Vll K'T* A satire on the manners, morals and 
customs of the Polish jews, in the form of the Masorah. 
Warsaw 1895. 8°. 68 p. 

Dobsevage, Abraham Baer. 

. . . "□!'?» Iff" hv niTDD (nSB-n b^) WytPin A miscel- 
laneous satire, with V'lDH nuD mnam nnyn. Anon, in 
'layn. vol. 2, no. 15. 

1. ... {-'a-ibv -&•• he nnoo) nJCn ^3^ nyp A satire on 
Jewish life in New Vork City, parodying tlie elegy ]V1 ^^. 



Dolitzky, Menahem Mendel. 
. h"1 JHiTfyo "^ffh vnh) V'Cp A parodj- of an amulet in 
the place of an introduction to his satire TlTWOn ""Xf 1p^, 
directed against the Hasidim. In Tnt?n. vol. 9, p. 391 




et seq. Reprinted Vienna 1879, and in his oniD nx? 
(N. y. 1900), p. 120— I7r. 
Dracbman, Bernard and Rosenberg, Abraham. 

K"Dn 1^^ D'KllJ D'O'V TlCTD A satire on Czar Nicho- 
las H, in the fomi ol a hymn; in the Hebrew Standard, 
Oct. 13, 1905. 



i 



Blisha ben Abuiah (Pseud.). 

m2K ]3 yvbn ntsn A socialistic satire, consisting ot 

ni2M 13 JW'^K hv WJt?D^ niop rtnipry, signed nO'll; a 
letter from Elisha ben Abuyah and the Talmudic parody 
proper with the subtitle D^ljf ^^V and the commentaries 

y3"in ■^, D»n miDo, iik min; in D'asn ncoH (Konigs- 

bcrg 187S). p. 76 — 77, 96 — 99, 125 — 127. Continued as 
eh^ aw nms, in -IDKOn (Konigsberg 1879), p. 21—23, 
6S-67. 
Erter, Isaac. 
anin 'pTB A satire on physicians, parodying the aphorisms 
of Hippocrates; in his h»rw n'i^ HDisn (Warsaw 1890) 
p. 60—63. 

[DTOn min] A satire on Hasidic rabbis, in the form of 
a Biblical travesty, begin.: ZSmh l^BJl 1^ '3 n»H 1« P'H. 
Ibid. p. loi — 103. 



Faust, Joel. 

62, pTPn pprri anac A satire on the professional match- 
maker; in his m&V iyf>30, pub. in ait^DOl mtOO, voL 2, 
p. 86—87, 

Feigenbaum, Benjamin. 

63. nVon yBDJ?3 «*! t*« T3 trnXiT A socialistic satire parodying 
a religious hymn beg. with the same words; in 1jrD''2'W TJTI 
-a«TC, vol. 4 (18S9), no. 40. Reprinted with a Yiddish 
commentary "B'^'OS )Mh .TBD B^TD" in nai nSBn DJf "IlinD 
{Leeds 1903), p. iS — 24. 



J 64. 



STUDIES m JEWISH PAROD?" 

(Bnn noil 'C '?y) nOS !?» mjn* a satire against capital- 
ism; begun in IS-^TS lyo^^lK IIH, vol. 3 (London 1887), 
no. 21 (without the parenthetic part of the title), and 
continued in the same periodical, vol. 3, no. 12. Reprinted 
by the Socialist Pamphlet Fund of N- Y. in 1894 and 
again in 1S96, 8°. 15 p. A fourth ed. appeared as 
"Supplement" to the "Freie Arbeiter Stimme", s. 1. c. a. 8°. 
8 p. All these editions close with the parody of the 
passage pV niToni ffKI 01. The 5 th. ed. omits the noTpn 
but extends to the end of the Haggadah. Anon, s. L 
[Geneve] 1900. 12". 23 p. Pub. by the "Allgemeinem 
jiidischen Arbeiter-Bund in Russland und Polen". 
pin DV nan" A socialistic satire; in ^1""ID lyo^aiK TT, 
vol. 3, no. 35. 

^pin n:nii ^ya jnay '12 rrayn ^ipin ninai* idem, ibid. 

vol. 3, no. 3;. 

narn ^3^ nip'pnmiD* idem, ibid. vol. 5, no. 37. Reprinted 

in mt n^Dn ay lltno (Leeds 1903), p. 13—18. 

68. rhtr, A blasphemous parody; in li"TB lJ«J"m« Ti, 
vol. s, no. 47. 

Kreidkin, Joseph Loeb. 

69. 13 \\shv 'pr^ -iH ... 'nDDK ^srn D'ii» rm:M 't?inis tpV fj? 

21M3D IDV DVrZ p'SDOl TSp &)•)-& DJ? nailS flOV A miscel- 
laneous satire; in the Hebrew division of IJftJ'TH ip 
^Wll»t, vol. 4 (N. Y. 1902), nos. 155—160, 162-164, 166. 

Friedberg, Abraham Shalom. 

[O'llOff ^'^ IID] A satire on the persecution of the Jews, 
as part of a feuilleton »Dn '■I'iyD, published in y^hon, 
vol. 20, no. 25 and reprinted in his niai"Din IBD (Warsaw 
1899)- P- 7$—76- 

Friedland, L. (Pseud.). 
13 .n^ip iHs n-ann snnpnS )ip'n m3';n ye ]lp^nn tsd 
i2'ni ^D« . . . rim f 'tis 'Tdh^ pp'n nis'in 'in ^a tbis* 

. . . Ton '7-vy2>''h 1 . . . ain A satire on the habit of 



65. 



67, 



70. 



71 



s R«id niipni. 



XIV. BIBUOGRAFHY OF XIX CENT. FAKODIES 



319 



I 



the Hasidim to indulge in drinking in the Synagogue, 
written in the style of Caro's code. CzernowStz 1881. 
12". 20 f. 

Id a priTitc communicatioD of July 13, 1903, Mr. David Apotheker 
(tee above, dqs. 5 — 10) infonned me, Ihat be vnote and printed IhU 
puodj' vfhiJe residing ut Huiiatyn, Oalicia, in the neighborhood of 
Reb Motcle (?) and fearing to provoke the anger of the Qaiidim he 
choie la write under the above pseudonym. 

Priedlieber, Ignacz. 

*Duss Lied vim Kigely. A parody of Schiller's "Das 
Lied von der Glocke"; in L, Blau's "Magyar-Zsido' Szemie", 
April 1904, p. 167 — ^169. 

Friend, Emanuel M. 

• Yokefie Possemachfr Breefe. Letters written in the Bavarian 
Jewish dialect, depicting the life of the old-fashioned foreign 
Jews who removed from the East Side to the more 
fashionable residential quarters of New York Gly ; appeared 
^>ovc the pseudonym "Yokefie Possemacher" in The 
Hebmu Standard, July 24. 3I. 1903. 

Prischmann, David. 

("I'DHn,, nia-ipo n'23 it?« naun ^c fi\r\ mrrtr) ^i-^bp"^S3 

A series of imaginary letters to the editor of the ha- 
Asiph, pub. over the pseud. inK6l«ff ^n in rj'o«n, vol. 2. 
p. 764—770. 

^KDi^B T^H3pl"B BiTPTy lS«^2ip3Mll Dp'!?:jn3 ^ JMt3 TJH* 
TTW tt A satire on the British East Africa movement in 
the form of a journal, pub. anon, in 13'""tt Ijn and re- 
printed in BDNB 1JJJ3K ippTK'li Oct 25, I903. 
mt" IVB^" Ijn' Parody of Heine's poem "Der Asra"; 
in ll'-Tfl fin, vol. 5 (Warsaw 1896), p. 64. 

.pTinn n'^Dfia irm /nnn .-ms'^D .'moan yo .*^3 "plU ^ 

OapiU'Bff p-^'H '"P D'yiT O'^pTC'? IIK^ KXl' A satire in the 
form of a journal; in DVn, vol. 2 (1887), nos. 207, 234, 274 
and reprinted in his D'TTOi D'ans, p. 314—322. 
■^nopj !?■«? A palinode of J. L. Gordon's TtW?! XS'tJ 



O STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

(See Gordon's works, Wilna 1898, vol 5, p- 29 — 31), pid), 
over the pseud. "tj)3 ^ifn' in DTH, 1887, no. 234. 
Frug, Semion Grig o rye vich. 

. ?ij)n'^3 D'ji-inK ■n wn njKb dkt n Boapp* A parody of 

Gothe's "Kennst du das Land wo die Zitronen bliiheol*; 

in pj;nD«'^3'aDpS«s yanv, vol. 2, p. 167—168. 



Geiger and Brave nil an. 

io. ... nos ba man uyTJ* An advertisement in the form 
of the Passover Haggadah. N, Y. s. a. [1895?] 8". i4p. 
(In the New York Public Library). 
Geatetner, Ad. 
;i. Ii3 pns'? nay* oder Hebraischc Travestien. Perverted 
Translations of Biblical phrases. Budapest 1897. 2Jf. 
[r] + 32 p. (German) + 33 p. (Hebrew). 
Ginzburg (?). 

12. 115T 'n' n^sn Satire on the economic condition of the 
Jews; pub. over the pseud. }"33U"G; in D'osn nBDS (Konigs- 
berg 1877/78), p. 117,118. 

Goldberg, Israel. 

13, ... DnoKD hbi^ ,7^XfT^ 'vnn'j . . . 'nv Dnao n'laiu ...nm 
-\wh »T .nn'oo^sa h^b laer'i^ niy-un by n'Sinm o'lnn 

!?''?i »(*•! Nianay vjj a Hebrew Puck, dealing with the 
social and religious life of the jews. Berdyczew 1895. 8°. 
142 p. The following parodies contained therein deserve 
special mention: 

(a) ... D-bm B'na x^i . . . u)bvf nn^on Swtb" pK 13^ rrn i^« 
13"T K 'D ^« ona I'Ktr . . . ni-ODp oy (p. 8—9) ; 

(b) *1BD n^30, A satire on the German Jews (p. 18 — 19); 

(c) a r hv n'tP'^B miyo^ [lai]. A satire on those who 
desecrate the Day of Atonement (p. 19). 

(d) [D'Tia'jon n^KC] A satire on the life of the Hebrew teacher, 

beginning: ?n"jDiKn ^30 ntn iD^sn niWi no (p. 32— 33). 

(e) Men' KITDtD A miscellaneous satire, in the form of a 
Talmudic parody with a commentary (p. 33 — 35,45 — 46,58). 



XIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



I tny^D , 



. TPa 'B RnsK ( 



» 



84. 



, stylistic parody, beginning: '110 nwa 

* (p. 6;). 

to) 11B? or S'!?3 mow^ D"jyn una? ni"??' A satire on poverty 

(p. 70)- 

(h) D'lID^ nine an^ A satire on antisemitism (p. 81). 
(i) D'3^d!? nsen PRI^ -ur A satire on poverty (p. 90—91). 
(j) "iff riDB^ ninffS no On the peculiarities of the Jews as 

a nation (p. 105 — 106). 
(k) 'i'D in TOyoa Ttryil? n^Hin Parody of a contract of 

betrothal (p. no — iii), 
(1) niXO y^H? nODin a miscellaneous satire (p. 115— 116). 
(m) HDJ!3 K33 liffKl pTD p^'"" ^3.1 Idem (p. 124—125, 
140—142). 
E{ii) 3"Jl rnovfh niDpn On the wild pranks played by boys on 
the Ninth Day of Ab (p. 132 — 133). 
Goldenberg, N. 

(pi'IKip-u wn :lir33) O^On '^Xt* A satire on the IJasi- 
dim, parodying Heine's "Die Grenadiere"; in J. L. Gordon's 
I'lm mv (Warsaw 1889), p. 68—70. Sec "Voschod" 
1886, no. 5: "Pismo v' Red". 

IGoldfaden, Abraham. 
D'H-il) D'O' Jirt lie imrriD DIB^I* a satire on the 
Dre>'fus case, parodying the New Year's liturgy; in 
Ch. J. Minikes' TyOBJJ^a 310 DT (Sep. 1899), p. 17—19. 
Goldschmidt, A. 
*Purim-Ai»ianach. Hamburg 1884; 1886; 1888; 1892. 
Golomb, Hirsch Nisan. 
(tmiin f^TS A Midrashic parody, urging the necessity 
of teaching children a trade; in 'pKOn (Konigsbei^ 1879), 
p. 28. 
Gordon, Judah Loeb. 
fnai p»'3m ^v. a satire on Jewish life in Russia; in ^3 
a'^' 'ana (Odessa 1889), pt i, p. 77—78. 
fllBTpW pus A satire on those who go from extreme piety 
to licentiousness; in i'V ni"OH (Warsaw 1894), no. 114, 



89. 



also in 3'^' ■m? ^3 (Wibia l 



, vol 6, p. ng — 121. 



122 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

». n^JD nOD A satire on Alexander Zederbaum, in the form 
of a periodical, with the subtitle . . . ttnn arOD nfi^^tJ 
. . . h»lBrh Pasnb Vin, pub. under the name of Joshua 
Meisach. Warsaw iSSj. 8°. 47 p. 

H. "mirr •bOD,, naso by nshs An epitaph on the money 
buried in the publication of his Book of Fables; in Tff^J 
X'7\ vol. S, p. 88. 
Gottlober, Abraham Baer. 

}2. ^p^^D pine m-n On superstition; in Tien, vol 6, p. iS- 

169, 190— 191. 
13, byaip DOIB rh nai* Parody of Schiller's "Das Lied von 

der Glocke". 

J4. tj^psSn DmiBDn nnain^ yth yu Mimics those poets 

who juggle with words in order to make the numerical 
value of the letters of each verse equal to the year of 
composition; in his mp n"U«, pub. in D'aaian (Wilna 
1865), p. 31. 
(5. t>«^^nD^ nhtn A satire on superstitions; in UK ipn, 
vol. 2, p. 6—12. This parody was translated into Yiddish 
by Abraham Isaac Buchbinder (See above, nos, 32, 3J) 
(a) under the title of 13 11B3 DV T\y QIK hmbbrvah H^n* 

rmxi; in ]jjt3i« jyoiVa ijn (Wiina 1885), p. 51—53. 

Gruschkin, Raphael. 

}6. 1UK '^tPO Perverted proverbs; in IDK'nW, vol. 2, col. 
342—345- 
Giinzburg, Mordecai Aaron. 
)/. paiN D'TJa on« 'aiJJOP] Satire on the wedding jester; 
in his ItV'as (Wilna 1864), p. 71. 



H. 

Halpem, D, G, (Compiler). 
, ?Di"K D'^1 lyn* A Jewish folk-song, parodying 
Passover rhyme jni' TS inW; in "Evreiskiya Narodniya 
Pyesni v' Rossii", ed. by S. M. Ginzburg and P, S. Marek. 
St. Petersbourg 1901, no. 125. 



lying the I 
>Jarodniya 
^ ..S. Marek. 



XrV. BIBUOCRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



223 



100 

I 

lOI. 

K 

103. 



Harkavy, Alexander. 

DipJK . . . m-u« Y^:ip Kim Kpnjmwi I'n'OB nbiQ tod 

. . . rpv 12 n^^Tl '"JJ . . . moa . . . D'-O'On A satire on 
Jewish life in America, in the form of an imaginary cor- 
respondence; in (nnayn .ip^nen) itti-m\ ijjn, vol. 4 
(1902), nos. 147—152. iSS. iS6. 158—160. 
. . . Ton 'S rran 11D I^JjmWD' A humorous publication, 
containing a number of parodies, issued as souvenir of 
the festivals celebrated from time to time by the "Pi 
Tomid" association [No. i]. Anon, N, Y. 1903. 12°. 16 p.; 
[No. 2] ibid. 1904. 16". 16 p.; [No. 3] ibid. 1906, 16°. 
16 + [2] p. 

(In the New York Public Libraiy). 

Harmetin. Moses. 

fl^m ni^nn A polemic against O. H. Schorr; in his 
y^mn, Lemberg 1861, p. 208— 21Q. 

Heisitislcy, M. M. 

DKH D'ieb Perverted proverbs; in ("^T 1900, no. 113. 

Herrman, S. I. 

npn'Djf rooDO man ir-n rvH piefj tTWte A satire on 

societies and lodges; in 'T3pri, vol, 2 (N. Y. 1892), no. 6. 
Herz. Joseph. 

paaya itd jjn"3 ijn Ciijp ijn oyipjn' A humorous 

description of tlie preparation made for the Passover 
holidays, in the form of a decree; in his K'T Ijnt* VIDK 

TjpiiB jJoanK^ya (FUrth 1854), p. 125—128. 

lybb-P JJ VppKhi Ijn ^|<J ,mtD "ip ]Kfi Tjr^ Tin- 
Parody of Schiller's "Die Glocke'', describing the process 
of baking unleavened bread; ibid- p. 100—114. 

Hiada bar Hisda (Pseud.). 

KBI3113 ttp'nsi rfpD A satire on the H^idim in the style 
of the "Megalleh Temirin"; in irwn, voL 7, p. 383 — 390. 

HugoUn. 

*Pitilion Burlesque adress^ aux deux chambres et aux 
ministres par les Juifs d'Algcric, qui pr^tendent qu'on 



/- 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

leur fait une guerre de reli^on en les empechant d'as- 
sassiner et de voler. Alger 1899. 
Hurwish, A. 

nawn '?3'?i noB^ rmn jra lysKpnyoK tn» A sattrecT 

Jewish life in America, with a poem by I- Jonathansoo. 
3. 1. e. a. [N. Y. 1S95]. 12°. 15 + [ij p. 

iyr'K-2'1 lyefinp ijn ^v^K D^p^B lyJMpnyDK KT 

A satire on the political, social, religious and industrial 
phases of Jewish life in America, parodying the "Ethics 
of the Fathers". N. Y. s. a. 12'. [2] + 16 p. 

Kp'iyoK I'M yopsB «n* 

(min lyaKp'-ijmK K>^) nOD hff msn D'«1H13J^ Djn* 

A satire on many phases in the life of the Rus^an Jew 

in America. N. Y. s, a. 8". 4 p. 
Hurwitz, Issachar Baer. 
;. noPHl 'ninw Parody of J. L. Gordon's nom TUW 

(Gordon's works, Wilna 189S, vol. r, p. 117 — 118); in inW, 

vol. II, 403 — 406. 
Hyman, Charlap A. 
[. D'^pt? nWTD^ "BV On the proverbial poverty of tiw 

scholar and the riches of the business man; in 'najH, 

vol. 6 (N. Y. 1896), no. 21. 
;. ^^rPlK Bipy A miscellaneous satire in Midrashic fomt, 

with a short commentary; in BK7n, vol. 2 (N. Y, igoi). 



116. D^vn 'tV fjsn TBDB a satiric vocabulary; in "^Sfn. 
vol. 3, nos, 14, 17, and again in his "WKn IV3, Chicago 
1902. 

I and J. 
Idelsohn, A. 

117. [iTOSDn] A satire on the Uganda movement; nF 
(St. Petersbourg 1903), no. 81, p. 7. 

Isaac. 

1 1 8. * T/it Ten P/agttes of American yewry ; in The Hebrea 
Standard, April 10, 1903. 



KIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XK CENT. PARODIES 



225 



124. 

* 126. 
137. 



Isaac ben Jacob Adam (Pseud.). 

. . . 131' ]iny 3pjr ^T A miscellaneoiis satire in the 
form of a periodical; in l>'^n, March 12, 1903, 

I{saaC8], A. S. 
; *The Four Cups. A modern Midrash. In TJw yewisk 
Messenger, vol. 89, no. 14. 

Jazkan, Jacob Samuel. 

(niii'jn 'sisai ,m3^n Tnop p'piDB naw) mjM2E' ^ Jlpll 

A miscellaneous satire, pub. over the pseud. ^lT'31t; in 
m'DSn, 1902, no. 119. 

Jonathanson, J. 
. lOim ^p llfl rmn JWafpnjroX* a satire on the Jewish 
immigrant in America, parodying the Decalogue; in Ch. 
J, Minikes' 0D»^3 mj;i36? N. Y. 1901. 

Jospe, A. 

(m D^DIM D'SffiTa) jrs ^K A satire on the social con- 
ditions among the Jews in Jerusalem; in f'^H, vol 29. 
no. 172. 

Judelsohn, K. S. 

enn VTT Attacks the synagogues in New York City 
that charge admission fees; in 'l^yn, vol. 2 (1892), 
no. 15. 



Kaminer, Isaac. 

prar Tl nin"T3 A satire on the Uasidic. conservative 

and progressive elements in Russian Jewry; in ^Ipn, voL 3 

(1378). no. 84. 

pnr m raJV-na A miscellaneous satire; in O^mu 13 

1890, p. 81. 

TTll By*a fflTB np pny m nin^Ta On the oppression 

of the Jews; in ("^on, vol. 19 (1883), no. 34. 

(nOD ^ TyB n2t?^) pTlB Dip* On the pcrsecuUon of 

the Jews ; in THCn, vol. 8. p. 69—70. 

a JpiTB Dip' On the struggle of literarj- men; iWd. 

p. 70-7T. 

IS 



136. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

(V't K3"nn ha nncD) noy^Ef fismn iiya it* ]*Dn flfna Ttd 

A satire on the three elements of Russiao Jewry: 
H^idim, Conservatives and Progressists, parodying tht 
ritual and the laws (Ci'l) pertaining to the custom of 
burning leavened bread before Passover; pub. over the 
pseud. Kin -WOpKll ^i-hB in Sipn, vol. 3, no. 30. 
TOU B"y) P '12 't? niTOD . . . ^C^ ^ib fTPttO TID 
. . . (V t lta"Tn A satire on the meat tax imposed by 
the Russian Government on the Jews, in the form of a 
liturgy. As a subdivision, it contains: D'U npaiK 
(p. 52 — 80), a satire on the Progressists, the rich, ihe 
IJasidic rabbis and the Crown rabbis. Warsaw 137S. 
16°. 80 p. 

. . . y I Kann ^ mon The collective title of several 
of his satiric parodies on the various phases of Jewish 
life in Russia, containing: (a) tao nmn nscn nwHW no 
CiBTl, a parody of a part of the Passover Haggadah, 
and (b) HDD hff 'JJ'aff n^np^ BVC, both published in 

men, vol. 7, p. 374—382; (c) (nmyc wab itsi) Hy'tin. 

a. parody of a Sabbath hymn, and (d) KBIT EnTD, both 

published in UK 1p3n, vol. 2, p. 26 — 37. 

D'3 ynon 1K 'lay icb On the poverty of Hebrew authors; 

in JOian, vol. 3, p. 69, reprinted in his myp (cf. infra, 

no. 136), p. 6 — 7. 

•nyV pTD A miscellaneous satire; in TTIBTl, vol. 8, 

p. 71-72. 

. . . (!?"i Ki'-Ti noii By) j'pja bvf aynoa rirp a mis- 

celaneous satire. Vienna 1878, 8°. 32 p. 

naiETil n^KB' A satire on Jewish extravagance, parodyii^ 

part of the Passover Haggadah; in ^TSn vol 3, p. 400. 

K3'nn^ niawni twhuvf A satire on the social Ufe of the 

Russian Jews; in Dl^n 1887, nos. 112, 224. 

(n'VlJ DIS^ Bl'B) yii^ n^Dn Parody of a religious hymn. 

dealing ironically with the theme "Might is Right"; in 

^pn, vol. 3, no. 76/77. 



I 



227 

Kopelowitz, Nahum Hillel. 

'rii'^ bv niTDO A satire on authors and critics, parody- 
ing part of the Passover Haggadahj in ^Ipn, vol. 3, 
no. 72. 

Kaplan, Jacob. 
(rmD) Vda nVJK Parody of "Die nachtliche Hecrschau" 
of Joseph Christian Freiherr von Zedlitz; in nJtPTl TBD 
(Warsaw 1901), vol. 2, p. 318—319. 

Kotlar, Abraham. 

. . . niBDini '»"Tfi oy... HErmn pK yn nxD a Tai- 

mudic parody consisting of seven chapters, dealing with 
the life of the Jewish immigrants and the manners of 
the American people; in TJ^TB-op^HD (Pittsburg 1891). 
reprinted separately Ibid. 1893. 16°. 19 p. 
A third ed. contains also: 'fi^ nOD^ "m^n,, bh'O pp 111110 
tyi3 Ti 'DiiBT 2-b niKsp nmo K'n "niDTpK,, .MpiyoK nou 
c-Tpn ynvt By minn icd K'SinV imy ■':d^ trm^ r^n ibh . . . 
»n'B ny . . . T:i&n on'b "DtlVBl,, .02 ytn ytt ■^33 

.rmiT iTOD These are miscellaneous satires- The mOTpS 
is also called ni30 mivo. Warsaw 1898. 8". 39 p. With 
the photograph of the author and letters of approbation 
(p. 1-4). 

Kowner, Abraham Uri. 
D'snil nainn Dbw 2K A satiric vocabulary; in his llTt 
D'mc (Odessa 1868), p. 15— id 

Kozda, Hirsch. 
Bnnn O'^on ItO A humorous dictionary, pub. under the 
pseud. 'K"B?3 "3S; in V^on 1902 nos. 242, 257; ibid. 1903, 
nos. 103—105, 107, 109, 112, 121, 122. 



Laadsberg, Mendel. 

pc^ D'-itBO inob ann fiDS ri»a ro'-usa oeii Ms. paper. 



* n3"pn — r'^^l*^ ^" ^"^ 1i>P'^ 



22S 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



German cursive characters. Sq. 8". [iii] + gf. A SOB^ 
rilous attack on a resident of Kremcnitz, whom the audw 
calls by the name of 3«t DHifl (fol. 8 a). The ms. was 
bought by the Jewish Theological Seminary of America 
from Ephraim Deinard. The following reasons nay 
be advanced as proof that Landsberg is the author of 
this parody. The introduction to the pared)', entitled 
liiai nniD, closes with the words iiDH 1133^ -anon m, 
".13*2'?" yno "010 '3K . . . 133 'J3^ lltP'. with dots over the 
letters 3^ t3, as indicated, which undoubtedly mark &e 
abbreviation of 31^3013!? ^yaya. Again, the expression 
O'l^ riKiai [^ "jyisye l^] occurs quite frequently in ^ 
niBDin. But perhaps the strongest argument in favor of 
Landsberg's authorship may be derived from a passage 
in the necrologue written on him in yhan 1866, no. ;, 

which is as follows: misy no,, Dii33ip 3rD ro-hy -o'S^ 

DJf mK Nn3DQ D31 ,D'331E' 0*33 '^JHS HlS^nS l«nS "DTJipn 

^3131 '^3 )D3iD 133 ,(nat? 13^ yii3 vh) KP'intai niBDWi 'n 
"nsSn nis'p3i niB'in hkIjo wni ,i'>j;n '3»r Sp ic3« Tmw 

There can be but little doubt that the Talmudic parody 
mentioned in this passage is identical with the W38 
fOnr under discussion. The "DDlpn nil3JI l*ra«, as- 
cribed to him in the necrologue, may have been only 
a modified or enlarged form of the DlSlpfl IBD of Aaron 
Berdiczew, This supposition is based on a statement of 
I. B. Levinsohn in his V'3'1 Bip^' p. 23, which reads as 
follows; 'KIID'^ l?'«Bf '3^31pD ^3 lOKl n'3"IS ljf3 '"I 'JW T3„ 

"it?D3'7 inoms ■'3t3n an3Di vhy I'Din ]inKi [oisipn -Dl law 

That "'3t3n Bn30„ refers to M. Landsberg is well known 
(Vid. infra s. v. Levinsohn, no. 150). E. Deinard pos- 
sesses another copy of this parody. The expression OBI) 
ra'lD3 is certainly fictitious , though the date, 1834, 
indicated in the same passage, may be the date of 
composition. 
Levin. 

146. nw^an niBo ca ijjii«3 isJ3«pnvBK tb noD bVf mjn* 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XK CENT. PARODIES 



1 the Jewish boarding houses 
i. a. [1900?]. 8". 32 p. 



I 
I 



p02 yp"n ]1B A satire or 
in New York City. N. Y. 

Levin, Judah Loeb. 

P^SODa KpUM JVhinn A satire directed in general against 
the Hasidic rabbis of the house of Karlin, but in parti- 
cular against the succession to tlie Rabbinate by the five- 
year-old son of Rabbi Asher of Karlin in 1873; pub- over ' 
the pseud. Wllin p in in TTWH. vol. 6, p. 25—44. Some 
claim the authorship of this parody for M- A. Schatzkes, 
but the evidence seems to be in favor of Levin. Sec 
W. Schur, irnnn. vol. i (Chicago 1899 — ipcxi), no. 2, 
Letter of Schatzkes to Dobsevage; no. 7, Letter of I. J. 
Weissbergi no. 8, nCDB-H; no. Ii. Letter of P. Turberg: 
nos. 23 — 24, Letter of J. L. Levin. 

Lievin, Moses Michael. 

nnH Dye pT b-kdh!? . . . misp ni'jcn nvy^H oy pp TWno 

nJMI n^enn ha yiOW'? . . . HM'S A satire, in the form 
of a litui^, on the lack of religious sentiment among the 
prosperous classes; in Ch. J. Minikes' Monthly, Sep. 1902, 
p. 24—25. 
Licvinsohn, Isaac Baer. 

. . . D'Ton '31? \'2 nn-Bi nnw Bi^t? ^^12 . . . D'pTt 'Tai 

. . . p'OD nbiO TBD mm Vy A fictitious correspondence 
and imaginary conversation between l:{asidim about the 
authorship of JTDB n^X, published over the pseud. pT\ 
Tjnrasjup y*? HIK Vienna 1S30. 8°. 16 p. Zedner (Cat. 
p. 619) erroneously ascribed this parody to Joseph Perl, 
but the latter only printed it at his own cost (See 
TJOn, vol. 7, p. 385 note- and Natansohn nuroIH TDD, 
p. 14). Second ed. . . . B'XtrpDJ? oy D'p'TJ 'T31 with 
T3Bfr6 HTVr 13^ TlOTtS Kta-'3 Odessa 1867. 8". [2] + 32 p. 
These two books are reprinted in ^3"'l Blp^" (Warsaw 
1878), p. 118—151, and again, without the poem KD3*'3, 
in pTSD n^30 (Lemberg 1879). fol. 108—114. 
. . . U3 HHI VilH ruoo A polemic against Mendel Lands- 
berg in the form of a Talmudic travesty, with notes in 



230 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



the form of the commentary of Rashi ; in his 72""1 Dlp^' 
(Warsaw 1878), p. 20—29. See y^hisn 1883. nos. 50, 
57. 63. 

151. .DioTOMUKo . . . '"J) . . . ri'?'s«n D^ijia jvinn «« WVSn pDjr 
o'l'Dnn D'lpnpn rhyo . . . nttiii . . . nw^Bi . . . n«T 13 

• ■ . UlQtS A satire on the Hasidim in the form of a ficti- 
tious correspondence, recording the description, ^ven by a 
hypnotic subject, of the way in which a well known 
Zaddik- was punished in Purgatory. [Vienna 1830?]. From 
a letter of B. Blumenfeld to Levinsohn, dated 1S32 
(quoted in B. Natansohn's niilTSin IBD. p. 28) it seons 
that the D'KBT pay and D'-p-'TS '13T were printed separatdy 
at the same time and place, i. e. Vienna 1830. For other 
editions, see above under no. 149. All the editions ap- 
peared anonymously, with the following pseudonym at 
the end of the introduction. tP"2^ p nnD»DO rp'\ ^^ 

^BD lanc "jya «mD x^v.^ "^ybvt mnos ira^-Tsp tpd 
. . . crpns -nn 

152. fip' t?n'BJ A parody in the form of a ^asidic homily 
on Exodus X. I ; in his noy n^JD pub. by E. Deinard, 
Kearny 1905, p. 19 — 20. 

153. [76lp7\ -niD' ^S ^JJ . . . in« piB] A cabalistic parody 
written by him in early youth, but never published, men- 
tioned in B. Natansohn's nuVUin'TBD, p. 28. 

154. n"llp3 nSDOD KHBDin A satire on Jewish characteristics, 
parodying the style of the Mishnah; in ^3"*1 BlpV, 
P- 31. 

Lewinsky, A. L. 

155. nii'iiBSK tayo A satire on current events in the form 
of a calendar; in lOKVltt, vol.3, p. 435 — 446; ibid. vol. 6, 
p. 268—273. 

Libowitz, Nehemiah Samuel. 

156. 'na*l riD'K On the decline of Talmudic studies in America, 
pub. under the pseud. ^O'Bn .3 N. V. 1895. 16°. 16 p. 

157. n^'pai IDia A polemic against E- Deinard parodying 
the style of the liturgy; in Iiis D^ipa RIB, Newark 1893, 



XrV. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF XtX CENT. PARODIES 



231 



165 



^ 



ifig- 



p. 41— 45; reprinted in ttpnyona rTBDl TlWn n'TBR 

N. Y. 1901, p. 13—14. 

nrrne A polemic against E, Deinard, parodying tbc 

Biblical style; in 0mp3 HM p. 5—6. 
mienblum, Moses Loeb. 

[V^S^Ijn] A satire on the Pilpulists; tn his n'MiT inp. 

Odessa 1870, p. 40 — 44. 
Linetzki, Isaac Joel 

. . . ■''7"llinD r'3„ op Dltt nUycnn' a plea for seU 

help; in Specter's ll'nB1I)''W3Ke 1?% Warsaw 1887, 

p. 84-85. 

jntp '"jy jiB . . . 1D3 I'K iHK' D':'B iTi^ Dtjjm -an' 

. . . "^iK'pnxn A satire on Polish Jews in the fonn of a 
calendar. Odessa 1872. 2d revised ed. ibid. 1883. 8*. 
86 p. 
{.Tnn VB'']* ^ satire on the I^asidic rabbis; in his Din 

byav ytTTon, Wilna 1897, p. 79. 

[IJna D'jmnD Djnj* a satire on the illiteracy of the 

I^^idim, parodying their style of Hebrew composition; 

ibid. p. 65—66. 

. . . n'KIU DTI''? VlimD jr3 DKT A satire on the 

manners, morals and customs of the Polish Jews; in 

Spector's lynBTin Ijn. vol. J. p. 121—127. 

'nyoan -no* a satire on the l.^asidic rabbis, parodying 

their style of writing; in !?yi:v ytTTOn D«\ p. 124—127. 

n3t?a T31^ 11D« «^l2m OpX* A satire on the Hasidim; 

ibid. p. 80— Si. 

mm D'1'2T DyT* A satire on Hasidic rabbis; ibid. 

P- 133-136, 
Lttewski, Mordecai Menahem. 

p fB Perverted proverbs; in ^OK'nit, vol. 3, p. 348; 

ilMd. vol. 9. p. 176. 
Litinsky, Menahem Nahum. 

^v mi«3 mnn '-121 -waon lao uy ^aw *ilV ^D"^ mn 

Ms. mentioned in the list of his unpublished works found 
at the end of his Yiddish work y\ 'pip, Odessa 1884. 



lA 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

D-iy^'BtMV01«p TB nun* Ms. ibid. 

Lurie, Abraham ben Enoch Sundel, 
unn nha Jt?' ]p3p A midrashic parody, dealing with Anti- 
semitism, Zionism, Ethics, Charity S:c. Ms. among his 
literary remains. 

Luzzatto, Samuel David. 

yhti molpK A letter to Samuel yayyim LoUi, parodying 
the Aramaic hymn by that name; in his D'ys ni33 vol J 
{Padua 1879), p. 206—208. 

ia»' D'D' n'Ef' 13^ ni 'D A palinode of his poem, bcgia: 
12B" HD TJJ nt?D D3 by TUl (ibid. p. 244— 4S). which was 
written in honor of S. L. Rapoport. Ibid. p. 245. 
hTitp rODD Ms., written in 1815, consisted of 3 chapters, 
the first of which had already been lost by Luzzatto. 
The second began as follows; ,^2':ip niSD3 O'a^n ^W .fl 
."llOB KD1D .]Bpl nOlB' fflH 1^'SKI nnsjH C'Jpn nt?ll DTIR 

nan nj; vua fj^^na dik ,^2'3ip mac is>3 .2 .d'^'ti ciifi 
B"3^in D"3j)i ,^2^^n3 D'aan B'Ttsy .r^s ^V mpnio inai 

inain T' KSri D'pnson The parody was followed by a 
poem begin. : nyCtP Hin "03 '32 "h^n (See TSDn, vol 3, 
p. 54). Is the ms. still extant? 
I. nirrun O'ljin by A satire on Reform Judaism, parodying 
the style of the Prophets, written in i8i8, when the 
news reached Italy, that a number of German commun- 
ities were abolishing Hebrew from the Synagogue sct- 
vices; in D''J?3 1133 pt. 2. p. 159 — 166. 

M. 

Malachovsky, Hillel. 

anh Q'CSn^ K^I Parody of the first Psalm, on the poverty 
of Hebrew scholars; in Suwalski's H^nsn 7013, voL 3, 
pt. 2, p. 3 1 ; reprinted with corrections in Meisach's DVnB 
Q'JtriE'l, Berditchev 1892, p. 78—79. 

Man del kern, Solomon. 
yi yiip B'K^ Polemic against M. Morgulis, in inOTl, 
vol. 9, p. 107 — 108. 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XLX CENT. PARODIES 



233 



D'2lTnMn 'B Sjf mjywn A miscellaneous satire, with 

pwnDia 'Di^ni nap iiks in iik tp^rz, vol. 3, p. 495—497; 

reprinted with slight variations in "inpn, vol. 9, p. 107, 
. . . iWJ IDt A panegyric on Gottlober's UK Ip^-^. parody- 
ing the hymn ipin 33^ ^{6 mw of R. Shemaiah (Zunz, 
Litcraturgesch. p. 49S); in ^W 1p3n, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 55. 
Handelstamni, Benjamin. 

. ma'ua nsan^ n'Bn roan t» iidtd a parody of A. B. 
Lebcnsohn's poem iiDtD ffipn nine'? ni^jjon I'p (iiin 

TJIID^, pt. 2, p. 82— 83), written to commemorate the 
dedication of the synagogue "CTpn nino" built by the 
liberal wing of the Jews of Wilna in i84i(?). Ibid. 



Marachowsky, Moses. 

. . . . TiD Tyrw"n lynw O"^ "ijf3T3J"n |XD iTiJn *n* 

A miscellaneous satire. Warsaw 1885. 12', 34 p. 

Mark, G. 
n:»n ^D^I O-^n {?^ff^ man* Advertisement in the form 
of the Passover Haggadah. N. Y. 1902. [8 p.] 

Harkon, Chayim Judah Loeb. 

('no'SpKO 3in MTT in nut:) DniBmT' P|D10^ BVB A lit- 
urgic parody, with ^K-rr "pn p'njJCn riKD niBDini Dmtc,, 
''1110 Dm3K deploring the decline of Hebrew scholar- 
ship and enumerating forty-two renowned scholars since 
the time of Elijah Wilna; in ^DT3n, vol. 4 {1879), 
p. 621—28. 

Mausche Nahr (Pseud.). 

*Die Lore-Lei. A prose parody of Heine's "Lorelei"; 
in Gedichu und Seherse m Judisckfr Mundart, na 17 
(Berlin s. a.). 

Mausche Worscht (Pseud.). 

*Das Lied vum Lokschen- Parodie of Schiller sein Lied 
vun de Glock. In jiddisch-deitschem Dialekt un mit Er- 



klarungen . , , Amsterdam 1853. 8°. (See Roest IH 

■IBDn, p. 267, no. 3900). 

185. "Koppelche und Ltebeche, noach Schillersche sein Kabale 
iind Liebe Verarbeitet. Hamburg 1854, S". (See Cat 
Van Biema, p. 205, no. 3539). 

Meisach, Joshua, 

See also above J. L. Gordon nVjO nBB. 

186. . . . D"^D-TDD IH Enn *1S1« A humorous dictionary. 
Wilna 1898. 12°. 32 p. 

Melamed, Abraham Solomon. 

187. O'cnn D'orui D-iff' niEDim ,t'wtb oy D'nmD fODD 
marj can iitddi kiw iiy ibdu dh'^vi cnn 'poei »"inD 
□nntiyi Dn'mtsD on'-un ■'i^ni nn'Tin D'Tmon h^ rhy\rb 

With TH-^ n^lj) 121p triTB ay ffimO «nDDin Bcrdychn- 
1900. Sq. 8". 56 p. A satire on merchants, brokers, 
store- keepers and middle men, in the form of a Talmudic 
treatise. 
Melamed, Joseph Elh^nan. 

188. 'iHDl ""n '32 A satire on Jewish life in Russia, in the 
style of the Zohar; in ^Ipn, vol. 3 {1878), nos. 76/77, 78. 

189. R'naa '3T yiV A satire on the mismanagement of com- 
munal affairs among the Jews of Russia, pub. over the 
pseud. TK3 and ]NT [iD^D im^Wj; ibid. nos. 6, 8/9. 

Mendelson, Moses of Hamburg. 

190. Vin nn ns^ Oai cm nSW ]lpn A satire on Samuel 
Holdheim for advocating the abolition of Saturday and 
the substitution of Sunday as a day of rest In LitbL 
d. Or. 1846, p. 537 — 38; revised and reprinted under the 
title tnn nn ro^l tnn roa Jipn in his ^an '» (Amster- 
dam 1872), p. 173—174. 

Mohr, Abraham Mendel. 

191. cnnK Dnan nnut? nnicni m^»t? ^^i3 ffilfli" n ^D 
.ciTp ,niBpn .nnKin nn« ^nnifiis n'anya an kSi . . . ntnn 
mbyoT\ ysn ,DniBn anV n^'ya n^sn ,mTDi ,mjpBnn ,Jinsi' 
nSx 03] . . . niVon »itd dji d'hdS nioTpK nj .o*iid3 n'61'^ 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHV OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



235 



^ 



196. 



tunc yv ,B"i\s'j D^an cmo .tnie^ n"W .b'tibp -^v^h 

[inm ^sijro BnT3«] H'OI p I'TTT D.l^ ■ni'in H^K ^3 .[D'llB^ 
aiate Lemberg 1855. 8°. I2f.; Second ed. s. I. [Lt:m- 
bei^?] 1864. 8". [32 p.] A humorous parody of the 
Liturgy and the style of rabbinic responsa. 

A copy of this parody in ms., dated 1866 (Paper, 
German script, narrow 12". 40 f.), in the library of the 
J. Th. S, of A. (Cat. Ddnard, no. 60), contains also 
Bensew's D'llB^ 7!Tho under the title nirp^D and Sommer- 
hausen's D'llDE' '?''?'? mjn. The doubt cast by Stein- 
Schneider upon the authorship (Letterbode, vol. 7, p. 9) 
is dispelled by a passage from Mohr's D^lp '^31?, vol. 3 
(Lemberg 1865), p. 149, which Ls as follows: "iC "Tiy,, 

la ^3 Kin 'wm . . . in«n Q2ip2 ^av ]'k tck ^^ D'Tdd 
rmhvm ji-onD «ini . . . n"3T is? hk 'TiKip la .cniD^ 

Mosessohn, N. 

M A>a' Version of the Haggadalt. For the use of Ra- 
dical Reformed Jewry ; pub. in The Jewish Tribune, 
Portland Ore., April 2i, 1905 under the pseud. "Ben 
Phohzur"; revised and reprinted under the author's name, 
ibid. April, 1906. 

Muatin, Joseph. 

ttpiT^ nnsi" A satire on tlie Jewish immigrant in America; 
in '13yn. vol. 2 (N. Y. i8g2), no. 11. 

N. 

Nathan, Judah Loeb. 

(aiiaonna tnpn ^S'n '!?p3 ^] enn ini A satire on the 
founders of the Reform Temple in Hamburg; in S. Sachs' 
rUV 'B13. p. 21—25. 

Neumann, Aaron. 

KD'sm «lErV A satire on Hebrew journalism, in the form 
of a Talmudic discussion^ in yh^Tf 1867, no. 25. 

Netimanowitz, Herz. 
.oaru ■^ rrsD Va ^p Kiun D-aaan 'ja ^a to p^V ...frw 



236 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Humorous casuistry of thieves, part of a feuilleton in 
HTfiSn, vol. 15 (1888), no. 211. 
Nudelinan» H. 

197. ♦ ♦ ♦ t^fii b^b TWi^ \\r\V 7Dn Miscellaneous satire in the 
form of a periodical; in DH^H, vol. 3 (N. Y. 1903— 4), 
nos. 4, 5. 

O. 

Olschwang, Jacob Solomon. 

198. • ♦ ♦ fcHyB^lpT rilDK A satire on the evils of card playing, 
prevalent among the students in the Talmudic schools 
of Russia, and incidentally also on other phases of Jewish 
life in Russia; in ybm 1868, nos. 46, 47, 50 and 1869, 
p. 18, 26, 34. 

199. yni'' ^iK rrp21» Pjnv nD nyanK Miscellaneous satire, pub. 
over the pseud. ^H'^DBn HilDtDH iTTT h^nUT; ibid. 1868, 
no 25. 

200. HiB^n rilD'' ^D h\^^^ noe b\l^ m^in A satire against rabbinic 
authority; in "^tS^Ti, vol. 9, p. 36—45. 

201. ♦ ♦ ♦ KH!! in A satire on the meat tax in Russia, published 
under the above pseud, (no. 199); in *11N "^P^^, vol 4 
(1880), p. 1439—43. 

202. ynv '•i« ne^^B^ Pyni'* ^D ne^^e^ A satire on various phases 
of Jewish life in Russia, pub. over the pseud. H^2h fOpT, 
in Y'bm 1867, no. 49. 

P. 

Paley, Johan. 

203. B«^a n^irn'^a nyD''!?VB* A satire in the form of a news- 
paper, pub. over the pseud. TUDK ]2 in BDK^l PHHD yttTX^ 
(N. Y. 190...). 

Papema, Abraham Jacob. 

204. ['•TKinfi'^DD] A travesty of the "euphemisms** in modem 
Hebrew Literature; in his Ifff"^ vht^ BHTJ ]pyp Wilna 1867, 
p. 38—40. 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XDt CENT. PARODIES 



Perl, Joseph. 

n^:D TCDH nntt 'py niiiff mjn mio la p^TS im3 nao 

. . . piaia Anon. Prague 1838. 8". 120 p. A satire on 
the manners and morals of the Polish Jews in the early 
part of the iQili century, containing six imaginary con- 
versations about the "Megalleh Temirin". 

. ■ . p'DD nny ^p im "sen O'-ai n^jo . . . p^iSD n^JD tsd 

Anon. Vienna 1819. 4". 2 + 55 f.; Lemberg 1864. 8". 
70 + [2] f. Third ed. with UDj; 'JU mJIHiH ni^DH "IIK'S 
. . . ntn HBOa Wainw J'^IB -«?:« and D'p'IS '-DT of Levin- 
sohn, ibid. 1879. small 8°. 105 + [9)f. In Letters 9—11, 
32, 33 and 50 of the 3<J ed. the order in the names of the 
correspondents is incorrect and should be reversed, the 
writer being the addressee and vice versa. The heading 
of Letter 59 should read 3pV' TKD 1 h». It is a satire on 
the Hasidim, mimicking the corrupt Hebrew and perverted 
bomiletics of the ^asidic rabbis, in the form of a cor- 
respondence between a number of zealous yasidim. It 
undoubtedly took the "Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum" 
of Ulrich von Hutten for its model, and has served, in 
its turn, as a model for many later compositions. For 
criticism see N, Gordon, "Joseph Perl's Megalleh Temirio", 
in Heb. Union College Annual Cincinnati 1904, p. 235 
—242; S. L. Rapoport, mp3, in cnyn ni32, vol. 12, 
p. 175—181, and in TDH D13, vol. 4, p. 45—57; W. L. K.. 
"Bochan Zadik. Erwiderung", in AUg. Z. d, Judenthums, 
vol 3, p. 46; Anon, article, tbid. p. 46. 

Pik. A. D. (Editor). 

See iboTc 1. r. Cutel, B. M. uid Kk, A. D. 

Poisniak, William. 

. . . h^a 3« By ... niDTpK* A satire on the life of 
the Jewish immigrant in America; in Ch. J. Minikes' 
ODKV3 niyi2t?. May 190J. 

Pumpiansky, Aaron Elijah. 

'3Sn p« Parody of Gbthe's "Kennst du das Land wo 
die Zitronen bliihen?"; in hirer «)», vol. i, p. 454—455. 



238 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 



Rabbi Ben-Elazar we-Rabbi Shem-Tob (Pseud). 

209. . . . 'iB nCD^ niin A polemic; in '3:« '"QP, vol. 19, 
no. 45; reprinted Brody 18S3. 8", 15 p. (In the Library 
of Columbia University). 

Rabener, Mattithiah Simbah. 

210. KniD 'ova na»^ M^pE'D "'ai «S^n A wine-song, parody- 
ing Israel Nagara's hymn NTsVyi o'jy )im n'; in ■WIT, 
vol. 4, p. 46; also anon, m D'llfl fODD Warsaw 1885, 
f. 24b. 

Radio, Adolph Moses. 

211. 'Kfl'^ri ini A satire on the failure of the orthodox Jews 
of New York City to establish the office of Chief Rabbi; 
pub. over the pseud. «(nci Kf'tpT K*13; in ''3TPDn TJ. 
vol. I, no. 8/9, p. 37—28. 

212. H'tPSBT 'JJIDI tCDSm 'Ij'O A miscellaneous satire, pub. 
over the pseud. KJmp '330 jimn OMTI 'SK; in y^DH 1867. 
nos. 42, 43. 

Rakowski, Abraham Abba. 

-rcn nyn arm A satire, in the style of the Midrash, 
on the antiseraitic persecutions of the Jews; in rPVHPI, 
vol 30 (1903), no. 167. 

Krm ViDK tmo On the ill treatment of Jewish leaders; 
ibid, vol- 29, no. 59. 

man .n^yar'^iTs niuDin ,oniipn witb dv nntsc roOD 
«B"D «^ . . . i-y . . . -ii«^ «s>i . . . Vi na-^K ain ■rn'm '-affv 

.KTBD k!j1 Warsaw 1894. 8". 47 p. A satire, in the form 
of a Talmudic treatise, on brokers and merchants, des- 
cribing all tlie subterfuges used by them in accumulating 
wealth. 
Ralbe, Joseph. 

D'TOn iT\ia nOB ^ mjn a saUre on the Galician 
Uasidim of New York who brought one of thar rabtus 
to the New World; in najin, vol. 3 (N. Y. 1893), 
no. 14. 



213. 



214. 



215. 



216. 



r 


XIV. BIBUOGRAPHV OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 239 


1 




Rawnitzki, Joshua Ghana. 




317. 


ynp "QV nnjWin A miscellaneous satire; in ^Ipn, vol. 3, 
no. 60. 
Reingold, Isaac. 




2lS. 


Parody of a popular English song "The Ship I Love". 
Chicago I189S]. 8°. 4 + [2] p. with music. 
Reisen, Abraham. 




219. 


Tina JIC "Mtn tt A travesty of a Russian poem by 
Pushkin; in Perez's Ip2j6 ]1K llDKiyD'^ Warsaw 1894, 
p. 158, 




220. 

1 


. . . lyi-na n ^y2-» l" CmCl A Jewish folk-song in 
Hebrew, Yiddish and Russian, compiled by A. Rcisen for 
the "Evreiskiya Narodniya Pyesni v' Rossii" ed. by 
S. M. Ginzburg and P. S. Marek <St. Petersbourg 1901). 
no. 376. 




221. 


. . . ^n-Kii o'j tk: onjij oy ,iva Dino dkii A Jewish 

folk-song, parodying the hymn VnaoH; ibid. no. 304. 
Rodkinson, Michael Levi. 




222. 


tcTp KBPip KOPip Ki-aVa kttid'K; in ^ipn, vol i (1877), 

nos. 40, 4a. 




223- 

1 


[Ipin nan:i] A polemic against E. Demard. in a post- 
script to his article Ml') IVS. pub. over the pseud. Dl^ 

BBWrwil in D'DSn ABDK {Konigsberg 1878), p. 88. 
Rosenberg, Abraham. 

Rosenberg, S. 




224. 

■ 


. . . «pnvoK nou "B Sp nOD ^ .TOT mOOpr N. Y. s. a. 
Advertisement in the form of the Passover Haggadah. 
(In the N. Y. Public Ubrary). 
Rosenfeld. Morris. 




MS- 


Orrit rtK S^ll l(J' Parody of Psalm 128. 




226. 

1 


0*3 DlM^tye BtWJ* Blasphemous parody of Psalm 23; in 





240 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

his ^^y•^y''h DB"n"-lB (N. Y. s. a.), p. 7—8; reprinted in his 

ijnjj'^ yoSjioKiyj, n. y. 1904. p. 275—276. 

227. V!^K yr IVD Dina IKII" Parody of Psalm 139, 7 etc. 

228. IV'^Slp yyTnoB .nOB ^ninpa n*UD m:DO* Miscel- 
laneous satire, parodying many phrases of the Passover 
Haggadah; in Ch.J. Minikes' DBK^a nOB April 1901. 

Rosengarten, Moses I. 

229. Hron) KnTlPT yio niDip« Parody of the Aramaic hynin 
"niDlpK"', written in 1902 by an inmate of Sing Sing 
Prison, in praise of the charitable work done by the 
Society for the Aid of Jewish Prisoners through its 
chaplain. Ms. in the library of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. Paper, 56 verses, sq. char. 

Rosenzweig, Gershon. 

230. pi' 'D inx* Miscellaneous satire; in Ch.J. Minikes' nOS 
lilB''^. N. Y. 1899, p. 3. 

231. man ^yi 11D JT*a fp» Ijn* A satire on manners and 
morals of the time, in the form of a vocabulary, each 
word of which is taken from the Passover Haggadah; in 
Minikes' DDK^Ja HOB, N. Y. 1902. 

232. «niDpt?n ni'ltPi p'j'o nienpH A playful imitation of to 
Aramaic hymn "niOTpK"; in nayn, vol. 6 (N. Y. l8g6|, 
no. 33. 

233. D^BID^ rrun Satire on tlie poverty of Hebrew authors; 
ibid. vol. 7, no. 29. 

234 (S'K 'B Vv) N'-Dlia VkiB''' noasS tOpiyiri On the persecution 
of the Jews in Russia; in B^jni JfrT' K'T N. Y. Oct 12, 
1903. 

235. fjDD nai omOKl On the materialistic tendencies of the 
age; in 'layn, vol. 5, no. 15. 

236. D''oyn ob!? VKon '>y inmnna ,k3d btmr hv ^n "TTl 

A satire on Antisemitism ; ibid. vol. 2, no. 14; reprinted 
in his on^, N. Y. 1894. p. 26—37. 

237. Pin int; in ruDBn 

23S. .(□i't?o i3>Ki) "niSn ma^,, DMnm -PR-a nim "nn n3^ 

A humorous poem on poverty, parodying the hymn of 



XIV. BIBUOCRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



241 



34S- 
246. 



' 248. 

a49- 



Solomon Alkabez; in "'"Dpn, vol. 3, no. 23; reprinted in 
his D'TW, p. S3— 5S. 

Unn TJlDK ClTD Miscellaneous satire; in '"OPn, vol. 7, 
nos. 24, 25, 

'«p:' TID^n ID niCSnn rDDD A satire on some phases 
of Jewish life in America, in the form of a Talmudic 
treatise with a brief commentary; in 'T3pn, vol. 4, no. 27; 
also in N. S. Libowitz's ymil ncann TTIK N. Y. 1894, 
P- 37—39. 

nytSI n30D Satire on card playing; in his ncip, vol. I, 
no. I, (N. Y. 1899). p. 30—32. 

ff^IS rODC Talmudic parody on "April-fool"; in 'TSPn, 
vol. 7, no. 27. 

'Jiyas liciinc np^HD TODD A satire on the lack of 
harmony between the Portuguese and German con- 
gregations, with reference to current events in Phila- 
delphia; ibid,, vol. 3, no. 51, 

'Jiyas TTD^n p «D1T mOD rOOO Satire on Reform rabbis 
and misers; ibid, no. lO. 

YSp\y nsDD Satire on plagiarism; ibid, nos. 2, 4. 
■-Kn-lM llD^n )D ITtpiy nSDD Satire on the Jewish 
"Orders" and "Lodges", in the form of a Talmudic treatise 
with a short commentary; ibid., voL 4, no. 29, 
XpTOy rODQ A satire on the life and maimers of the 
Jewish immigrants in America; ibid. vol. i, no, 2 et seq. 
Revised and reprinted under the title ]0 upmsp roOO 
irtsOOl -Bp t?n'E DJ? ■'«p3' Tiabn, with an epistolary preface 
by Dr. Adolph M. Radin, and a "TO^nn Kian. N. Y. 
1892. 12". [4] + 35 p.; Wilna 1894. 8". 38 p. The 
parody is humorously dedicated to Rabbi Samuel the 
Prince, otherwise called "Uncle Sam". 
ni"IB2 TTD; in DOKB liy^K 

iSlJtjn l«!ni ■^'! nonren 0^301 iPilD An advertise- 
ment in the form of a Talmudic treatise, with a short 
commentary. N. Y. s. a. 16°. [4 p.]. 

'B ^ TOTD .Trrw IM m^nn anjos TOya J*^ Drt pOM) 
16 



242 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Vho 0-a S. 1. c. a. 8". I f. A wine-song, begin.: 'ril3« 

parodying the "Selihah" inB3 '3 'niM of Ephraim ben 
Isaac. 

251. DIIB^ D'^lTfi Miscellaneous satire; in 'TSpn. 

252. »"n' ''D ^^« .mun 'yyptXf K* a satire on Jewish life 
in America; in Minlkes' BBK^a nOB ]1« DniB N. V. 1903. 

Rubin, Salomo. 

253. niaVJO'^y mxh A satire on ignorance, parodying Psalm i ; 
in his E'^Dan n^nn, Vienna 1880, p. S- 

Rubinstein, A. 

254. lyb"!"* TO man K>n* A socialistic satire on trusts and 
monopolies; in M, Chinsky's pIKlttQ HOD, April 1901, 
p. 24—28; reprinted in mjn yOlT (PI [N. YJ s. a. S". 
p. 24— 23. 




S. 
Sablotzky, Moses. 
. (nVTIC) n3''a "nOM Perverted proverbs; in IDBTIK, vol. 2, 
P- 3S7- 
WTTB Miscellaneous satire; in Zupnik's 11"^, no. 2, p. 8o. 

('as )3 ■>'■» ision rwo 'area awj) D'3n3D TB Ad 

imaginary "letter writer", parodying the works of this 
class by Dolitzky, Giinzburg and others; in HBlsn cd. by 
L. Friedmann, vol I, no. I2I. 

Sachs, Senior. 
JUBTI nriD nsQD Satire on Reform rabbis; in his intro- 
duction to I. M- Dick's nv:j) roDD Wilna 1878, p. 8—9. 
D'ai nDDO On the same subject; ibid. p. 7 — 8. 

Sajontschick, Elijah Hayyim. 

D"fflDmpp-n'a2 * '33 Ksoan Bmon rf2 vmrt .TUn tid 
. . . iwa rr^y ^Dia j'TiDon )BnB \z jwan p piK ^V "BH 

KBloan ncna Warsaw 1899 S". 28 p. On the hard- 
ship endured by the students in the Russian "^ 
D'TBID rODD ibid. p. 17— 19. 




I "63 

364. 

I 

166. 

267. 
268. 

271. 



XrV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XH CENT. PARODIES 243 

Sarchi, Isaac L. 

nipi' A«l piD A Talmudic parody dealing with the 

persecution of the Jews in Russia; in '13yn, vol. 3, no, 51, 

continued ibid. vol. 4, nos. i — 4, 6, 7, 
Schapira, Herman. 

O'TDH rODO Ms,, mentioned by A. B. Gottlober in his 

biMna -vtt ^3, vol, I, p. 123—124. See also n'arn, 

vol 4, p- 185. He wrote it in Berlin in 1869 — 1870. 
Schapira, Eliezer Isaac. 

tubp n'3 'TPn «^ «'0 Jn-O n'npT KT3 An Aramaic 

parody, dealing with the secular education of the Jews 

in Russia, pub, over the pseud. K'TPiyDD CB; in yhoT] 

1867, no. 35. 

npT ttyt '^DD KnC'Vl «n^l)^« irm mso A Talmudic 

parody on Hebrew journalism, pub. over the same pseud.; 

ibid, no. 34. 

'Knai? ^m Talmudic parody, dealing with the same 

subject as the preceding, pub. over the pseud, B'"'t<; ibid, 

no. 10. 
Scfaaptro, Tobias P. 

?jni* 'D njl31« Talmudic parody, dealing with literary 

topics; in Y^hon 1869 p. 82—84. 

D'TBID 'plTpl Talmudic parody, dealing with Hebrew 

journalism; ibid. 1868, nos, 29, 30, 

rmnc a^^ Hpn-ei «TDn an mn^wp An imaginary dis- 
course between a Hasid and a "Maskil" in the style of 
the Zohar; ibid. 1867, no, 48. 

Schatzkes, Moses Aaron. 

V'TJfDOVlltP Dyj"'7p Djn pc am Ijn* An homilctic parody; 
in his noE-iKB lycf'TT, Warsaw 1S96, p. 125—127. 

Schechter, Noah- 

cnpV "ry n»on 1« Cnn Blpb^ Miscellaneous satire; in 

'aiyn oip^\ N. Y. 1904, p. 73—74. 

TTW pit! Miscellaneous satire; in 0«Vn, vol. 3 {N. Y. 
1903). no- 5- 



244 



STUDIES IN JEWSH PARODY 



Scheindling, M. 

272. . . . onsin niB'V Satire on Rerorm Judaism in general, 
and on the Pittsburg Conference (Nov. 16 — 18, 1885) in 
particular, attacking also Isaac M. Wise and the Hebrew 
Union College ; in his article HE'inn |nK2 DTnin, pub. in 
am, vol. I (1886), no. 62. 

Schereschewsky, A- M. 

273. ivs Kini fp''n ni3« nji3-i« piei ,njhT]3 i6o ^«ie6 na-wn 

KpnyCKa wnK "rm Parodies in part the Talmudic style 
and deals with the life of the Jews in America; in 'ISjn, 
vol. 4, nos, 44—48 and vol. s, nos. i — 4. 
Schereschewsky, Zebi Hirsch, 

274. (niTID) 'hun ]2 Perverted proverbs; in btrXf^ TOSS, vol. I, 
col. 401—408; vol. 2, coL 2—6 and in »]D»rnK, vol 4, 
p. 92. 

275. najwin Miscellaneous satire, pub. under the pseud, yajf" 
pDJf -W JJIE"; in ni« lp2n, vol. 3, no. I, p. 395. 

276. H'D'am KJCn^ Satire on Hebrew journalism in the Zohar 
style, pub. over the same pseud, as the preceding parody; 
in V'^on 1867, no. 4. 

277. mn ns'p Miscellaneous satire; in 118 lp2n, vol. 4, 
p. I S3— 184. 

278. bpVOT\ rcit?n Satire on the "Masldlim", or Progressists, 
pub. under the same pseud, as no. 275; in pVon 1869, 
p. 6i. 

Schnabel, Lazar. 

279. "Das Lied votn Scholct. Travestie nach Schiller's: "Lied 
279a. von der Glocke". *'« Cliasen's KloUs. Travestie nach 

Uhland's: "Des Sangers Fluch". Von Reb Leser Scholet- 
setzer. Vienna 1856 (2d ed.) S". 20 p. 
Schlossberg, M. J. 

280. DC W IBTTOa Satire on the disorder in the old fashioned 
synagogues; in ^1S '^'^'<^, vol- 4, no. I, p. 706 — 707. 

Schorr. Joshua Heschel. 

281. [V«Bn ^y minoij 'lIl] Parody of KOn ^J», sarcastically 
enumerating his criticisms of various books as so many 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



245 



sins; part of his artide TiaTBH niHW, pub. in phnn, 
vol. 4, p. 17. 

P"3n eip"?' Parody of Levinsohn's ^m aipV; ibid, vol 1 1, 
p. 113— 116. 

Schulmann, Lazar. 
[D^SD Tion nam] A travesty of the sermons of R. Moses 
Isaac Darshan [1827 — 1899], sumamed the "Preacher of 
Chelm"; part of his ^VlVnci Ippj), pub. in TTWri, vol 4, 
p. 284. 

Seiffert, Moses. 

jnpMiyi y'jya B'I* a vaudeville in one act, played in 
New York Cit>', July 5, 1902, travestying the sensational 
features of the Jewish press in New York. One of the 
articles, supposed to have been written for the "Gele 
Redakzie" (Jellow Jouma!), entitled: ]jn'K 1'IK DKIJUtD M 

PDtiB«p yi'Tnac kh nyi« id"bd nay^'iyo t«. is a satire 

on the exaggerate st}'le in which news is reported in the 
Jewish press. Ms. in the New York Public Library. Paper, 
cursive char. 4", 22 p. 

?^3x!? DiiT KTl BBiVp* A satire on Jewish immigrants in 
America, parodying Goethe's ''Kennst du das Land wo 
die Zitronen bliihen:", pub. over the pseud. .B .t .D; in 

pKE ivtrnr Tjn, vol. i (N. y. 1894), no. 4. 

mb'oj K nnp lyo jyii ei^my . . . JJlD'^ ipjl-aODKHDiy* 

1J!TK }f S"3 ^D^ A satire on Antisemitisra in form of a 
newspaper; part of his feuilloton ThTll K'l, pub, in JW'TK *t'T 
o^yn 1903. 
Sclikovitsch, George. 

. . . ncn^D pE min* A satire on the Russo-Japanese 
war in the form of the Passover Hagadah. pub. over the 
pseud. iro2DD; in BBKVsjJWt: yff^K DHl 1905. 

nci-in ^^^J ]ik -no D''K^t9'3 ijn« i^Typyytrvyn Tjn* 
A satire on the Russian Czar and the Bureaucracy, pub. 
over the pseud. ITD^DD; ibid. April 3, 1901. 
I. B^jmin Biy■^y^C lie l«'SKtJK'?pK-B* Criticism of the 
enthusiastic reception tendered by President Roosevelt to 



246 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

Prince Henry of Germany, pub. over the pseud. llTDaOD; 
ibid. March i, 1902, 

290. D'aVfiVPya jmiBB mT A travesty of the "Freie Arbiter 
Stimnie"; in Arbeiter Zeitung, voL 2. 

291. D'annKT cawxi U-Mn A satire on the proposed trea^ 
between Russia and the United States to extradite politick 
offenders; in 'ISyn, vol. 3 (N. Y. 1893), no. 14. 

Shaikewitz, Nahuro Meir. 

292. OniD'? D'T'OKO 'JK* A polemic; in nS'iD V«a VCI, N. Y. 

1898, p. 14. 

293. . . . niipn b2h^ nosh ^j?pioD ytranpnyist* me man y«a tn* 

N, Y. 1902. 8". [2] + 12 p. Advertisement in the foim 
of the Passover Haggadah. (In the N. Y. Public Librai^ 

294- ly^pNsiK jw'DD'iKDin yiyiJK imi ]1k ttuti yvrsf'JHt HT* 

. . . 'pDl'B IT ]1B N. Y. 3. a. 8". 16 p. A satire on 
the unscrupulous methods employed by poUtidaDs in po- 
litical campaigns- 

295. rami no min ymp »* On the system of education ia 
the Hedarim, or elementary Hebrew schools. 

Sharkansky, A. M. 

296. J^^IJiStfO D'lynKa BJJI* a satire on the Jewish boarding 
houses of the East Side, parodying Hamlef s monologue 
"To be or not to be"...; '?W^1E'^ IJfJIKO, N. Y. Nov. 6. 
1901. 

297. Jip'-iyoK t'« DinHfi ySjron'* Parody of Schiller's •Hektor 
und Andromache"; in his D'aUl yCTTM, N. Y. 1895, 
P- 43—45- 

298. . . . nis^>B3 niBD B'D man j«r:«pnyD« jrJ m*t* n. y. 

1899. 8°. 32 p. A satire on the life of the Jewish 
immigrant in America. 

Shemaioh we-Abtalion (Pseud.). 
299- PajJ'^ IIB "V^V !"''» Ijn* A satire on Jewish life in 
America; in pKD 1SIB"T' lyi, vol. 2 (N. Y. 1895) no. 6. 
Silberbusch, David Isaiah. 
300. nrnin "in AsatireontheGalicianJews,parodyingthecodc 
of Joseph Caro with a commentary TIT ]'XQ; in 1W1 p. 54. 




XIV. BIBUOGRAPHV OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



247 



niUI HDSt a continuation of the preceding parody; 
ibid. p. 55- 
Silberstein, Shalom Joseph. 

B-rwa Up p-wM TJI3 "j^ian ain^ D^ miK ^^^J^ ]n^ 
. . . ninini; in }"^Dn 1888, no. 47. 

Stinlin, Levi Reuben. 

. ...Tioni ^pn'hm .lyc'i ,r^is ,«b'^ jnioa UiabQ'? mjn "no 

. . . '31J? on"? t?n'C ,T6y IDI3 Odessa 1882. 8». 56 p.; 
ibid. 1883; ibid. 1885; ibid. 1886. A satire on the system 
of education in the Hedcr, and the ill treatment of the 
Hebrew teacher, parodying the Passover Haggadah and 
the laws relating to Passover. It contains also extraneous 
matter (p. 47 — 56). 

For endcUin, »ee r^O.1 1883, no. if, 'aiJBBip^, N. V, 1904, p. 77. 
Skolnik. Zebi Hirsch. 
JlTTOnn niTO Satire on Hasidim, as part of his article 

nwna inia in •f^-an 1869, p, 302—304. 

Smoleoskm, Perez, 
nunn min A travesty of the homiletics of the Hasidic 
rabbis; in his O^nn '3*113 .lyWl, vol 3, chap. la 

Solomon, ]. P. 
*Tiu ClironkU of tlie Rabins. Being an account of a 
banquet tendered to "Episcopus" by the Rabbis of N. Y. 
Qty upon the anniversary of his 70lh birth-day. Dedi- 
cated to "Episcopus" by Ben F. Rayioi. N. V. 1897. 8°. 
16 p. A satire on tlie leading Reform Rabbis of New 
York City, "Episcopus" designating the lale Rabbi Gustav 
GottheiU 

Sommerbausen, liirsch. 

tnn '33 .nriHrfei d'iid ttwb H'nvb tTTDE' WV mn 
wiMrD DIP it'imnit .nrrn inK D'3»n tcodi •onon bb' 

rn'3n ^DD"13 13»1D1 Bmxelles 1843. 8'. IS p. Litho- 
graphed, (hi the Library of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America). A humorous parody, begin.: 
. . . ^3X1 rw onu ^ TS^ pv, followed by Gernuui 



248 



STUDIES IN JEmSH PARODY 



translations of several of the Hebrew pieces (p. 13 — 15), 
viz.: 1"11 ^laai'llsa^K, corresponding to the Hebrew parody 
... Kin ]!j3« (p. 12); 7« t"ll IKT Di"R, corresponding to 
the Hebrew parody J?T' ■« in« (p. 12—13); .••r^P^P'. 
corresponding to KIJ in (p. 13); TIS J"T TO -nra TVh, 
corresponding to the Hebrew parody begin.: nt liaj?3 '3 
^3tK '33 Ein H'nn 7113 DJ (p. n). Second ed. Anon. 
reprint. Hamburg [1844], 8°. 18 p. The German piece 
begin.: lins 71"^ is in this ed. inserted on p. 14. below 
the Hebrew text. Third, ed, (= the author's second ed.) 
Amsterdam 1849. 8°. [4] + 32 p. This ed. is enlarged 
307 a. by an introduction in rhymed prose, ^JJ) D'llD^ ni3*iyo 

307b. (nos he iitpsi b-hb nisiyo noan (p. 1—3) and nVTB 
.spy '131? Hrn "JK 3pii'^ '"' ntsK nean by .» jmifr 
n'^nm )no 'i>2 n'n Ton b"k nojn by .3 (p. 31—32). 

The translations are arranged in the same order as in the 

second ed. and are followed by the niTOI. Fourth ed 
appeared under the title: n'lO . . . m3n D-niaff ^'^V mil 

livn «'3in pi3p3n ibd ir^y iDiii sis n"iD 3-in 13 ii3p 

D'lli) 'O'^ Anon. Vienna 1850. S°. i2f. In this and 
the succeeding editions the German translations are 
omitted. Fifth ed. D'jnCl D'aSESDH nniB bv rn:n TTO 

D'npn nn'3i nua'Dii n3"i3 nys noDU . . . cnisffn np7\b rts 

Anon. Leghorn 1889. 24°. 20 p. The text of this ed. is 
very much modified. In some places it is abridged and 
in others enlarged. It also contains a poem 13'Ty D'SIDK 
nai? (p. 13— 14J with the acrostic jn3 \\~t». Sixth ed 

TID3 1103 . . . y»*in ion nsyo 13 tbid' oniB bv mm "w 
"T^v litp^3 uncjc nnnoi "i3jj ii»V3 dtkh ^jn nofi ^t? mn 

C^pD) insn tpv . . . 'JOO Algeria 1S90. 24°. 20 p. The 
text in tliis ed, is abridged and translated into Judaeo- 
Arabic- Besides the editions described above, all the 
editions of O'lUB lID^n p DniB rsDD (excepting ed. 
Sukbach 1814) contain tliis parody. The fifth and sijcth 
editions are found in the Library of Columbia Univer- 
sity. For bibliographical data on the sbcth ed. see also 



XIV. EIBUOGRAPHV OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



249 



Zeitschrift fur Hebriiische Bidliographie, vol. 7, p. II6, 



For criliciim lee Allg. Zeit d. Jodenthnw*, vol. 13, p. 403 — 404. 

308. (na^n 'ipb njw2) n-vi nniB •■Ksioa ni3» rui^n a drunk- 
ard's address to the moon; in LitbL d. Or., vol. 11, 
coL 183. 

Sopher, Samuel. 

309. BJMiKDDjn Tt?D ^J?J''ll «'i ipiK mjn *pn* N. Y. s. a. 
12", S p. Advertisement in the form of the Passover 

^L Haggadah. 

^P Steinschneider, Moritz. 

310. "Ein Liislspifl in swei Aufsugen. A satire on the con- 
vention of Reform Rabbis held at Frankfurt on the Main 
in 1845 in a series of imaginary conversations between 
the porter of the convention hall and a number of Jewish 
celebrities of the past and present. One of these is 
Judah ha-Nasi who wishes to present to the convention 
a "Prospectus 2u einer zeitgemassen Ausgabe der Mishna", 
in which D'jni 110 would be substituted by ni^^p 110. 
or a catalogue of terms of abuse to be used ag^nst 
orthodox and conservatives, and lyiO 11D would have a 
iKOllt OD etc., but like the other celebrities he is not 
admitted to the convention. This satire appeared anonym- 
ous!)' in Jellinek's Sabbath-Blatt 1845, no. 30, and was 
continued under the title oi Frankfurter Nebelbilder, ibid, 
nos, 31 — 35, 38 — ^41. G. A. Kohut ascribes it to Stein- 
schneider (See his Morits SteinsclmHder, N. Y. 1900. 
P- 32)- 

Stem, Itiig Fcitel 

311. *De Joodscke Tos^enburg of de DJchter Itzig. Parody 
|L of Schiller's Ritter Toggenborg in the dialect of the 
^P Dutch Jews; in GedkkU. ParabeUfi en Sjnokcs . ■ . van 
■ /. F. S. (Amsterdam 1834), p. 5—13- 

311(a) *£pfifi Kittisciil Noch a Bettraagk ru Israels Verkehr 
u. Geist vun kaa'm vunn unserc Leut'. Speyer 1843. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

16°. 174 + 2 p. Anon, contains numerous satiric parodiet 
in the Judaeo-Alsacian dialect, 
Suller, D. B. 

DISinB Perverted proverbs; in *)D(W1B, vol. 4, p. 



Tawjew, Israel t^ayyim. 

313. Msr 'iip»i ,'3»i'a ;TpnD /nnoD ,'vid ,'3'td jr'3B JITOfl 

'il^p 'Jl^D "y trilDH 'O'S 11»^ A miscellaneous satire in 
the form of a periodical, begun in yhm 1897, ng. 65 
and continued under the title onifi^ liny iman, ibid. 1898, 
no. 46; 1899, no. 37; 1900, no. 52; 1901, no. 43 and 
1902, no, 48. 

314. D'^on TBDD niMUin A satiric vocabulary; ibid. 1889, 
nos. 77, 143; 1897, no. 284. 

315. .TTTB-'^tro Perverted proverbs; in 1DKT1K, vol i. col. 
332-333- 

316. (^T^^B^ nurpi) niSSJ Perverted proverbs; ibid. vol. 2, 
col. 339; vol. 3, col. 338—342. 

Tirkheltub, I. N. (Editor). 

317. 'BPS T""** '9* 
. . . !'P'il9 K3 M2 opp; A Jewish folk-song in Rt 
parodying a Hebrew hymn, a variant of the one given 
above under no. 35. In Evretskiya Narodmya Pyem 
v'Rossi, ed. by S. M. Ginzbui^ and P. S. Marelc, SL 
Petersburg I901, no. 372. 

Tober, Moses Hayyim. 

318. O'JOtn )'3 r3D0 A satire on the system of education in 
the Hebrew schools of Galicia, in the form of a Talmudic 
treatise witli commentaries; in D?."^ ed by D. L Silbcr- 
busch, Kolomea 1892, no. 10, p. 14 — 15. 

Trachtmann, Jacob Samuel. 

319. nncn nisVn A parody of part of the Haggadah, dealii^; 
with the subject of charity; in y^on i86a no. 6. 



.•ol. 2, 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 25 1 

Hni^an TlP^a COan \X> A satire on the reforms intro- 
duced into the Ritual; in his WW TTiM Odessa 1870, 
p. lOI. 

naron ]1B^3 O'OSn li» A satire on the reforms relating 
to the dietary laws; ibid, p. 100, reprinted from ^''^DTI 
1864. no. 7. 

naron ]l»^a nnpaon IJB A Mishnaic parody, dealing 
with some principles of criticism; part of his article 

pA i^n in yhnn 1867, no. 46. 



Walkow, Simeon. 

Vnn 'iipaP eip^' A general satire on Jewish life in the 
Midrashic style; begun in m'BSn, vol. 15, no. 21 (under 
the title • . • BIp^'D), continued in the same periodical, 
voL 28, nos. 230, 252, 253 and in T3an, vol. 12, no. 2 
(Jan. 8, 1903). Part of it is reprinted in 'lavn, vol 7, 
no. I. 

hu'Vr roOD A satire in the style of the Tabiud on the 
persecution of the Jews; in HliTn, voL 9 (London 1906) 
no. 31, 38. 

Weissberg, Isaac Jacob. 

B^TTio n^jo i« naen pw Kief 1883. 12". 106 + [2] p. 

A polemic against Baruch Esman (author of a Pilpulistic 
work phm -m, Wilna 1882), written in the style of the 
Megi^h Tt-niirin. A reply to this polemic was made 
by Moses Reichersberg in his TBD '^^^ Warsaw 1885. 
See also VWn, vol, 12, p. 260—62, 511—518. 
Weissmann-Chajes, Mordecai. 

(hD "in '3H Ojm) tUjnSnn A miscellaneous satire pub. over 

the pseud, nio In ^Ip'"". vol. 3, no. 65. 

'iyTP3yB6 rnrte Polemic against the Antisemite Schoncrer; 

in T3Dn vol. 32 (18S8), no. 21. 

rmt pTD Thirty aphorisms; in Suwalski's '"ivm 1897/98, 

no. 26, 30. Twelve of these aphorisms with ten new 



336. 



338. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

ones were also published under the same title in "aiyBn 13, 

vol. 2, no. 4, p. 212 — 213, 
Weissman, Reuben. 

. . . -tyJKt 'Saawi l ]\a TlBtb Vrm* A satire on Jewish 

life in general, with occasional references to the life of 

the Jews in New York City; in Minikes' CWhi noB, 

April 1901. 
■Winchevski, Morris. 

lyiyp lJJt5"a"iN TD n'a-^fJK r«* Socialistic satire; b 

^i'■^s ^yc3"2^K, vol. 5, no. 32. 

Cip yap IHK^ p'T una A poleniic parody, pub. me 

the pseud, nnn t?'« '^J'; in Q"03n nSDK, no. 2, p. 32. 

ayiymti d']ib ijjajfjyjo'ns 7i3"iVB"ijni D'omana irn* 

IKtK^'S A satiric vocabulary; in BBJlplS (fT (vol. 1) 
N. Y. 1902, nos. 9, 10, 12. 

ftr^TtPD 2"K -D by) nxfn v?to be iTtytn Dvb isi^ a »- 

cialistic satire begin.: 1^0 1D3n blp3 nCN-" D'iVaS '^:iSi 
in 13nD iyifl"31K, vol. 3, no. 36; reprinted ibid, vol 4, 
no. 40, and again with a Yiddish commentary in lUnS 

nat n^sn oy Leeds 1903, p. 10—13. 

min B"i< 'Dip*? A miscellaneous satire, parodying the 
style of the liturgj% pub. over the pseud. niVI B"K '^3"; in 
^Ipn, vol. 3, no. 84. 

liK^DOn I'M ly-TK «n -ins yS)!tyi JTJ* On the confKtion 
of the Jews in Russia, written in the form of a code; in 
tsiijjn JJ"-1S «'■:, vol. 2 (London 1S92), no. 3. 

•lyan'iisKD ivo3>3"M-iyB njJT ]»r,» ypDKpy^Kp jn* 

pBi'D p"pD 'll^D ^KDpi<■^Jn Nowhere Road E ; in IJrtJ-iTK 
ia""lD, vol. 5 (London iSgo), no. 31, 35. See also no. 36, 
which contains a series of fictitious letters from readeis 
regarding this parody. 

3-iBpO IBB lyi* Parody of Goethe's Prologue to Faust; 
in noun Boston 1895, p. 169. 

D'^py TtPV Twhv A socialistic satire, parodying the thir- 
teen dogmas of Maimonides; in Jilsi'MmyailH yr'K .TW 'ff 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XK CENT. PARODIES 



2S3 



. . . B^yil ytsinvplpa wn nya'M (London 1885), p. 2; re- 
printed with a Yiddbh commentary in nsi n^sn oy llIflQ 
(Leeds 1903), p. 60—63. 
19. (fin noia 'D hy) HOn TJl n?Bn Socialistic satire, parody- 

Iing the liturgy; in noxn, p. 183; reprinted in Oy ^1l^D 
n3> n^Cn (Leeds 1903), p. 57—58 and in n3t r^Wl 
N. Y. 1 891. 
Wol^ Lion. 
*Hockzeits-Hagadah zu Erinnerung an die Befreiung der 
Kinder Israel aus dcm Sklavenjoch des Brautstandes in 
das Kanaan des Ehestandes; in Stimmen der Frettde, 
Frankf. a, M. 1894, p. 225—240. 



I 



I y. 

Yahaz ben Rahzah (Pseud.). 
«nrm WVUS 'in nin'tr A satire on the yasidic rablM, 
Baer Friedmann of Leovo, written in the style of the 
Megalieh Temirin; in TTIErn, vol 8, p. 324—327, 416 — 419, 
46a — 463. 



Zangwill, Israel. 

•DTDS ^yO'DKp DJfiVIK^'^VB ?* A satire, in Biblical Style, 
on the Kharkof Zionists who opposed the acceptance of 
the British offer in the E. African Protectorate and sent 
an ultimatum to Dr. Herzl, translated into Yiddish from 
DU- Welt 
|2elman, Samuel Vita. 

OTO m' Ipl nEli ^p nv^ A mock heroic,- in his D'ya 

. . . ^mat? niTot, Tricsi 1886, p. 33. 

VjEcvin, Israel J. 

TH'nyTii37B Tva^TS jib rrun nn* A satire on some 

phases of New York life, pub. under the pseud. pTWri; 
in Minikcs' DCkVs nos April 1901. 



"UDIES m JEWISH PARODY 



ZolotarofF, H. 

'ipn nin A socialistic satire in the form of the Lituigy) 

in . . . a'xiun co-'b nst n^en N. Y. 1891. (Sec below 
no. 394 a.) 
ZolotlcofT, Leon. 

(Enn nei: by) riDB bv mjn, pub. over the pseud. TjajT; 
in ^3'■'^B iyC3"31K, vol. 2, no. 22. 

■•^^Vn An attack on the '-Dyn published by Sarasohn, 
parodying a poem with the same title, written by L 
Marcus as a eulogy of this paper and published in its 
first number (April ii, 1892); in the Daily Jewish Courkr, 
Chicago 1S92, no. 52. 



ANONYMOUS. 
N 

,D«^3jy3Kii yybiya « .-TKa^ys-at? man jjs'^ddwijm 
iiK' ps !jkd t'k opiiB .f^owKD Bi'^iy N. V. 190& f. 

2 f. (In the New York Public Library). A rircular of 
a socialistic ball in the form of a newspaper, contaimng 
also criticisms of current events. 

ra ij)i lyopsiv"! ms jjtnn pn po »|jna lyiJfBBK r«' 

:316''T(Dp'7SB JWir lyp-iK' Imaginary correspondence; in 
:jii3"3Dp^KD VEfir '^yp^Kl vi, vol. 4 (1889), no. 146. 
mas nyaiK Parody of the first Mishnah.of Baba l^atiu, 
criticising the old school of Rabbis, and praiang the 
modern ministers; pub, over the signature 'OT in f^M 
1869, no. 7. 



351. ?pO minn p ^p'D"a A collection of Biblical pass^es, 
fitting the description of a bicycle; in 'layn, voL ; 
(N. Y. 1897), no. 28. 

352. ^'^Dpi'B tay'sny oBw^aajjasii oys-^iyti (t DJ^PS V:' 



XIV. EIBUOCRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 



355 



• . . intf B 7M03"t* A humorous newspaper, pub. in the 
Purim number of the Frvund. St. Petersbourg 1906. 
pW "^T nn"*UO A satire on some Jewish characteristics, 
pub. over the signature D t? in ^ipn, vol. 3, no. (;^. 



nuwicna D'linin tnfl ii-on Hxi "jny in^»no o'Thk can 

■TJIDi'JTHa A satire on the mismanagement of the Baron 
de Hirsch colonies in Argentina; in Silberbusch's DJ?n 
(Kolomea 1892), no. 13, p. 13; reprinted in 'layn, N. Y. 
1892, vol. 2, no. 10. 



. . . B3in'3 CK ITD OVT 12Kn "I "11 KJ^pJ?^ ^'linH^ Warsaw 
1881, 8°. 36 p. A satire in the form of the Passover 
Haggadah on the illiteracy of the Jewish farmer in Poland 
in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

BKn wpp' . . . iTD DDsi ^y^y^iK njn iib Krpjr )ib rn;in* 
■WD Dp i3»n TiiSD lyi jiK ,Rt?p i"s poKO Djn BijnD'a 

. . . '^'Cn tm Dt?"B Warsaw 1881. 8". 12 p. A sequel 
to the preceding parody. 

lyO'l-UB JID DOKETyD . . . "y^T^^ "TOJitp D'JIB mil tin* 
min ^ya Advertisement, as supplement to TPBTIIS 

nyjKii'H N. Y. i89s> 

ipiy^ lyoDK^ y^^« tb n^cn Vd^ riDB /IP mn* 

N. V. s. a. 12". 7 p. Advertisement in the form of Ac 
Passover Haggadah. 

D'^ann DTW^ nOB 'ro mn A satire on the Reform 
movement in England, pub. over the signature Kini '3B 
in T»n April 9. 1903. 

(Pnu y»TK lywpnyDK IKB) nOB ^ rrun* Adver- 
tisement, in Minikes' BK^2 nofi \» DniB 1903. 

jjriy^ IS lypi'iB yyno nyiKpiyoK td nOB bc min* 

THir IPSMO Bjn nailDa Advertisement, in the Jewish 
Daily News April 3, 1901- 



256 STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

362. nuyBTl A miscellaneous satire pub. over the signature 
Op'PK niTJOn .K J .H; in ^IpH, voL 3, no. 100. 

363. TOiya y'7'7 niiyffin A miscellaneous satire, pub. over the 
signature D'Offn MSD inW; in 'DM^n N. Y. 1989, no. 21. 

364. icnpl iB'B'lpm A Talmudic parody of a miscellaneous 
character, pub. over the pseud, ff'p ]3 BV^yi; in f^ii 
1867, nos. 17, 18. 



365. «13ny^ «J;iiy9? KD^VD «mn wain A polemic ag^nst tiie 
Tiori; in ^Ipn vol. I, no. Ii, over the pseud. JTl TnJO, 
in no, 14 over pseud. niJD3^« 1^ ID^^B and in no. 31 
over pseud. V" N'^3< 

366. [D'plDBl niKHDia 'ET^n] A satire on the oppresaon of 
the poor in the form of yariae Lectiones; part of the 
article nVJOTp npn, pub. over the pseud. lDt71 "D^liy ETK 

nrri in ^ipn, vol. 3, no. 67. 

h 

367. ^^K^ wsv .niss^n 'S'iy ^i!?! d'stu^i main'? irn'o iiny f^ 

humorous newspaper; in m'SSn, 1902, no. 59. 



368. 'D by rtsan nw bnh\ cmun D'o'b riDt r6Bn ds lima* 
Din: . . . D''^'D3 (sic) ii:^ rron tJiTB ny "ytom n'"nn„ nou 
p"pT (t'y^3 ye™ yE''>BD'^^K3K) nyin y^'^P ^"^^ niTirpna 

t . . IT^ Leeds 1903. 24°. 64 p. A collection of polemics 
and socialistic sadres, some in Hebrew and some in 
Yiddish, parodying the prayers prescribed for the New 
Year and the Day of Atonement, with a commentaiy in 
Yiddish. It contains the following parodies: 
(a, b) rme rhtT\\ niCn tpni^ -isr of M. Winchevsky (Sec 
above no. 333); 



XIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF XDt CENT. PARODIES 257 

\, d) naen ^5^ nijrpnn ITD over the pseud. O'lttn \l'7» and 
T3 tmHrt, both by B. Feigenbaum (See above nos. 67 
and 63): 
(e, •lai'? ^3^^ ™nT and oniBan ar!? n»"n two polemics 
against Z. H. Masliansky; 
(g.h.i) n3i n^fiH; nnE3 itd; niea or V^ Tiyc; 
_. (Jc, 1) 1103 ov^ nnnt?; niDS cr^ idid identical with mbh ^y nSen 

of M. Winchevsky (See above no. 339); 
I, n) 7&Vi n^sri, and O'lp? 11?? rw^P of M. Winchevsky (See 
above no. 338), 

IPTIH BijnvBJ'ivw vnt6 trht iny njn I'n . . . utra Tjn* 

P'2M 1^0 In tJ-^ JJ3'''?'""ffl KH, pub. by the Voice of 

Labor, Jan. 19, 1901. 

Wn rht Itm a miscellaneous satire, pub. over the 

pseud. p3« 13 'TO; in l^'Son 1867, no. 36. 

niKlpD rDDD In f^n 1888, no. 219. 



nilBS "no* A blasphemous parody, pub, over the pseud. 
^uain; in 1J"TD lyD^SlK ^jH, vol. 2, no. 34 (See also 
above no. 368 h). 

]V3t<0 llD* A socialistic satire parodying part of the 
Passover Haggadah, pub. over the pseud- 'UOOn; in 
DBTyinSB, vol. 6, no. 1904. 

ItrSl^KliyT ^K'XNDn 'D-" D'3»1 B'RIU D'D'^ nffl'^* A so- 
cialistic satire, pub. over the pseud. lOSmo ' in yewish 
Volksseitvng, vol. 4 (N. Y. 1889), p. 166—168. 



^iDfl D^iy A satire on literary critics, pub, over the 
pseud. WBjrnS 3T13 niUDH IK nKlTViaD 3^ ') irPJW in 

f^en 1868, no. 4. 

3T 31? A miscellaneous satire, consisting of ]D D'Olp? 
B^pn »T10 /irniK and nnt 'Jipn; in noxn, Vienna 1877, 

p- 31—32- 



378. 



STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

'aKOKD IID rnso laV* [N. Y. 1904]. S". [4 p.]. A poli- 
tical pamphlet, parodying part of the Passover Haggadah, 
issued by the Fusionists in the camp^gn of 1904 to con- 
vince the Jewish voters of the corruption of Tammany 
Hall and to urge the support of the candidacy of Cyrus 
L. Sulzberger for the presidency of the borough of Man- 
hattan. It also bears the following motto in English: 
"Let there be light" — but no "red-light". 

ijHs"3-iK I'D ^»B''D«p pB nnmn nienf* in iwa-w yn 

'^y^D, vol. 3, no. 24. 

[n"Di?''eM(n hm ., . nnain rr\ay] Translated from the 

German in Wiener Volksbote; in ncsn, Warsaw 1903, 



383- 



384- 



385- 



una in ^JWIS■•^KB K* On the war between China and 
Japan; in p«D -lyB'TI'' Ijn. vol. 2 (N. Y. 1895), no. 18. 

]iB pysajjin id nam trfSi junjw x^» \TWy\ D*T1B]* 

. . . 7«21JJDt!6lp Amsterdam 181S. 12". 7 p. Sk Leiter- 

bode, vol. 9, p. 52, no. 38. 

TiP^OV ID'llfin A miscellaneous satire in the fomi of 

a newspaper; in JBin. Wilna 1905, no. 53. 

Hvrw no33 ^y m't? pis On the condition of the Jews 

among the nations, pub. over the pseud. 3J"B'' in 0033 

hvrw, vol. 2, col. 7—8. 



rrann '■■? nja^n iim'? «3r . . . o'l-ippfj D'iinyn )pt m; 

. . . T^T2 p'pa nia^n A satire on current events in the 
form of a newspaper, written by Jewish students in 
Berlin. It contains a special parody m^ piB on topics 
of the hour; in the Purim no. of Suwalski's 'Tirrn, Lon- 
don 1904. 

rmv, JJSIlp K* A satire on American politics 
pKB lypm-, vol. 2, no. 19. 



iJlfS^^^ 



XIV. BIBUOGRAFH? OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 259 

rU'p Parody of the Zion Elegy IVS '^K beginning: '^« 

, . . . rrtiMa innB" Tjoni ain ^y n'lyi . . . ts Tjf; in ^eo 

31 [Lemberg 1875J, p. 23 — 24. 

BniE^ niiytPini r\yyp S. l. 1828. 8°. Cat. Rabbinowicz 

1881, p. 22, no. 1792. See also Leltcrbode, vol. 9, p. 55, 

no. 45. 

nam H:h nU'p Attack on the Rabbis of New York for 

putting a tax on meat, pub, over the pseud. ^KO 3"t 

VVno; in t:«^n N. Y. 1889. no. 6. 

.'wpnyoK iVm . . . ■nijiD'n^iB .'d-'^ib .is'Sib pny ]p3pn 

^'on D'30 msTie rfjsnt? nyca natsa nriK V'r In m-'ran 

1903, no. 51. 



^2inn 3*irm tjnic^ mist? 'in b ^^i3 ,n'n» ia« ^ny ]n^ 
BDiiDon Vnjn iiarno yoTn ninsn ny ,i"n ji'2 'd n'onya 
n^3 nnyni ma ,T;i»n 1^ 3'2di cryji 'b-i^sn 'd K'CiTvfy 
n&p p bjj2i rwp pi KTon ^3 -wi^ Hnc'in «^\d^b np»D 

. . . D'TBK 'ni3» irST nHD Lemberg i86l. 24'. 16 p. A 
humorous parody in the form of Caro's code. The par- 
ody proper is preceded (p. 2) by 'i2^D THO D'T1C7 TB 

n'lDj TT 2'«n TiD ^j; .rrw, begin.: nw^ca 'a avT^Hi" iiott 

ncjf giving the history of Purim in brief, 



nno nin ptai i^wn d'O'3 D"n miK nia^no D*n niin 

HllKiK'3 'Srniyyo A satire on the Russian jews 

comprising (a) t3n«n mniH 'i'T on greed, (b) T«l»3 'an 
on mercenary marriages and (c) y'BKIpKDD'ltt '3n on 
the parvenus, parodying the code of Joseph Caro and 
the commentary 3B'n IKa; in ^p^ 'IDKon, Kdnigsberg 
1879, p. 14—15. 67—68. 

r6Bn «• In 1J"1C lyo'^aiS ip, vol 4, no. 21, bearing 
the signature D. B. 



25o STUDIES IN JEWISH PARODY 

393. nvm ma' h2h\ a^Riii a-iyh nsnn na n^en* New York. 

s. a. 8'. 15 p. A collection of polemics, socialistic satires 
and other articles, published by the society 'O'Dn VIK 
111 of New York. It contains the following parodies: 

(a) a"DD IR^Q pfi hu'Vf^ yssf, a blasphemous parody in 
Yiddish. 

(b) men t?«1 hv pPtCl QVh ■BT, begin.: ITOB' O'^TH DVW 
. . . Vlp3 

(c) ns»n ffKT ^B" 'ItP nv^ ttv, beginning: nD« "3niK ta 
. . . DT1K0 1D1K2, this and the preceding are blasphemous 
parodies in Hebrew. 

(d) D'oikSt i*bo "jnjn jtp^sn M'-sia m: ^3 Diip ^nn tw 
(c, f) 'inrn; naw nat?'? npn and o'liBDn nr^ mrn, the last 

three parodies are polemics against Z. H. MasUansky 
(See also above nos. 368 e. f). 

394. niEfl nio'' ^3^1 D'TjiiD^i mraah .D^Kiiin d^d'^ TOt r6an* 

A series of five socialistic pamphlets published annually 
by "The Pioneers of Freedom". N. Y. 1890^1894. 2». 
4 p. No. 2 contains: 

(a) '3Vn nin a liturgic parody by Zolotaroff. 

(b) . . . IDsn '^'K 'Kon hy identical with M. Winchevsky's 
wan hy n^an (See above nos. 339 and 368 1). 

No. 3 contains a liturgic parody beginning: 

(c) oy ytpv D'lana ah pai which is reprinted in rfjsn ay ivm. 

m Leeds 1903, as part of 1163 DvV n'TTTt? (See above 
no. 368 k). 

(d) No. s contains the following parodies: D'cb n'3"ipi Tmt 
(nJ»n mo' b^hl) a^mun which is reprinted with slight 
modifications in Hit n^Bfl uy lltms Leeds 1903, as rhtn 
JVns (See above no. 368 a). 

(e) -pa K^i ^« Hb pai. 

(f) (DD''j«DTKp) i'?on ^D'l jn na psi. 

395. (D'tt-lU n'C'a B'n 3^ JVJn) ''3J?^ nilBn Meditations of a 
poor tailor in the style of the hymn p2n3' rUBTl VHTO, 
pub. over the pseud. mij33 in |"bon 1897, no. 214. 



XIV. BmiOGRAFHY OF XK CXHT. PARODIES 



ioi 



*DU Burgschaft. A satire on money lenders in the 

dialect of the German Jews in America; in Gedichte u. 

Scherse itt Judischer Mundart, no. 22, p. 13 — 17. 

*The Howlers. A chapter from the Third Book of 

Chronicles (Dedicated, without permission, to certain 

members of the Anglo Jewish Association and Board of 

Deputies). Treats of the attitude of the English Jews 

towards the Kishinef massacres; pub. over the signature 

N. S- J. in The Jewish Chronide, London. June 26, 1903. 

*Der KUine Brockkaus (Ein Conversations-Lexikon fiir 

Lustige Leute); in Gedichte u. Sckerze, nos. ID — 12. 

*DusE Lid vim Kigely. Parody of Schiller's "Das Lied 

von der Glocke''; in L. Blau's Magyar Zsido Sseniif, 

Budapest, April 1904. 

"Das Lied vun die Kuggel. Amsterdam 1854. 8°. I4 p. 

(In the Library of the Jewish Theol. Sem), 

*Menu shel Pesach. A satire on Reform Judaism in its 

relation to the dietary laws; in Gedichte u. Scherse, 

no. 21, p. II. 

'Un NoKveau Decalogue a I'usage des chr^ens-sociaux. 

An antisemitic parody; in L'Univers Israelite, April, 3, 

»903- 

'Oriental Pocket Dictionary for Nezu York iusitirss men 

[Yiddish title: r^'«D IJ'O'Sya Ijn 'pD'^Kp IK DWyO'^BOKp 

]W3]. [N. Y. 1902]. 24". [[6 p.]. Perverted translations 

of Hebrew and Yiddish idioms. 

*Parodiee. Gedichtches unn prousaische UfTsatz*. vun 

Kaan-Iud-vuo c Goj'. Speyer 1835. 8°. 138 + 3 p. Neuc 

Sammiung. Antisemitic parodies in the dialect of the 

Bavarian Jews. 

*Der Rebie und der Bocher. In Gedichte u. Scherse, 

no. 7, p. 6—8. 

*Tke Stock Exchange Almanack f^ 1856. S. I. 1856. 

4". 7 p. "[A jeu d'isprit in verae? A "skit" on most 

of the prominent Jewish members of the stock exchange 



STUDIES IN JE\MSH P.\RODV 

of the period]." See Bihliotheca Anglo-Judako ed. by 

Jacobs and Wolf 1888, p. 83, no. 532. 

*Die Stopfgans. A mock heroic poem; in Gedichte u, 

Schefsf, no. 22, p. Ii — 12. 

*Vest Pocket Dictionary of Orientalisms in every dt^ use. 

[N. Y. 1903]. 32'. 12 p. The same as TIte Orit-nlal 

Pocket Dictionary. (See above no. 403). 

*TAe Wandering- Jew teliittg Fortunes to Englishmen. 

S. 1. 1625. The Legend of the Wandering Jew in the 

form of a parody. See Jacobs and Wolf, BiUiotkeca 

Angla-jhtdaica, p. 44, no. 221 and Jewish Encyc, XII, 462; 



ADDITIONS TO THE BIBUOGRAPHY. 
Aschkenazi, Zaiman. 



leca I 
>2a. 



410. KDH "jy A miscellaneous parody; in f^QH 189S, 00.205. 
Ben Hannah fPseud.). 

411. ^ya'"2^« iks riDD 'W man* A socialistic parody; in 
the JJ10"S ^yD"3^K N. Y. 1891, vol. 2, no. 17. 

412. nan p lis nwaa* Idem, ibid. vol. i, nos. 21, 22. 
Israel ben Senior. 

413. noB ^» rv^yn On the conditions of the Jews among the 
nations; in TJOn vol. 33 (1889), no. IJ. 

Laf argue, Paul. 

414. ^KB'BKp IIB )«'y^V"> '1* A satire on Capitalism, contains 
the following parodies: (a) lyB'^aiS '1 pS DTsyoKp Tjn 
(p. 12— 20J; (b) m^Bn yEfl3D''^K[3''fiKp (p. 52—583; (c) 1 
OD'^MB'BKiS ayT pB nU'p (p. 58—62). Warsaw 1906. 12°. 
62 p. 

Polak, Gabriel. 

415. fl^n hv TD6 QniflV lis nyo A wine-song, parodying 
the well-known yanukah hymn which begins with the 
same words; in his IIK min Amsterdam 1857, p, 23 — 24. 
In the municipal library of Frankfurt there is a copy 



XIV. BIBUOGRAPHY OF XIX CENT. PARODIES 263 

of this poem printed on one leaf over the pseudonym 
p • • « S • • • , from which it was reprinted in L. Lowen- 
stein, Blatter fur jiidische Geschichte u. Lit,, voL III, no. 3, 
p. 15 — 16/ {Beilage zu N, 2j des hraelit in Mainz 
1902). 
Rosenzweigy Gershon. 

416. ^ilBTQ tfiniD A satire on the Meat Trust; in ^fcCIWt 'Tjn 
1902, no. 159. 

Weissmaiiy R. 

417. D^KJ^no lyarnr* D'pe ^"« 'Tjn* A satiric vocabulary on 
the Yiddish theatres; in the J^^n yarpw N. Y. 1897, 
pt 2, 2 p. 

418. IJ^M^no XDDD'*' A satire on the Yiddish theatres in 
New York City; ibid. 5 p. 

Anonymous. 

419. ^nc« pm I Djn, ^"Xh yftStaibl "Tjn* A humorous paper; 
ibid, vol 3, no. 14. 

420. pWfiniva« Y^ nou ^t bv imBan DT» trmp TID* a so- 
cialistic parody; in i^W^ "TyiD^^nnH «n, vol. 2, N. Y. 1891, 
no. 41. 

421. La Chant de la ''Kugel". Pour faire suite au ''Chant de 
la Qoche" de Schiller; in Archives Israelites vol. 45, 

P- 153. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 



I, Among the parodies of the fifteenth century mention should 
also have been made of Vidal Benveniste's parody of the 
marriage formula. See b'SCD^ nS'So Rimini 1525. fol. 5a. 

II. Two parodies relating to Shabbetha! Zebi, entitled: mffjt 

'33 ''na» ra h& niiain and ■'as -nza na ha a-fpy y are found 

on fol. 43b — 44b of a manuscript copy of the '3S rrjmND 
belonging to the Library of the Jewish Theol. Sem. 
lU. P. 123 — 125. — Through an error of the bookseller, the first 
79 leaves of the Sulzberger Ms., described there, were sold 
as an entirely different Ms. This error has since been detected 
and the two Mss. form now one codex (D 93—152). In its 
present state, the codex lacks only the first three leaves and 
foL 15 and 16. Fol. 8b, 69b, 70b and 79b are blank. The 
contents of the recovered part are as follows: 

1. Documentary Formulae (fol. 4 a— 8 a). The last 
document is dated Mantua 1614, and contains the names of 
Eliezer ben Elias of Fano, Eliezer ben Abraham Provengal, 
Mordecai ben Reuben Jare. 

2. One Hundred and Seventy-fife Letters (fol. 9a— 
56a). The first fifty-four letters are designated as social 
correspondence (ninnai man '3/13 ItSA fol. 22 b). Letter 83 
is a letter of credentials, L. 125 is dated 1CS1!M3 March. 8. 
1603, L. 128 is signed by Azriel Raphael Cohen. Letters 
129 — 147 are written by Jacob Segr^, Cf, Monatsscltrift, 
vol. 47, p. 368. In letter 130 mention is made of Eliezer 
Nal>man Fo^ the pupil of Menal^em Azaria of Fano. In 
letter 132 mention is made of Abraham and Jacob Segr^ 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 



I Abraham Pescarolo, the latter's brother-in-law (B"3Bnn HBnn) 
and f'3 a'TTlO of Casale. In letter 142, Segr^ speaks of his 
meeting with Rabbi Nathan Ottolengo on the latter's way to 
Palestine. The letter is dated Casale 1585 (?). L. I48, signed 
by Moses Pavia, mentions the confiscation of books by the 
government In letter 174, mention is made of Isaac of 
Fano, the son of Menaljem Azaria, in connection with a 

I legal question. 
3. A Marriage Contract (fol. s6a— s/a), dated Verona, 
Friday the lOth. day of the First Adar, 1606. 
4. Letters (fol. 57b— 58b). 
5. BiBUCAL Verses (fol. 59a— 67a), containing words whose 
numerical values range from one to forty-nine. 

6. A Diploma (nti'ntr mnn), fol. 67b. 

7. Five Letters (fol. 68 a— 69b). 

18. Extracts from the Mikhld Yophi of Elijah ben Moses 
Loanz (fol. 70a). 
9. Extracts from Kimhi's Mikhlol (foL 71a— 72b). 
10. Extracts from the Zohar (fol. 73a— 76b}. 
II. Letter of Credentials (fol. 77a— 77b). 
12. A Cabalistic Hymn by Mordecai ben Judah Dato 
(fol. 77b — 78a), entitled tnpb niBH, and beginning: VVO T^D 
13. A LETTER OF CREDENTIALS (fol. 78b). 
14, Ibn Shabbethai's Parody of the KeChubah (fol. 79a), 
This version has the erroneous reading Jiaffl D'b'jk niJ3*W2 
riKO instead of JWfil. Compare p. 8 above. 

IV. P. 127, no. 7. The Luzzatto Ms. is now in the New York 
Public Library. 

V. P. 156, no, 9. This ms, is now in the Library of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary. Paper, 8" 47 p. Sq. Characters 
(p. 1 — 6) and Italian cursive (p. 7 — 47). 

VL P. 157, In a collection of Italian manuscripts, lately 

acquired by the Jewish Theological Seminarj-, Prof. Marx 

, found a letter signed ' acS "ilDS Jll' Kin 'n 'n ITDS '^KDp'" 

'•MBT irra nai' Tvsn . . . pe^ on nj» which proves that 



266 ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 

Rappa (not Rapa) lived at Casale in 1680. All my arguments 
about the date of composition of the Haggadah are, there- 
fore, fully sustained. This letter, I hope, will soon be published 
with the text of the Haggadah. 

Vn. P. 185, line 20—22 from above. Comparing these lines 
with N. Briill, Jahrbiichery vol. 9, p. 19, No. 38, it seems that 
the D^lfi^ TWy\ mentioned on p. 37 above is a part of the 
Massekheth Purim of the 17 th. century. 

Vin. P. 260, No. 395. The author of this parody is R. Brainin. 
Compare Jewish Encyclopedia, x, p. 260 s. v. iTTIpX 

IX. P. 261, No. 399. This is identical with No. 72. 



INDEX I 
TITLES OF PARODIES 

Niinurals preceded by N. refer to the nutftders in the bibliography 
{Chap. XIV), other numerals refer to pages 



N.4I7 


iWDKpnB ijnrni^ o'pfc a"n np 


N. 38 


xshr^ n— l^ 


N. 143 


D^fcHii nwnno xiro a"n 


N. 348 


Ifnn np^pMMi pM 


N. 198 


M'B^pi nnit 


197 


Mrp ]nn3 nsHi 


N. 220 


ijn^n n njD^n DoVwn o^iran 


N. 156 


^nan na^ 


28 


DISVIV U'lM 


206 


nfe «*nftM n33^ 


N. 20 


ninfco nnin 


N. 168 


pr« 


121 


(nnr^na ^"3) pn nnm 


117 


D^lft nDDDD T'6 ,]nip fH 


122—123 


(n^i^-QBip v'5) pn nnin 


N.348 


p^Ti^n njn 


122 


(iwn^Vnia ^"3) rtion p nn^ 


N. 15 


avo^ no Wa oiw jnv ^vn 


119 


(ninp^iDKii ^"3) on^n nniK 


N. 222 


Mu^a rmo^K 


121 (r 'won v'3) unnwmi Vr niwm nnin 


207 


nmn ]fe3 n© m in 


121 (r'WDi ^"3) rm«mM Vr n^ivn niin 


N. 42 


D'Om M^ ^K 


39 


D^2 piM 


151— 152 


D^ii nan rtn 


N.35 


^nDH nnn nnn 


N.44 


nov2 ^nVn 


197 


pnV n^TK 


N. 44 


•^ijw Dr6 pur D^^i i^n 


57 


iwnp H^TK 


N. 83* 


u^^.tt^mir pM u^ ,Tn \Sn 


2C7 


UD&3 i^n mM 


N. 88 


n^i pwram ^^ 


N. 63 


Ta tmnn 


N. 123 


\n ^^ 


N. 186 


«nn yx^ 


N. 25 


nuv» ^n 


206 


D^anip ]rtr nrp npann nw 


N. 231 


.run Tjn pfc n^a n^n np 


N. 376 


nrnw 


Se$ also 3"H yfn 


N. 225 


DiTH rH y^ TK 


207 


P D^OM 


15 


(f^W3^ann ^"3) D^ift^ nwiw 




nnin yviMpnjnM 


N. 2, 230 


jrn^ ^ "mK 


Su 


mn ]nr»iKpn]»« jri in 


N. 113 


nDnu'nimt 


loi, N. 


122 n*)\n pviMpnjnMi 


196 


uiiM M onnM 




min npiKpnjmn in 


N. 36 


n^^ in ^n 


See no6 Vr mn o'urujrVy© ojn 


N. 37 


IjrfcUTQ ^jnj^i n ijD^n 


N. 108 


rnjnaw^ nwno npinpnjmn njn 


N. 330 


ira-H^npn 


N. 109 


rrun jri npinpnpon in 



^^^^H 


INDEX I 


^^^^^M 105 


D'pifi i5iKp'ij»K Hn N. lis. 126 pmc '-IT nVi'13 


^^^^^^V I 


10 N. 127 pni" "Yt nwna 


^^^H 


apU'V -n loK 199 fiiij^p Dipoa nvM 


^^^H 255 


;tl'a "IBIt 6 vni^BTi m> FT^ 


^^^H 


nam nnjB N. 325 nsw pw 


^^^H 


BIID^ D'TWW '» N. 226 O'l BIBb-iyt IXHU 


^^^^H 141 


It^B rVJHi N. SI -1W 


^^^H 


•na riK ! 32 i^cu oj 


^^^^^B 




^^^^^^^V 307 


riDipK N. 284 (-3) p'Jtpioin J^i tn 


^^^^H 191 


D'116^ nioipti ' N. 80 not. ^ mjn -ujnj 


^^^H 


oiaoi^Kp^ niBip« . iDo, N. 50 ii-oin •^^ 


^^^H 


I'^'B MmpK ' 73, N. 149 B'pns -ai 


^^^^H 171 


V^n minpii N. 314 B'lnsn ibdo nmmn 


^^^H 


(•'■3) i'';d nicipn I N. 391" p-BnipKBo-^ -j-i ■ 


^^^H 


max jTjiaiK 1 N. 300 nrnan -j-i 


^^^H 132 


D'la rv3i» N. 391' Dmn wnw 'ji 


^^^^m 199, 266 


Pru' 15 njraiH N. 391'' TWBi 'n 


^^^^^B 


'3iin yiK N, 354 Bn«n jnan ^u ji'sno Bin» oTi 


^^^^^^B 


"p-na D'aap dis ttm N. 104 BjnpT^ 


^^^^^^1 


ftusiB^ >i« nr ^»"« N. 267 B'lBW "pnpT 


^^^^^H 


inoK afiK-i \-y "i»k N. 133*^ xip' im 


^^^^^M 


ijmna nn« N. 319 rmrt Pin 


^^^^^m 191 


nn«in finit N. 92 eain pinn vm 


^^^^^^1 117 n-116 'DCiB«"B ,-nK3 inita'N.369^npBoini»orj"'jptjriiiBmTiri | 


^^^^^H 396 


jkSwkb D'ipnii*3DSi N. 8> ytiinDB»-n 1 


^^^^^1 125 0]!)1]»S^1l ' 


■3) D'liD bji 'B-131 nKa N. 368' o'tiBan ov^ mri 1 


^^^^^^1 13 (nw^m '■■:) I'l-u /niu 37, :66 (m-n ^W't '"3) o"iiBi nm | 


^^^H 3>3 


iman N. 368° nsiip nart rm 


^^^^H 13° 


van np'ia -no N. 2S3 a^so T»n rtni 


^^^^^B 72—73. ^5 


pni tnn 17 Tprt wi 


^^^^H 331 


p'liina N. 219 TUQiiB'tfna 


^^^H 


P'B«i3«"3 » N. 309 mw m 


^^^H 351 


I'lD minn jb S'p-o-a ' N. 260 <mB?i n-a -rain^ fnw ■^^D 


^^^^^1 263 


»'B n^i'D n'fian si'3 N. i6g ^ani -jib 'b-Ij m^i 


^^^^H 


^a-^3B-'j3a N, 11 o'lajn a^nBiDn ^3^ mil 


^^^^H 419 


■i)»DltS2 Ijn [10-111, 176. N. 191. B"«3PV'^i TIW 


^^^^^1 


mw' ni)« "jSTDa ' 307 


^^^^^1 


pnp oipB3 95. N. 303 0-18^^ mm mo 


^^^^H 


>b»o p N. 233 o'teid') n-un 


^^^^^^1 49 


nifip p N. 142 np-ipB» reij '6^ mt^ mw 


^^^^^H 


niBipK luia N. 209 •» noDS mw 


^^^^^^H 


■3i»i "n -la N. 181 B-'jn trtwS .tot 


^^^^1 352 


oj»ij»3 ijn 15s {•il>Bpna'"3)Bn'»iD'J0tpt^]t.-run 


^^^^^^H 119 


■a) pnpan 'b m pi:p3 N, 180 b"S -WJ-w-n ikb min tn 


^^^^B 


p^ai pijm »n"ia N. 344 I'ttiJisnijfB ipbt'tk po mw »-i 



■mXES OF PARODIES 269 ^^ 


N. J5S. 356 "I'Pr v*> mw 


N. 6s V"'" °'' "1" 1 


N. 287 mrfia i\B mw 


N. 117 noaon % 


N. 357 -vV^B nejBp D'l« mjn »t 


lai, 135—139 Ci""^™ ""=) n»aof? ' 


N. as4 ipB'-3itt 1-D m).T «-n 


122—113 C"*i"*3'"P '"3) ninjun 


N. 170 DIJ^'BffipBIHp TD .iiin 


120 (MWp'BKii "'3) isoaon J 


N- 307 o"i» ^ Tiin -nil 


198 pFi i-Vp Tpm 1 


N. 307 D'nic ';» man ted 


N. 191 n«pn ■ 


169 (-3) noD Ijw mn 


196, 198 pr^h wepn J 


N, 413 nDC Sw min 


197, 198 via'ji lon^ rmpn ^^^B 


N. 3S8 n)w ^3iji riDB ^p mw 


N. 83" a"n nnovS mopn ^^^H 


N. 300 nm nio' ^s ^1 noB ^w mm 


ji ^^^H 


N. 3S9 n'^JMtn Diin-S noD ^r nun 


197 KniDin <-i no^n : naavn ^^^^H 


N. ai6 o'Ton jmo tob ^r min 


197 ]d:t ^v inaV n-inii naarn ^^^H 


N. 346 (nn riDij ^p) TDB ^Bmin! 197 fiao nSijm mfw reupn ^^^H 


82— 83.N.64(Gnnnou-DSji)nDC'?pniin,' 199 pn^ '3 n33rn ^^^^| 


"ViKpiyoH iHBl noB ^» min 


196 Kimn I'BO noinni ! iBn!> naam ^^^H 


N. 360 (ljni6 Pwr"" 


Km*i3 nsw} nauo t pnV .laarn ^| 


N. 4ti •'pu-aiK -iKB noD ho jnj.1 


ig6, 199 njinnrn 1 


N.i46nimita-ipntpniioiiTBnDBSwmw 


198 .-m-a nsiw n3i3» : pnV mswn 1 


w™ ijiJUp'ipDii TB noB ije mjn 


i99ipwn iipo . , , naioi nauD : pnV naawn " 


N, 361 IJIpl'IB 


•mm T31B ai no ! yarh naawn 


154 (^vJijaj^it «■■:) (tn .iii' nin 


196 laiK-) ^a^ 


N, 831 ni>o ^'''ir^ .iBDUi 


T99 'n lon'j nasrn ^^^B 


N. ss, J7S »U!)nn 


199 mV naavn ^^^H 


N. 334 irem Vin»' rou!* wprvi 


(iiui'irra <"3) naspcV nssvn ^^^H 


N. 336 (nam *3tt ojm) wjimn 


196 vrv )Dn Se naarn ^^^H 


N. 44. 191, 362 ""P^nn 


199 pn ni iU'S*n» iiV'a-i'K . . . raavn ^^^H 


N. 160 %-inm ip"'j ori 0111 tittjrwvi 


197 MP'v-i ]en naarn ^^H 


N. 31; pp ->3^ mrvin 76. N. 147 I'^HGDS Hpu>n r^'ruui ^^^H 


N. 363 -lOipa y-^^ niijBfw N, 364 inpi impnn ^^^H 


N. 177 D'jnnun >B !>p nujnn 7 rs^ ^» m'^ "wm ^^^H 


N. 43 nisei ntain N. 33$ >p3 nit Qn-ujui ^^^H 


N. gj*" V^"" ^3" 5 ''^^t'li '"1^ ^^^H 


riSioo a"B ,on« n-nra I'l-n Van N, 394' i^ iiSi S« nS pai ^^^H 


117 Q-ino N. 394= Of ]W 013-Q <i^ pa^ ^^B 


176, N. 110 Hftw -31 ll^^in 


N. 394f iSon 101 p no pat ^H 


JOS Cnwi'Mi "'3) D'Honn nip noVn 


N. 236 Snin 1-n ^^H 


■T mVi min rislin 


N. 281 viiijn ^ mwoV -i-n H 


^Kh, 904—306 (l]M11QsblT "3) 


196 -Miso I'lio noinm 1 


^p may lavta niSi niSo no^n 


196, 19S won I'HD mnnni J 


^" 3C9 (pinin •■■3) 


197, 198 lorro noinm ^^1 


N. 319 nntn nisVn 


N. 337 ftw T> tvo B^no urn ^^H 


N. 301 nuai nia^n 


N. 393^ -TO 'ta BTip S-un -i-ni ^^H 


■68 (ii«DeipB"iDn V3) monjmVnlN. 188 Viju-b-bj-" ijn ~^H 


196 ntioiBn nn pnn pn ' N. 161 mV uVpi v ■ 


N. 345 -lyn n«i ' 98. N. 54 mwo B^jm ir> 1 



^^^^^ 270 INDEX I ^^^^^^ 


^^m N. 9S i'cu'-K D'-^i ijn^ 


N. 264 urc'in wiSiA'b mr t«» 


^^K 30 C'anow ■'■3) annn ^« D'rfj« iob>i 


N. ao3 DiAn o^ip n-a ips'Vjjo 


^^1 206 o^sn i3])>i 


N. iiz noB ^r min o'luiaj^yi) 071 


^H N. 44 -['' P'l 


N. 90 nbiB ru 


^H N. 175 onb D>Q:n^ 161 


N. 44 onpf r-- 


^^H 307 vnivnit mS m^ i'n nrD&i 


N. !97 BpnjDK I'K Binttfi jApor 


^^P N. 66, 123 ■^pi'^ "3">^ 


N. 16 D'OD'^tnuDn "TpT 1"' 


^^H N. 124, 194, 237 <rm in? 


264 -as -fiaB r3 "jo o-ipj y 


^^H 57 cmD^ Tin -^ni 'd 


32-33 Vir 


^^m 57 ('"3) D-iiB^ -ini 


195 m:«6 I'll Kin BTB or 


^^M N. 31 1 'Kn'^r im 


307 nrmrt pvT m 011B Bi* 


^^L N. 163 nnin pD>i 


192 mn now b"(ib w 


^^^^^H 199 niQiM 


51 Q'own i^yi •rwTBi' 


^^^^^K (rvrt bv-t ^-2) nnji insi 


N. 333, 393'' rwrn PHI bm iwin di"V tt" 


^^^^^H vis,'} pn mm d'imi in:i 


N. 393"^ ni»n Bti-i tip -l» di'!> Ttr 


^^^^H 195-196 n^ic 


N. 114 D'^onanB^iir 


^^^^^H v.pQi, B^fc ^ri3, -a ^ B<.,i(, f,-^, -no 


N. 83^ D-3!ja^ .-lar-n mrft -ur 


^^^^^H 126, 197-198 (■ipiniiu';iT'"3)Krn«o 


N. 191 nvwr 


^^^^^^^1 igi 


N. 193 tip"'l> rn»i' 


^^^^^H N. 307'' rn'Qi 


199 nrii o'-oniw 


^^^^^H 154 Dn>Wt D'»t !□! 




^^^^^H N. 83' ht ^■'v'iV T^-riTiab iqi 


N. 115 S'rraji BipS' 


^^^^^H nn -iBt 


N. 53, 370 inn mp^ 


^^^^^^^H 52 (ijrj'^vas^n ^'3)ipB'>Kpn pins ^])„.-»3n 


N. 283 BT'an Biplr 


^^^^^^^H 128—130 vran pupn 


N. 333 »in •jiycB oipV- 


^^^^^^1 PiMViV hTi pispsn 


^■^3 Q-mi»^ D"ip.T 1WW mSr 


^^^^^^1 135 (iDiijni'})! 


N. 838 -las or 


^^^^^H 133 pnpan ied 


N. 83*', 191 B-^W^ DM* 3T 


^^^^^^^ 117 (H'irri "i) )t'3in pi3p3n 'D 


N. 138, 139 IplBOIp' 


^^^^^^^H 115—116 (nm "1) K^sin pispsn 'D 


97, N. 83 m-n 


^^^^^^H H'31,-1 pnpin 


N. 119 apni- 


^^^^^^1 njvje ^p K'3irT pippin 


107 TOP nirp mr 


^^^^^^^H 133 


N. 59 oVip 3W 


^^^^^^1 137 (wHin^ '>"3)risriv 'id K'3in pnpsn -0 


197 m'ln .TOKJ -i-uun lapp- 


^^^^^^^H D"via 'cai piapin 


207 pn nuiD fvi'33 n-iwi 


^^^^^1 132-123 


207 noins nn -a 


^^^^^^1 117 a-i!\a nbisD m"|) ntin ^3p pupan 


N. 8 fi'ipi nwiin iri 


^^^^^^^V K'-ii -in 


111, N, 191 On«>')13ll3 


^^^^^H N. 365 KDnf^ K;>itiD3 Kcbim KBin MBin 


S pioi nienwi ^: 


^^^^^^^1 N. 333 ^mpe^pii D"n 


N. 77 '^3 TW3 '^' 


^^^^^^K N. 366 iHMncil -Bl^n 


N. 248, 368'', 372 nnea Tw 


^^^^^^1 150-151 o>ipmi.-i mn inn 


N. 131 -opD ^paV nTa)3 -no 


^^^^^H (KiK'ti-iu nm-in 


o'ltti inat 1 'inai '0^3 


^^^^^^H 197 KniBin n Kisin 


125 (ipa-ipasfMi -3) 


^^^^^^H 75 iHD -iv-i 


121 len nVr» iw 


^^^^^^^H N. Ill Kp'lJIDK ]'K VUpm K'1 


N. 91 "TTiirr '^" n3»ti ip rare 



r 


TITLES OF PARODIES 2/1 ^^| 


32 


n:w: 


1 25 (3 iprtjns^tt '"3) B'-mo nhsa ^^H 


54 


("■5) mnn iB,T -1 naw3 


123 (r»"^ "'a) B"inD rSjo ^^^| 


54 


pn «i nn"» n^ n nawa 


'D Bjr o"iii] ^WD Kin B'-iro nliia ^^^| 


35. 55 


myiMn in^ nains 


117 (n'S-j'njTOi'jBTijpH'anpapan ^^^| 


35, 55 


npiarn irt nam^n -no 


120 [HiK'V-na "'3) B'^^B^ B'^nB rfsio J^^^^^ 


35 


rijnap^ raws 


1 16 (lire '1) K'ain v^ic 0*^0 ji^id ^^^H 


35 


(ntlB- I13W3 


1 20 (HiHp-BK^ '"3) K'am imc B-mo /^bio ^^^H 


307 


rii3'3^ ■ism') 


1 17 i»'n•^ '1) B'lIB lUBB B>V)B fll)]D ^^^H 


N. 176 


1-1 -pw »'«^ 


1 19 (KWp'Bini '"3) B'llCB D'lra n'}» ^^^H 


N. 41 


Dtfi^rirr i> Tri""i« i-on'! 


1 18 (I'll -\) O'-llll rODB 'Dl B'VID n^JB 'D ^^^| 


N.93 


'JJIIW Q'llD v!> o>n 


92—94, N. i6 i\'iT)r\ nSiB ^^^H 


N.44 


-I1B3 01'^ 


51 (■1P11]I31W >"3) D<)1II pi& ^^H 


N. los 


nwj •^J^ ]KD ir'' '»" 


N. 304 nn-anfi nno ^^H 


N. 195 


KB'sm wr^ 


N. 213 'P31 nm anio ■ 


N. 276 


n'D'sm «!»'!) 


N. 239 »in viDK emo ■ 


74 


Inn Inn ropTi32^ 




N. 338 


nn nai 


N. 416 '1\VM WIIO ^^H 


N. 190 


nn -in nrt 


N. 191 o'^ibV B^]»n Vila ^^^| 


N.2S3 


riii'3» Sp nwoV 


N. i3]<' KDM mto ^^H 


N. 103 


Drm o'3B^ 


115 c^i'D "1) >*'3i.-t eniB ^^H 


N.367 


r-sn 


ahyir^ ni-n ^^H 


N. 334 


nnn p-it -oipi 


89-91, N. 37 B"iD\c tenia ^^H 


N. 376 


D^jw emo IB D"Bip^ 


N. 30 Q'pns ■n'n tm ^^^H 


N, 5-7 


nutiii niynMB 


194 mib-i MBv rit irnus rn-i' rm ^^H 




D-iioS 1W5 I'a ^'lann 


N. 83'' mn iD';an nyi» no ^^H 


37—38 


(iprjajbit >"5) 


N. 133" B'l».n hx nwn men nn»l no ^^H 


N. 121 


^in^ np j"3 Viao,! 


N. 83* •» noBV nwm .tb ^^ 


N. 1,7 


•im^ra mob 


196, 198 T31B ai ™ T 


196 


niwnrn UBi'ia njmj nsiao 


196 inapi aT na ■ 


19a 


mn-a naiBi niiau 


N. 157 "Wll IBID ^^B 


197 


naiaui ymi naioj naiao 


368 ■ 1W3 01'^ t)B1S ^^H 


■99 


Tpen iipB,..n3in) naiao 


N. ;i loion ^^^H 


N. 12 


»~v'>i-\ wmo •» 


N. 365 -Knap V>a ^^H 


N. 16 


-oipon bv iriTB n>3D 


N. 179 n'an /mn n-p iioia ^^H 


N. 353 


pmr' 'Ti rvi~T3o 


N. 8j* HBP- KiiBin 1 




rfyin a"i j-J' ."^'^0 


N. 163 ima B'viino Bjn [ 


N. 145 


(ipiijras^n •■■5) i^env rV'io 


J08 D"i»^ nn-^i iitna ^^^^B 


61—71, N 


206 i~n» n^M 


83. N. 36S nai n^cn ap iiina ^^^H 


N.99 




N. 142, 148 lap -«Tna ^^^1 


N. 152 


ntp n^iD N. 317 'riBit init ta ^^^^H 


i» O'W'Vna •^^) '"lao mi p ws nSio 


N, 173 lav B-B' a'v u? ni •s ^^^H 


I3» 


onTD rSlo 


1 20 (Kwp'Dim -3) 1-ov -o ^^^1 


N.Ba" 


-ISO niio 


139 (Kir'^iu '":) -psv >D ^^^H 


»3-37 


B'-ino nhx 


N. 369 ilMS's -<in ^^^H 


tr6 


(ytit "1) B-vo fi^ffl 


39—40 wMmai •^'0 H 


124 





^^^^^^^ 272 INDEX I 1 


^H N. 87 HniJK-i i>^li 


N. j6o' C-tfiio «0D 


^H N. 333 '3^]m« Bip''-D ' 


304 ^K'l-UD rcxa 


^H N. 90 ^»T° ' 


N. 345, 246 iTpip nseo 


^H N. 370 Ori llllB 1VB 


100,103-104,105-108, npn*Dprxo 


^H 40 Cl'iX'^3 ""3) 0*^1"^ •'^'1 =11=0 


N. 247 


^H N. S3' ns-^D snsa ' 


53. 84—86, N. 52 nTip n300 


^H N. 61 p-ivri l^erti insD 


L9-2G O-llD /13DD 


^H N. 204 'w.™ =n:D 


174. 177-179 (P''''"'1 ■f) O'llD riMO 


^^^^^^ 76, N. 106 itpans spTBT h'm 


173, 176-177 (« ,T'=!'^it "^J D'"nB »" 


^^^^^^ N. 103 Ti3n nt>M p-^D^ Q-mVo 


115—117 0^''6 '^) B"i« i>3o'' 


^^^^^^H 206 CViipsVn '"2) "^Mn '13^3 nnn^ 


I20-I3I (HJH'^nn •■■:) n"!i» rooo 


^^^^^H 17;. 206 ns'bs 


lig (WSp-BKll -"3) D-rtB rooo 


^^^^^^H zo8 ('pDiKDipj >"a) Q>'iiB^ nx'^D 


124 C« ipJijra*^" *"3) B*i« nsBo 


^^^^^^H 308 (^iiKriK-i '"::) DniD^ m>'jD 


126 (3 ipjipas^ ■'■=) D'nn nsoo 


^^^^^^H .ir^n 


123 (rSB"!) -3)D"ll»IOI» 


^^^^^H niMIBD m'^JD 


173—174 C^;>B "'3) B-^ moo 


^^^^^H 44 ('ifiifxihv --i) s"i>vi TiiD" r^is'^D 


122. 113 (K'ViaOJp '"5) D-rttnaos 


^^^^^H N. 380 D« ^v iinias 


173,176— i77(''><'iBl]nin '■■3) aniBBSOO 


^^^^^^^1 N. Z38 riDD 'rmyz rr\io mio^ 


134, 140—147 («BD«n n "'3) O'-HB fOM 


^^^^^H N. 44 rf'^ira n Sv nVB^n inoti 


117 (Sa-o '"3) piapan iboi o"i» k»o 


^^^^^H N. 140 '?B niTDQ 


17S (DUO-KpUnD >"3) tiVwii' D"n» fOOO 


^^^^H N. 133 V't bv tiiDQ 


1 23 (B'lnaBip '"3) Dino nhia nniB »» 


^^^^^H 15a i» riti \nii* n3D& 


*^aa -reSn p o"i» (COS 


^^^^^^P D'lDtn mm 


176 (^UnBipHO *"3) 


^^^^^^^M N. 38 B"ii[>3 nzon 


a"ii3r Ttt^r lo oiib n300 


^^^^^H 31 nvip rstm 


176, 180-182 (3 ,-M»bii ■■() 


^^^^^^1 loi, N. 141 rtnnn pi* 111 n^oo 


207 (ed. Blogg)D'^W»Tm^f1 IB onionsoD 


^^^^^^1 IVtJ -M X^l ^p {•-IK -]1-| r>3DS 


M'3in piapan 'd o'iib "do 


^^^^^1 (ipiiji^s^v 


117 (WS'l'l '1) flUl'W !?( 


^^^^^H '"3) yiyn inoi riBDin op r^" V ''^^^ 


176 (an!> n) ...nr'TD Dp d"(» ■bb 


^^^^^^^H 304 (-iniii"-i 


127 (iBBKii '"a) "IB D11B naoo 


^^^^^^P 240 Koa 


N. 174 (*":) ^a'Jip 1388 


^^^^^^^H 341 n3Un KDQ 


N. 259 B'131 rsM 


^^^^^^M 39 (D-llB HpiKtB <"3) nSDD 


96-97, N. 215 n"«» raw 


^^^^^^1 261 Dn-Dn 


"■■=) ai-cm 'OB 




174— '75. '77-178 C-isnpartu 


^^^^^^1 324 Sitie- ;^3DD 


■'•5) D-ll» ■» 


^^^^^^M K. 343 D'STS nSDQ 


167, 174, 177—179 {»« ipripaiSii 


^^^^^H tf. 343 np^nc nsDC 


I7S (a ipiipaj^it "'s) B'ii» luoB 


^^^^^^K N. ^8 n-^nc nsoa 


122, 139— uoCttw'jTia ""3) mnKiinaoo 


^^^^^^1 53 c'lis nsBQ 


172-173, i82-i87(i«prip-i)D"nBWi3Bo 


^^^^^^1 30S (r'^iKi'an '"3) mSi m!>D rxo 


N. 116 B"nn b» I'^OJi "\roB 


^^^^^^1 S3 r3DQ 


N. 15s ma-jJBWBio 


^^^^^^^H 344 HBii niQD n:oD 


N. 307" D'liB^ niaipo 


^^^^^^B 371 riimpo r3BB 


N. 191 oniB^ n'3ip 


^^^^^^B 96—97, N. 187 D"^mD rsDS 


187—191 (ed. Blogg) tf-ati'} rmiB 



TITLES OF PARODIES 



N. 368' i«3 or S'i a'lpB 

187, iSS— 190 (irt^iin 1) 

oniB i» IIBBT V^ a'TPD 

187, 188—190 (ipj-ijraiVn 

nniD ^ •» y^ 3>iiiD 

187, 190 — IQl (jrt^Kn '1) 

188— 190,105 CasVii "'3)o'-i« ^-^la-ipo 
4 D'liB^ anjna 

N. i;9 ^c'leon 

17 ii>mn 'U& 

197 p7\ Tiaxs 

t66 (MirtTia *"a) pnS nio Sj ^p^po 

IJ7 (HWKI'J ''S) MlpB 

139,197 (■q(njnrtw''"3)'0-a' "iMra'TO 

N. 21 P11 

N. 143 niD mbwB 

N. 96 iMX -Sm 

N. 315 n"inB-^m5 

126 ("IpJIFSJ^H '"3) IIIBll niBB 

lao (xwHia '"2) trainy niM.i 

1 19, ijo {Kinp'Bim "■3) inoj.-n rjpon 
117 C«sii5nS '":) D-iic »i3DD ^ »nD)i nj»o 
104 Sx'iiiDn rvivG 

117 anno n^»& i"fi .-vih Disivti 

81—83, N. 59 matt p jnr^ii rows 
N. 48 o'li ri»B 

N, 59 0^1? Z1V MM 

89—90, N. j8 o'ipao nva 

N. I4 piHTB.n 

136 0?3''m^" '"=) "'Mfi p\2pi nmai 
MS (ipniD-i^M -a) 0-116^ H'ai 

106 B'lia ^ n'ai 

N. 413 njn ja fic nwaj 

II nstfon nou 

147 ('Dwn n "'3) trnpn noy 

173 C^nrmimin ""a) B-jrwsfw jjw tbd 
98. N. 293 nnin pB'inp'ipoK r') ""i 
N. 335 jjjjnjfj j"i I 

JWUtpniTDK i(tB fnin ))"1 it"t 
N. 393 ippiOB 

N. 164 ^'iiiriB y'i oni 

N. 3J nior r'3 x 

131 pn aitna riaBi 

N. 316 mm 



110— III 


-OTO 'T> ^3 rowj 


N.70 


Q'liBff S'i no 


N. 373 


175HO IIB 


N. i6s 


■njl-BW 116 


N. US 


Biiipn miap ino 


N. 4M 


B^iiBSn Bi- niaj iib 




B'TTD rh'm B-TIB ITB 


198-199 


(lynpaiMi '"3) 


167—172 (i)(njn>^i'";)in3!>.iinBo-nB 


N. 67 


nirn ^3S niji'pnn nD 


N. 34 


n n-no n-i 


N. 100 


TiM> t man jib "I'ljumB 


N. 249 


O'^PJDT It' JIB 


N. 1 


lino* lino lino 


N. 47 


j'ipKnin-^a"Bo «i't 


169 


("■3) r\-iinrt iib-o 


N, 197 


Von 


N. 327 


impifw^ nn'^ 


i3i 


rnn-'jD 


N. 374 


n'Kiii D'B*') rvi'te 


176, 206, 207 c"\i6^ mn-iiB 


207 


D'IIB'! niTT^B TID 


5 5 . , . D.TB r^B 1110 "BS O'lIB^ nir^mTB 


D"\iawn mo "83 0-iiB') nwio i-io 


175 


I'SiBi »a»iia 


N. 30 


o*ia 'm^nnV mr'^B 


N, 144 


viTm B'Von -*B 


88-89. N. 


134 "Op IBB 


N. S3 


•ran) iioBr ai m kibo 


N. 347 


■^ri 


N. 8; 


«3 pmrt "US 


N. 375 


iwa D^? 


N. .89 


n-naD -31 i>fp 


N. 6g 


lor i-p 


4 


miam 'jp 


77-78, N. 


174" nimin o-ipn ^p 


N, 33. 410 


hon^p 


N.394'' 


•1B3.T '^H 'Hon Sp 


74. N. 149, 


151 O'ltBn pBP 


125 


(ipjip3>Vit -'a) B-in I'lp 


207 


3"«i B"p nrpp 


N. 224 


noB V» min Jf^DOpp 


N. 376 


31 3">P 


117 


0"\» racBB 3"B ,1'Ppn 


N. 377 


'IM6MB iw n\M ivp 


N. 378 


inBtiiip iiB nmin n-wp 



^^^^^ 274 INDEX I 


^ 


^^^^^H| N. 379 □"BVBjKn ';p...rn3in r-w; 


N.fo 


STOl-pTJ 


^^^^^^B 364 '31 -rav r\i Sv f^nsnn rivv 


N. 36 


V'Sn f"* 


^^^^^^B N. 272 nivp 


N.3i= 


O-Dlltl 


^^^H N. !I94 niin TBnB.^M M-n 


207 


ipru^mt 


^^^^^^1 N. 380 tru-vt itmrti'^KD k 


N. 158 


nnr* 


^^^^^1 381 ntni o'iMi 


121—123 


(w««yii3 -3) arun pim 


^^^^^^^H ii7D''vifin3t!Di3J"B,nae3nvn^^nvD"Titi 


122-123 


H'J'rjB^ '"3) 


^^^^^^H 382 p"^U>n 


N. 3iS 


1'r uJpstron n 


^^^^^^H 207 ictr rinr nsi' ^lait 


196 


penn pn ir nimi 


^^^^^^H i3g (Hir^-tn '"3) -i3tre on )iqic 


'95 


I'lsS ■ . . 1D71 msw wnm 


^^^^^^1 350 iDjn yh iit»i) 


116. 197 


(nnn ib,t nimi 


^^^^^^^H N. 58 K'Cn -]^b D'KIU D'Q'^ IIDIC 


N. 84 


BTor-n 


^^^^^^1 132—123 (K*ri3l33p D'HDII) 


N.5. 


T«n 


^^^^^^1 |8Z D1- BVC 


N. 18 


mm 


^^^^^^^1 N. 133'' ODD 'tv "fiv n"^nvV 


357 


D'3n3D "mi 


^^^^^^1 143 D'BVD 


N. 4I4» IPB 


3"IK «'T IIB D'I';jrB«lp VI 


^^^^^^^ 167. 188— i9i(iyiiiru^n'":)D-»Q-Bi-D 


N. 336 


ppiMps^fitp in 


^^^^^^H 153 en^c 


ijB-ipa lyi 


•pO-'jKp tJK DB370'^0«P 


^^^^^^B pKnp-i'i^cn ific 


N. 403 


]«0 I-'JWD 


^^^^^^1 on'wi Q'ui lat ^le^D 


N. 414" 


Tll^fin pS'BC^NB'Eap 


^^^^^1 41-42, 153— il^? (-^V^psi^t '"3) 


N. 44 


«T.V:* 


^^^^^^1 ts5 (r'i^Ki'311-1 v's) on'wi a-U)i ;at ^»')b 


39. note 38, 


OS. 54, 55 r'™»Tf 


^^^^^H 156 CiiKDD^ip -ni >"3) on'sm i» ^iiAfi 


199 


-inur^ 


^^^^^^1 Dn'lQI tU&l IQI ^1; blD^ 


N. 51 


y^yp 


^^^^^^H i5i(ipiiF3!i^ii<"3)aTii:m'»iiai^)!^iB^ 


N. 384 


Diiipn 


^^^^^^P is6[t]mD'^p'-i '"^iQmaiQ'j&tiaiSir^iD^c 


N. 16. 19, 52 


MS oiiipn -TO 


^^^^^V 155 (HBiMi) '"3) Dn>»i Q-iQT (Dr hy Vid'jb 


'54 


KBT ;iji> niin o-noup 


156 Dn'ioi D'lai 101 'jv SBie 


N. 8 


rwiurvnp 


D.T311I o'lBt iBi hy hviha tcd 


N. 39s, 385 


minprflpK 


155 (Hw^i-na "■3} 


N. 191 


wnr 


N. 166 MM ■oi'; 11DS K-inm cpiis 


57 


vhtn ta&f 


198 inn^ naiEfn mip D-pioB 


m. N. 3S6 


wp 


198 ini^ Tiaspn mip D-pioo 


N. 56 


ni»n W my 


17 •!» noB 


N.343 


Ipt rpii ^ roT 


II— 12, 15 l-T pOL 


N. 387 


0-110^ mipenm ru-p 


N. 30 D'pnj moo rwiin 'peo 


N. 388 


rripn !r5i nu-p 


N. 343 -anoa ^pctsp opjpiK'nrB n 


N. 136 


11 -ja h? mnoo nirp 


N. 289 lirSHBlrtpKll. 


N. 414* BO'VuB-BHp opi ]ie mrp n ] 


N. 256 fll'lTB 


N, 277 


nnwp 


N. 351 onicd DnilB 


N. 57 


trrtnrop 


N. 23 ^31 '^P lUTB 


N. 389 


ipjpn 


N. 1S3 C"'=)n^3pn...'fi'?p...inKp->B 


N. .71 


(-3) nn «^B 5^ ipip 


N. 261 n\pi> i^Ki piB 


N. 285 


?intS cm nn BBJpp 


N. 13s. m. 3'8, 384' nn* piB 


D'lnnii 1 


1X11 ij«^ Bin nn wipp 


N. 383 ^Kir- nDi3 by T\yv p*» 


N. 79 


?l]m'ta 


N. 44 n>"a«m -n -piB 


94—95. N. 29 


li-ip irAw inp 

4 



TITLES OF PARODIES 



275 



N. 17 HDfi^ nnwni ni^HW 

N. 191 Dnwttf niawni ni^iw 

N. 83** Dnoten n^iw 

N. 268 HTDH am nw^iw 

55 noin paw 

198 pn^ nifipn nyiv 
N. 394** D^mian d^^^ n^nij^i nnnw 

N. 368^ niM Dr^ nnnw 

N. 286 ^aW!l *)pj*)'nDI9MMI9V 

N. 290 D^^)^fi3nErpn poiev Mn 

N. 352 ri'^^n ^^Bttf M 

N. 337 iiopo ]Bttf njn 

197 tu'ni ^v 

122 (wanwa^nHi ^"3) ]on nT3D ibw 
1 22(io«^^'n3 ^"3)^3nnob votp pn iddw now 
OTvo^ naj^ iD!tj> pn iddt "Maw 
122—123 («^i^-aBip ^"3) 

54 0^013 ^"D) pmr nnif 

74—76, N. 341 Harm «vii» ^in nin^w 
32—33 ^ni^ ^proai piaoa n^w 

N. 94 ^"pfi^ IV 

N. 191 Dn\fin m^v^ ni^pon iv 

7 mjrun i^m nhia^7\ nv 

188 inTion DV3 niTion Br« ^...tw 

167, 188, 191— 195 (ipi1J>n!t!?^! ^"D) 
N. 390 .Tnw p« "pip \rh}ff 

N. 302 D^^n mw -pip ]n^ttf 

N. 45 mnn -ysiip ]n^ 

N. 299 pap^^ \it "pip ]n^ttf ipi 

206, 207 n^iio^ttf 

N. 202 ?pr ^ nw^ttf 

81, N. 338 D^ipp i«rp Twhiff 

See also D^ipp 3"^ 
N. 393» B"BO ^«^o pfi ^nittf" paw 



N.44 


paw rmnp 


N.97 


lain Dnoi ^anH ^iipaw 


N. 167 


niw D'a^ai Dpi 


197 


1-6^^1 ^331 n^ni nnottf 


N. 24 . 


]^H^P ]Ti 


N. 322 


niron pi(63 onpnon uw 


N. 9 


DBip^ipn 


N. 320 


nn^3n pi(63 D^3n uw 


57 


Hab^no rp 


N. 321 


navDH pv^3 D'D3n uv 


N. 414 


^HB^Hp ]1fi ]H^i^^p n 


206 


n^ittf 


N. 137 


nswni n^Httf 


207 


rwtn mno ]^^n npw 


N. 196 


D^aiin ^33 ^3 ^ 131^... n"w 


N. 78 


inova V1V 


18 


niWinon ni^HBfn 


192 


Dnin^ 11H nnon prr 


N. 138 


n"ann^ twivoTW w^hw 


N. loi 


f i^nn ni^nn 


N. 191 


Dnifi^ n"w 


55 


n3v\3 nfiom 



122—123 (H^inSBip ^"3) 

N. 154 Dnip3 n3D&D MAfiDU) 

N. 187 Dnmo KTifcom 

N. 305 rmn mvi 

N. 391 D^n mm 

N. 61 Dn^on mm 
N. 10 ]prip3 mn wm^ nann 

197 n^ap3 ]13^13 toinn 

N» 71 ppmn ifto 

N. 308 ii3ttf nai^n 

7 biiam nai^n 

D^1« n300 ^^33 iio^n 

i75i 179—180, 2C7— 208 (laun '1) 
5S nipinvn arm duuhm D'lun 

54 nofin anb D'Man 
N. 291 D^anrmi D^aw«i D^nan 

55 noen ano D'airm D'Man iio 
N. 83'' ^a^o in iop»3 wpaw D^nan 
207 >a^3 ]'"«3 la^pn 
N. 68 nbtn 
N. 392 7btV\ M 

N. 368 « n3t rhtT\ 

N. 393 nmn rot r6tn 

83, N. 394 D^nun n«^^ n3t I'Atn 
N. 95 ^\ihhTxh nbfcn 

N. 95 » 1^63 Dv aip DIM ^hWho^ nVfin 
N. 395 ^apb nVwi 

N. 139 pn n^tn 

N. 82 pr\ ^n^ n^tn 

II mn^ n3 ^13 n^tn 

17 ()D«a X)^^ 

N. 44, 191, 368™ nV^a nVfin 

80—81, N. 339 «Bn ^ Thtx\ 

N. 368* nnnw nVfin 

1 8* 



2/6 



INDEX I: TITLES OF PARODIES 



N. 121 


nijnaw ^^ ]\pr\ 


N. 190 


nn naw ppn 


N.376 


nm *Jipn 


N. 273 


na^ro m^ bMi«6 mivn 


N. 278 


VpvDH naivn 



Der Barbier von Schuschan N. 46 
J9i;ff Burgschaft N. 396 

Le Chant de la "Kugel" N. 421 

*n Chasefis KloUs N. 279* 

The Chronicle of the Rabbis 79, N. 306 



Eppes Kitdsch 
The Four Cups 
Frankfurter Nebenbilder 
HochseitS'Haggadah 
The Howlers 
De Joodsche Toggenburg 
Der Kleine Brockhaus 
Koppelche und Liebeche 
Dusz Lied vim Kigely 
Lied vun die Kuggel 
Das Lied vum Lockschen 
Das Lied vom Scholet 



N. 311* 
N. 120 
N. 310 
N. 340 

N. 397 
N. 311 

N. 398 
N. 185 

N. 72, 399 

N. 400 

N. 184 

N. 279 



Die Lore-Lei N. 183 

EinLustspielinzweiAufzugen N. 310 
Menu shel Pesach N. 401 

A New Version of the Haggadah 

78—79, N. 192 
Un Nouveau Decalogue N. 402 

Oriental Pocket Dictionary N. 403 
Parodiee N. 404 

Petition Burlesque N. 107 

Prospectus bu einer seitgemdssen 

Ausgabe der Mishna N. 310 

Purim Almanack N. 86 

Der Rebbe und der Bocher N. 405 
TTie Stock-Exchange Almanack 

for 1856 N. 406 

LHe Stopfgans N. 407 

The Ten Plagues of American Jewry 

N. 118 
Vest Pocket Dictionary of Orientafisms 

N.408 
The Wandering Jew N. 409 

Yokeile Possemacher Breefe N. 73 



INDEX n 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Aaron of Lnnel, 14 

Ab, Ninth day of; N. 83 n 

Abodah, parody of the, 207 

Aboth 

See Pirke Aboth 
Abraham b. Meir ibn Eira 

See Ibn Esra, Abraham 
Abramowitschy S. J., N. i 
Abtohrtion granted by Hasidic rabbis, 74 
Abttinence, allution to Jewiih, 27 
Abnlafia, Todros b. Joseph 

— his parody of part of the Haggadah 
lost, 15, 17 

— his epigram to Bedarshi, 16 
Ackermann, B., N. 2 

Actors, satire on, N. 53 
Adar, first and sixteenth of, 26 
AdeUdnd, Daniel, 117— 118 
Adm (Mam parodies of, 39, 51 
AdrertiscmeBts in fonn of parodies, N. 

80^ 181, 224, 249, 293, 309, 357, 358, 

360, 361 
Africa 

Set British Ernst Africa 
Agtts, A. D., N. 3 
Akasnervt, Edicts of, 121 
Akdamoth 

See Pewtec&st Hymns 
Akla, Zaddik of, 70 
Alcantarin Order, 157 

— war with Jesuit order, 163 — 4 
Akharizi, Jndah 

See HariMi, Jndah 
Alexander H, Reforms of, 80 



Alfakar, Abraham, patron of Ibn Shab« 

bethai, 8 
Algamenoshi (VUi^li^ Meir b. Samuel 

of Saragossa, 12 
Alkabe?, Solomon, 122 
— parodied, N. 238 
Allegorical parody, 34 — 36 
Almanach, parodies in the form of an 

N. 86, 406 
Almeida, 166 

Almoner's Credentials, parody of, 40 
Alsatian Jews — parodies in the dialect 

of, N. 311 a 
America, 9^— "l. N. 3, 5, 99, 103, 109, 

110, 112, 118, 122, 142, 156, 193, 

207, a40^ «43» «46, «47. *5*» «73. 

285, 298, 299, 302 

See also New York City 
Amosegh, Elijah ben 

See Benamough, EUjah 
Amram, D. W., N. 4 
Anachronisms, 26, 47 
Anan and Sanl, the Karaites, pan on, 3 
Anathema 

See Excommuni c a t ion 
Ancona Bis.. 203 
Annuals 

See Periodicals 
Anonymous parodies, N. 348—409, 419 

—421 
Anti*Christian parodies, 32—33, 41— 4>> 

Anti-Semitism, 92, N. 12, 16, 52, 83 h, 
171,213, 236, 286, 327, 379, 402, 404 



2/8 



INDEX n 



Anti-Socialistic satires S4, N. 16, 52 
Anti-Zionism, satire on, N. 25 
Aphorisms in parody 

See Perverted Proverbs 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates parodied,N.6o 
Apocrypha contain no parody, I 
Apotheker, D. N., 5 — 10, 71 
"April-Fool" in parody, N. 242, 419 
Aramaic parodies, 49 
Ardeshir Badekan, 146 
Argentina Colonies, N. 354 
Aschkenaxi, Z., N. 410 
Asher of Karlin, N. 147 
Der Asra parodied, N. 76 
Assimilation, protest against, 93—94 
Atonement Day Hymns parodied, 207, 

N. 182, 191, 368, 420 
Aagustinian Order, 157 
Authors, satires on, 87—88, 107, N. 

II, 50, ii4,i29,i34,*HO,i7S»233,375 
See also Critics 
Azharoth 

See Pentecost Hymns 

Baal Shem Tob, Israel, his teaching 

perverted by later Hasidim, 60, 66 — 

his relics, 67 — 68 
Babylonia, Purim customs in, 21 
Backgammon, game of 134 — 135, 145 

— 146 
Badchan 

See Wedding Bard 
Bader, G., N. 11, 12 
Badhan 

See Wedding Bard 
Bahurim of Poland, 45 
Ban 

See Excommunication 
Bafiolas, Leon de, 131 
Baptism 41 
Baraitha, parodies in the style of the, 

N. 125—127, 320, 353 

See also Mshnah^ Pirke Aboth} Talmud 
Barbarossa ruler at Algeria, 158, 167 
Bartolocci, Julius, 119, 131 
Baskind, J., N. 13 



Bath Sheba, wife of R. Shabbethai, 24 

Beaumache, L, N. 14 

Bedarshi, Abraham, first to parody the 

Haggadah, 16-^17 
Bedarshi, Jedaiah, 8 — 9 
Beggars, satire on, 20 
Belshazzar, 23 
Ben-£lazar, N. 209 
Ben F. Rayim, N. 306 
Ben Gideoni, N. 15 
Ben Hadad, 23 
Ben Hannah, N. 411,412 
Ben Phohzor, N. 192 
Ben Yashar, N. 16 
Ben Zebi, N. 17 
Benamozegh, Elijah, Ms. from the 

library of, 125 — 126 
Benedictions parodied, 31, 50, 139, N. 

Vlt 191 

Benjacob, L A., N. 18 

Bensew, Judah Loeb, 55—56,206—208 

Benveniste, Joseph b. Isaac, of Sara- 
gossa, 12, 14 

Berdiczew, A., N. 19, 145 

Berdyczewski, M. J., N. 20 

Bertinoro, 165 

Besht 

See Baal Shem Tob 

Betrothal, parody of contract of, 43, 54, 
N. 83 k, 291 

Bible, contains no parody, I ; first par^ 
odied by Harizi, 7 ; general prophetic 
style parodied, 7, 27 ; perverted trans- 
lations of passages in the, N. 81, 
351; general style parodied, N. 158, 
161, 174a, 412; special passages: 
Genesis, 7, 26, 30, 48, 50, N. 134; 
Exodus, 3, N. 152; Leviticus 2; 
Numbers, 70, N. 342; 2 Samuel 197; 
Isaiah, 3, 26, 93, 138; Nficah 13, 138; 
Psalms, 6, 79, 82—83, 93, 98— lO(^ 
N. 50t I75» I9if 225—227, 253; Pro- 
verbs, I, 138, 197; Job, 3; Lamen- 
tations, 197; Ecclesiastes, 13, lo^t 
N. 49; Chronicles 25 — 26, N. 306, 397. 
See also Ten Commandments 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



279 



Bick, J. S., N. 21 

Bicycle in parody, N. 351 

Bill of sale, Hainan's, 122, 197 

Bismarck, satire on, N. 12 

Blantes, Leon, 131 

Blasphemous parodies, 83 — 84, N. 68, 

225, 226, 372, 393 a— c 
Blessing of Jacob parodied, 48, 50 
Blogg, S. E., 175, 179, 181, 187, 207 
Blumenfeldt, S., N. 22 
Boarding houses in New York City, 

satire on, N. 146, 296 
Bodleian Library Mss. described, 12, 

39, 40, 120, 155, 168, 173 
Bohush, Isaac of, 75 
Books, Titles of 

See Titles of Books 
Brag, game of, 53 
Brandstaedter, M. D., N. 23, 24 
Brarerman, N. 80 

Breslan Seminary Ms. described, 155 
Bridal gifts, 43» ^71 
BriU, J., 88—96, N. 25-19 
British Museum, parody in the, 16 
British East Africa in parody, N. 75, 

II7» 342 
Brodotsky, L Z., 98, N. 30 
Brodowski, H., N. 31 
Buchbinder, A. L, N. 32 — 33, 95 a 
Buchner, Wolf, 54 — 55 
Burlesque Testaments, 48, 195 — 199 

Cabala 

See KabbeUa 
Cahan, A., N. 34 
CalatraTa Order 157; fight the Jesuits, 

163—164 
Calendars, parodies in the form of, N. 

155, 161 
Calimani, Joshu Abraham, 39 — 40 
Cambridge UniTersity Ms. described, 

122—123 
Cantors, satire on, 6 
Capitalism, satire on, N. 2, 64 
Capuchin Order, 157 
CaraTaggio, 166 



Card playing, satire on, 33, N. 198, 
241 ; excommunicated 33; defended 

33 
Carmelite Order, 157 

Carnival customs, 27, 41, 159; parody 

on, N. 174 
Caro, Joseph, N. 29, 52, 71, 299, 300, 

301, 302, 303, 335, 354, 390» 391 
Cassel, B. M., N. 35 — 41 
Catechism parodied, N. 414 a 
Catholic church, satire on the customs 

of the, 41, 157 
Ceremonies, satire on PassoTer, N. 

104. 105 
Charity discussed in parody, N. 319 
Charizi, Judah 

See Harin^ yudah 
Chazan 

See Cantor 
Chaschkes, M., N. 42—45 
Chasid 

See Jiasid 
Cheder 

See Heder 
Cherem 

See Excommunkation 
Chess, 22, 145 

China and Japan, war between, N. 380 
Christ, divinity of, 41 
Christianity, parodies against, 32, 41, 

SI, 159 
Christmas customs, 41, 148 

Cincinatti* Hebrew Union College, pa- 
rody against, N. 272 

Class Day Professor, 27 

Classic literature, parody in, I 

Coarse jokes 

See Obscene parodies 

Code of Joseph Caro 
See Caro, Joseph 

Code of Moses Maimonides parodied, 54 

Cohn, H., N. 46 

Colonies in Argentina* N. 354 

Colomi, Malachai, 49, 197 

Colombia University Library, parodies 
in, 117, 148, N. 209, 307 



^^^^^^^^^ 280 INDEX n ■"^^^^^^^^^^n 








Maltathiah, 33 




Dlngatsch. M.. 98. N. S4 




Dobsevage, A. B., N, S, 55. 56 


^^^^^^^H ConfeiBional, puodj I99. 


Dogmas parodied, N. 16, 39a, 338 


^^^^^^^H imaeioary 


Dolilaky, M. M., N. 57; parodW V. 




ni 


^^^^^^B 50 




^^^^^^H 


writen. 80 


^^^^^^H Crilici. guide for, 88, N. a$, 322 


Drachman, B.. N. 58 


^^^^^^^^M Sti aufkeri 


Dntma, paiodica in the form of ■, K. 


^^^^^^H Ciown Rabbit, iitiie on, 133 


46, 384 


^^^^^^^^1 41 


Dreyfns ca>e in parody, N. $5 


^^^^^^^^1 Cuckold, hocni Ihe, mentioned by 


Drunkard, satire on the, ao, aj. 56,58 


^^^^^^H IbQ Sbabbeihai, A«ioa Lnnel and 


Duran, Proliat, 43 


^^^^^^^^1 Isaac 14 




^^^^^H Ciar Nicholas U., latiret on, N. jS, 388 


East Africa. British 




Sre BrilisA Eajl A/rua 


^^^^^^^^1 on 23 


East India Company, 158, 167 


^^^^^^H Daniel b. Samuel of Roiiena 36—37 


Easter, 41. 1S7. 159 


^^^^^^H Dariban, Moses I. (Preacher of Kdm), 


Edels, Samnel, parody of hii Noteliae, 


^^^^^^H 383 


4S 


^^^^^^^^1 


EJicI ef IfamaH, 3, 111 


^^^^^^H ben Abraham, N. 47 


Edicts of Ahasoares, i3i 


^^^^^^H 4S 


Education, salirei on— in America, 107: 


^^^^^^^H 


in Galicia N. 318; in Russia, N, 19. 


^^^^^^H Davidson, L. 99, loo, 104. N. 49, jo 


8;. 363, 303 


^^^^^^H De Sotia, Samuel Mendei. Ji 


iff aiv. Hider. Sihoab, Traciin, 


^^^^^^H Dc 




^^^^^^H di 


Effigies of Haman, 31—13 


^^^^^^^^^^H 






Eleaxar ha-Kalir parodied. 307 


^^^^^^^^^^1 DecisioDi, parodied. 


Elegies, parodies in the form of, N. IJ, 


^^^^^^^^B Decree, parody in the form of a, N. 104 


56. 8S, 133. 136, 277, 343. 386. 387. 


^^^^^^^^^^H DeiDard, E. — his msa, of parodies, 


388, AHc 


^^^^^^H >23> 153< by. 




^^^^^^^^1 N. 51, parodies against, N. 6, 


Elijah Hayyim b. Benjamin of Gesil- 


^^^^^H 333. 


iano 33-33 


^^^^^^^^1 133, 131 


Elijah haiaken. parody of his Aihaiolh. 


^^^^^^H Dialects parodied, N, 73, 396, 404 


'S 


^^^^^^^^1 Dice, Biblical origin for, 145 


Elisha ben Abnjah N. 59 


^^^^^H S3 


England, 00 the Jew* of, N. 397. 4f>6 


^^^^^^^^^^H Dictionaries, parodies in the form of. 




^^^^^^H 143> 144. 1S6, S31, 314, 333, 


Ephraim ben Isaac parodied, N. a;a 


^^^^^H 403. 417 


Epistelae Obsoirtrnim immm eoi^iand 


^^^^^^H 13 


with Megalleh T«>>iiriii, 61—63 



^^^^^^^^^ NAMES AND SUBJECTS 38 1 ^^^| 


^^H Episloluy laliici 


Fint parody in book form, 19 ; in gene- ^^^^H 


^H See Mcgailfh Ttmirin, parodiii in Ihc 


ral tileratnre, in Hebrew, 4; in ^^^^^H 


^M !iyU oj Ihf 


49—50 ^^^^1 




Firit parody of the ConfeuJonal, 50; ^^^| 


^r 49. I??. N' 91 


of a direrce certificate, 31; of the ^^^| 


Krtei. L. N. 60-61 


ethical WiU. 48; of the Eicommnni- ■ 


Eimin, Buuch, polemic sgainit, N.325 


cation formula, 13; of Biblical Exe- 1 


EthicU W.IU 


gesia, iS— l9;theHageadah, 16—17; J 


Str Wilts, FuhaU 


the Kiddusk, 50; ■ legal decinon, 1 1 ^^^| 


EtWcj of the Filhets 




Sit Htkt Aiolh 


prayera, a promiMoty, note 361 ^^^H 


Eocbarist, the, 41 


a recipe, 5; a religioDihymn, 41 the ^^^^H 


Eiconinmnic«tion formula p«iodied, 13, 


Requiem, ij; Tehinolh, 50; theZohar, ^^^^B 


Ji. 13s 




Eicommunicatinn of card pliycrs, 34 


on Uleruy criticiim. 88 1 


EiegeiU. parody of Biblical, 18—19, 


Firil parody printed in America. N. 14 J 


25-16. 46; patodj of Haaidic, N. M 


First lociatistic parody, 80 H 


Extravagance, latire on, N. 137 


Fatk-lore in parody, 51 H 


Etia, Abraham ibn 


Folk-ionga in parody, iia— iij, N. 35 ^^^H 


^m S« Jbn Exra 


-41, gS, aio, ait, 317 ^^^H 


■ 


Fouileentb cenlnry pacodie* 19— *9> ^^^^H 


^^B Faith, latire od the Chriilian, 4I— 41 


^^^^1 


^i^ Fanbi. Eleaiai, 196 


France, paiody dates from the 13tb ^^^H 


Fautt, J., N. 63 


century ^^^^H 


Feast of fools, Z7 


Fianciicui order. 157 ^^^H 


Feail of king David, 3S 


Franco-Mendca. Dayid. 39 ^^H 


Fade.. Tobiah. 57-58 


Freidkin. J. U, N. 69 ^^B 




Friedberg, A, S., N. 70 ■ 


Feitivalj 


Ftiedland, L., N. 7I 1 


^^ Stf AlmtmmtDay; New Yea^t Day; 


Friedlieber. I., N. ;> ^^B 


^^L Tattrnaelti, Float of; Puuvtr: Pm- 


FriedinaDn {Baer of Leovo). parody ^^H 


^H Uioil: Purim; Sabbalk 


againiU 74—76, N. J41 ^^H 


^f FieHtioH Letter.. N. 59, 74. 99. '49. 


Friend, E. M., N. 73 ^^^H 


151. 306. 2S7. 349 


Frischmann, D.. 98. N. 74—78 ^^^H 


FietitioBs names in MaiseiAuM Furtm. 26 


Frag, 79 ^^^1 


Fictitiout Pwodies. N. 53 


Fuent, Joltns, ^^^^H 


Fifteenlh ceotury parodies, 19-33. 134, 


^^^^H 


:40— 147 


Gabirol. Solomon tbn. 56. II6, IS4> fl 


Firit allegorical parody by taracl Ni- 


• >6. >99 ■ 


t»r", 34—36 


Galicia, on the Jew* of, N. 300^ JOI, ■ 


FiMt dronkard, »3 


3IS. ^^ 


Fint mock-heroic by Ibn Eira, 3 


Gamblers, parody in d«fenM of, 33, ^^^| 


FutI of Adar, 36 


150-151 ^^1 


^^ Fitat palinode, by Hariri, ; 


Gamblers, Verses a£ainat, 33, 148— 150 H 






^H Reform Jadaism. 77 1 Set Sae*gamimm. Srtg. tarJ/ltymf; 1 



282 



INDEX n 



Chess; Dice ; Purim ; Quadrille; Tables; 

TreseUe; Whist 
Garnet of boys in Riissia, N. 52, 8311 
Geiger, N. 80 

Genazzano, Elijah Hayyim of, 32 — 33 
Gennan Jews, satire on, N. 83 b 
Gersonides 

See Levi b, Gershon 
Gestetner, A., N. 81 
Gifts, bridal, 43, 171— 172 
Ginzbnrg, N. 82 
Ghcke, SchiUer's 

See Lied von der Gbcke 
Gluttony, satire on, 20 — 21, 40 
Goethe, parodies of, N. 79, 208, 285, 

337 
Goldberg, I., 97, N. 83 

Goldenberg, N., 77, N. 84 

Goldfaden, A., N. 85 

Goldschmidt, A., N. 86 

Golomb, H. N., N. 87 

Good Friday, 41, 159, 160— 161 

Gordon, J. L.— parodies by, N. 88—91 ; 

parodies on, N. 78, 113; realistic 

school of, 80 
Gorgolot (ISlVl^nu), Isaac b. Solomon, 

tax collector of Saragossa, 12 
Gottheil, Rabbi Gnstav, satire on, N. 306 
Gottlober, A. B., N. 92—95 
Government Rabbis, satire on, N. 132 
Grace, parody of, 55 
Greenhorn, the life of the, 103 — 104 
Die Grenadiere parodied, N. 84 
Gries, M. J., attack on, N. 142 
Grotesque humor, 46 
Gruschkin, R., N. 96 
Gunzburg, M. A., parody by, N. 97; 

parody on, N. 257 

Habakbuk ha-Nabhi^ 25, 27 

See also Massekheth Purim of Kalo- 
nymos 
Haggadah, first parodied by Abraham 

Bedarshi, 16—17 
Haggadah of Jonah Rappa, 41 — 42, 153 

—167 



Haggadah, parodies of the, 39, 41 —42, 

51, N. II, 64, 70, 80, 83d,j, 109, 

112, 132, 133 a, 137, 140, 142, I46» 

169, 170, 180, 181, 192, 199, 200, 

201, 202, 209, 216, 224, 228, 230* 

23i» 233, 252, 254, 260, 287, 288, 

293. 294, 295, 298, 303, 307, 309, 

319, 340, 344. 346, 355. 356, 357. 

358—361, 373. 377. 380, 385, 411, 

413 
Halakhah, parodies in the form of 

See also Caro, Joseph; Maimonides, 
Moses 
Halakhic Midrash, parody of, 25 
Halberstam, S. H., 116 

See also Jewish Theological Seminary 
Halpem, D. G., N. 98 
Ha-Mabhdil, parody of, 37—38 
Haman, Lamentation of, 49, 197 
Haman effigies, 21 — 22 
Haman represented by a puppet, 21 
Haman's Bill of Sale, 122, 197 
Haman*s daughter, Marriage Contract 

of, 53—54 
Haman's Edict, 2, 121 
Haman's Tomb, Epitaph on, 49, 1 97 
Haman's Will, 48, 195, 196, 197. 198 
Hamlet's Soliloquy parodied, io6, N. 296 
Harizi, Judah, 5—7 
Harkavy, A., N. 99—100 
Harmelin, M., N. loi 
Hasidic exegesis, parody of, N. 24 
Hasidic hermeneutics, satire on, 58 
Hasidic homilies, parodies in the form 

of, 69—70, N. 152, 162, 167, 206, 305 
Hasidic rabbis, satires on 58, 63—64, 

74, N. S3^ 61, 132, 147. 162, 165, 

167, 206, 341; see also Hasidim 
Hasidic types, 63—65 
Hasidim, parodies against the, 60 — 77, 

N. 24, 57, 71. 84, 106, 125, 130, 151, 

163, 166, 206, 262, 304 
Hasidim in New York, satire on, N. 7, 

216 
Hasidism, characteristics of, 60, 66 

69—71 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



283 



Haskalmh 

See Maskilim 
Hayyim Ibn Sampan, 12 
Hasan 

See Cantor 
Hebrew Union College, polemic against, 

N. 272 
Heder, satire on the, N. 295, 303, 318 

See also Education^ Yeshiboth 
Hegemon of Thasos, 1 
Heine, parodies of, N. 76, S4, 183 
Heisinsky, M. M., N. 102 
Hektor und Andromache parodied, N. 297 
Henpecked husbands, satire on, 5 
Herem 

See Exeommunicaiion 
Hermeneutics of the Hasidim, satire 

on, 58 
Herman, S. I., N. 103 
Hers, J., N. 104 — 105 
Higher criticism, satire against, 88 
Hippocrates, parody of his Aphorisms, 

5, N. 60 
Hipponax of Ephesns, I 
Hirsch, Baron de. Colonies of, N. 354 
Hisda bar Hisda, N. 106 
Holdheim, S., polemic against, 78, N. 

SZf 190 

Holy Week, 41, 1S9 

Homer, I 

Homilies, parodies in the form of, 16, 

46, N. 92, 269, 283, 3d8e, f, 381 ! 

See also Ilasidic homilies; Sermons 
Homilies, parody used as, 51 — 52 
Horns of a cuckold alluded to by Aaron ■ 

of I.unel, Ibn Shabbethai and Isaac ! 

I 

ibn Sahulah, 14 

Hoshanoth, parodies of, N. 55, 83 n, 1 

160, 177, 191, 217, 326, 234, 27s,: 

363, 363* 387 
Hugolin, N. 107 

Humorous Letter for Purim, 40 

Hurwish, A., 100, 1 01— 102, 105, 106, 

108, 109, N. 108 — 112 

Hurwitz, L B., N. 113 

Hyman, Ch. A., N. 114— 116 



Hymns parodied, 4, 31, 32—33. 37. 39. 
139, N. 35, 40, 41, 58, 83c,g,h, 
114, 139, 178, 191, 307 b, 317, 368 j 

Hymns, parodies used as, 4, 35 

Ibn Ezra, Abraham, 3, 33, 148—150 
Ibn Ezra, Moses, 56 
Ibn Gabirol 

See Gabirol 
Ibn Sahulah, Isaac, 14 
Ibn Samhun, Hayyim, 12 
Ibn Shabbethai, Judah b. Isaac, 7 — 15 
Idlers, satire on, 20 
Idelsohn, A., 98, N. 117 
Ignorance satirized, N. 253, 355, 356 
Illustration, comic, N. 51, 52 
Imaginary compositions in the Talmud, 2 
Imaginary Conrersations, N. 149, 205, 

268, 310 
Imaginary letters 

See Fictitious Utters 
Imitation, playful, 17, N. 232 
Immanuel of Rome, 17 — 19, 56 
Immigrants 

See America 
Impostors, 60 

Intemperance, allusion to, 27 
Ira! an Italian custom of commemo- 
rating the downfall of Haman, 21 
Irreligious tendency in literature, 80 
Isaac, 37—38, N. 118 
Isaac b. Abigedor, 207 
Isaac ben Jacob Adam, N. 119 
Isaac b. Reuben, 35 
Isaac ibn Sahulah, 14 
Isaac Israel of Hamburg, 54 
Isaacs, A. S., N. 120 
Israel ben Senior, N. 413 
Italian dishes, 22 
Italian games, 51—53 
Italian parodies begin with Immanuel 

of Rome, 17 
Italian Women praised, 23; blamed* 52 
Italy, Purim customs in, 2 1 — 22 

See also Rome; San •Daniel del Friuli; 
VercelU 



^^^^^^ 284 INDEX n j 


^H Jacob. Blessing of. parodied, 48. 50 


Kaplan, J.. N. m 


^^l Jipui, on the war between Chioa uid, 


Kapparoth, satire on the cattom of, 7 


^^H 380 


Karaites, puns bat no parodies agaisH 


^H J»l«ui, J. S., N. 121 


them, 3 


^^H Jehuda 


Karaitic lileratnre not known to contun 


^^H Sit yudah 


any paiodj, 3 


^^H JeniEBlcm, N. I33 


Karlin, Rabbi Asher of, lalire ■». 76, 


^H J<stei 


K. 147 


^^H Sti Wedding Bard 


KarUn. Zaddikim of, 76 


^^^1 Jesuit Older, IJ7, 163—164 


Karo. Joseph 


^^H Jesas, parody against, 32—33 


See Care, Jusepk , 


^^K jewiih Theological Seminaty Mis., 3S, 


Kautmino, David, hii Mm. parodies. 1 


^^^^^H^ 51 — 53, 134, 140-147. 


156 
Kelm, Preacher of, N. 283 


^^^^^b 153-IS4. 167. 174. >75. 


^^^^^^P 1S7-195, 197—199. Z03— 306, 264, 


Ketuba 


^^^^^^P N. 145, 191, 2i9,364;prii>ted parodies, 


See Murriage CrrtifieuU 


^ 117. N. 307. 400 


Kharkof Zionist. N. 34^ 


^^H Jews of *aiioB£ countries and cities 


Kiddush, parodies of the, 50 


^^H Sti under namei a/ aiutitries and cities 


"King", on the Pntim, 26-37 


^^H Jokes, coaise 


King David'i feasi, 38 


^^H See Obseent patodits 




^H JonUhansoD, J., 101. M. 113 


KiUheH Latin, 61 


^H Jospe, A.. N. 133 


Kopelowits, N. H., N. 140 


^H Jonnialisni, satires on Hebrew, S8-91, 


Kotlar, A,, 101, 109, N. 143 


^^1 N. 27, 195, 264, 365, 367, 276; on 


Kowner, A. U., 80, N. 143 


^H Yiddish, N. 284, 390 


Koida, H„ N. 144 I 


^^L See also PeruHlieab 


Kutaii, Pniim customs in, 31 — S3 


^H Jonmftls 




^^H .9m Puriodicah 


Ladino 


^^H Judaeo-Spanish 


See yuda-Sfamsk 


^^H .S'^r Ju.iei-Spanish 


UtarcM. Paul, N. 414 I 


^^H Jndah Aryeh of Modena 




^^^^B See Modena, Lean 


N. .50 


^^B jDdah b. Isaac b. Shabbclhai 


Laws for Parim, 46 


^^m See Ihn SMoi^e/hai. Judak /. kaa^ 


Learning, decline of, N. 1S2 | 


^H Judelsohn, K. S., N. 134 


Lebeosohn, A. B., pmrodies of, N. 14, 


^H Jndco-SpanUb, parodies in, 53—54 


179 ' 




Leipsic Ms. described, 1*3 


^H A'o^J^ u»^ Lteb! paiodied, N. iSj 


Lent, customs of, 41. 1S9 


^^^ Kabalistic parody, N. 153 


Leon de Banolas. 13I 


^^L Kaddisb, parody of the, 31, 147, 197, 


Leon Blantes, 131 


^H 199 


Leon ha-Le»i, the orator, 131 


^H Kalii parodied. 307 


Leon Moaena 




See Modena, Leon 


^V —'34 


Leon de Valenlibus, 119, 131 


^H Kaminer, L, 77. 86-88, N. 135— 139 


LeoYO, Zaddik of, 74-7* 











^^^^^^^^^nS^sRobjec^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


Letter fof Porim. the hnmoroiu, 40 


Utwtto, S. D., 77—78. N- 17a— 174« 1 




1 


151-IS' 


Madonna, sanctuaries of the, 41, 157 


Lett en, lictltiooi 


-■S8, 164--167 


S» F>tli&>u> UUrr, 


Madrid, religious War in, 159. 163-164 ' ■ 


Leri b. Gerthon, 19, 13-28, 115 — 134 


Magaxines ^^M 


L«iB, N. .46 


Stt PrHodiah ^^^H 


Levin, J. L., 76, N. 147 




Leria, M. M., N. 148 


Miimon, 69 ^^^1 




Maimonidei, Moses, parody of hit code. ^^H 


N. 149-IS4; P"odr 00. N. 381 


54; parodies of bis thirteen doEmax, ^^^H 


UvilB, Elijih, 131 


81, N. 16, I9J, 338 ^H 


Lewinsky, A. I., N. 15s 


Majos, Joannes Henrieus, 174 ■ 


Lexicon, p«tody in the fonn of a, N. 


Malacl.ov.ky, H., N. 175 T 


397 




Liberty, .potheon. of. 81-83 


MaodeUiamm, B., N. 179 ^^J 


Libowiti, N. S., N. 156-158 




Liebennuiti, Airon, So 








93. 105. 184. 179, 399, 4JI 


maritan parody, 29— 3°i Pnrim Sei^ ^^^^H 


Lilienblnm, M. L. 81—81, N. 159 


moo. 37; Ha-Mabhdil, 37-38; Ma*- ^^^H 


Linelilii, I. J., 77. N. 160-167 


sekheth Hanukah. 39; Almoner'a ^^^H 


Lilcwiki, M. M.. N. 168 


Credentials, 40; Swire on ChrUlianily, ^^H 






Uliniky, M. N., N. 169—170 


...infra J BUBCB del TrtstUr, 51 — 5*; H 


litorgic p«rodiM of XVII Century, 1B7 


Xeik^ak, J41 Satire on tnalchmaker. V 


-I9S. »05-ao6 


54; Ne* Zohar for Purim, S7; Mai- " 


Utorgy, puodies of the 


lekheth Purim of Kalonymoi, llS— 


SteAlaicmenlDaylfymni, BftudicHims, 








^L Kaddisk.KidJush,NewYt»r',HymHt, 


gid»h of Jonah Rappn. 153—167' 1 




Sedk^ P.sah, 167—172; MasttkkH* 1 


^V PmUnul hymns, Ptrtk Shirak. 


Pitrim of I7lti Century, 173— i75j J 


Pfayrr Bosi, Prayers, SaiiaiA Aymns, 


Uturgic parodies of the 1 7 tb Century, ^^^J 


Tekinork; Sti ai«? XiMol 




Lobel, Abnun b. Sunael, lecretkry of 


197-199; Muitkheth Deretch Enif, ^^^H 


S«r^OM^ 13-13 


203 — 2041 Lava for Creditor and ^^^^H 


Lobd, Abnun ben Solomon, Cuitor of 


Debtor, 304—206; Milnjih for Purin, H 




Io8i N. I4S. 169-171. 174. 19". 1 


Loniuio, MenKhem di. $6, 1S8 


229, i6». «84 " 


Lfffl^i parodied. N. 183 


Miuachowsky. M, N. 1S0 


Loria, Isn«e, 38 


Mark. G, N. 181 


Lnrie, A-. N. 171 


Matkon. Ch. J. L., N. l8» 


Luiury, sMire on, N. 137 


Marriage, satires on,9— 11,43.171— 17*> 




N. 391 b , 


ao3_»o4 





286 



INDEX n 



Marriage certificate parodied, ii, 32, 

34—36, 50. S3, 5S» N. 22. 
Marriage contract of Hainan's daughter, 

52—54 
Maskilim, satire on the, N. 125, 130, 

132, 278; types of, 68—69 
Masliansky, Z. H., polemic against, 

N. 368 e,f, 393 d 
Masorah, parody in the form of the, 

N. 54 
Massacres in Kishinef, N. 397 
Massekket America, 100, 103 — 104, 105 

— 106, 107 — 108 
Massekheth Purim of the XV Century, 

31, 140—147 
Massekheth Purim of Kalonjrmos, cri- 
ticism of the, 19—26; bibliography 

and authorship, 115 — 134 
Massekheth Purim of XVII Century, 

criticism of the, 44 — 47; bibliography 

and authorship, 172—187; Latin trans- 
lation of, 174 
Master of ceremonies for Purim, 26 

—27 
Matchmaker, satire on the, 54, N. 62 
Materialistic tendencies in Literature, 

80, 81—82, N. 235 
Mattathiah, 32 
Mausche Nahr, N. 183 
Mausche AVorscht, N. 184, 185 
Maxims 

See Proverbs 
Meat tax in Russia, satire on, N. 131, 

201 
Megalleh Temirin, criticism of, 61—73; 

parody dealing with the, N. 149; 

parodies in the style of the, N. 6, 

15. 51, 106, 147, 149, 325, 341 
Megillath Setharim, criticism of the, 

23—27; bibliography and authorship, 

115— 134 
Meir, author of sermon on wine for 

Purim, 37 
Meisach, J., N. 90, 186 
Melamed, A. S., 96—97, N. 187 
Melamed, J. £., N. 188, 189 



Menahem b. Aaron the first to parody 

a religious hymn, 4 
Menahem di Lonzano, 56 
Mendelson, M. 78, N. 190 
Mendes, Dayid Franco 

See Pratuo Mendes^ David 
Merchants, satires on, 96 — 97, N. 187 

215 
Messiah, supposed allusion to the, 27; 

Samaritan doctrine of the, 29—30 
Midrashim, Halakhic, parody of, 25 
Midrash, parodies in the style of the, 

N. 26, 27, 34, 69, 87, 115, 120, 133d, 

156, 171, 191, 2iz, 214, 239, 323, 

376, 416 
Mimicking teachers, 27 
Misers, satire on, 20, 43 — 44, 172 
Mishnah, parodies in the style of the, 

23, 46, N. 28, 48, 59, 154. 174, 321, 

322, 350 

Sec also Baraitha, Pirke Aboth, Talmud 

Misogynist 

See Woman-hater 

Mock heroics, 3 — 4, 6—7, N. 343, 407 

Modena, Leon, 33—34, 39, 148—151 

Modified maxims, 109 

Mohr, A. M., Ill, N. 191 

Money lending in the 18 th century, 54 

Monks, corruption of, 12 

Montefiore Library Ms. described, 155 

Mordecai and Esther, prayers of, 2 

Morgulis, M., polemic against, N. 176 

Mosessohn, N., 78 — 79, N. 192 

Munsterberg, H., on American traits, 

102 
Musaf 

See Prayers 
Mustin, J., N. 193 
Mystics, parody in the style of the, 34 

—36, 55 

N. S. J., N. 397 

Die nachtUche Heerschau, parody of, N. 

141 
Nagara, Israel, 34—36, 55 

See also N, 22; parody of^ N, 210 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



287 



Napoleon, satires on, N. 12 

Nardeshir, game of, 146 

Nathan, J. L., 78, N. 194 

Neumann, A., N. 195 

Neumanowitz, H., N. 196 

New Testament, polemic on the, 41, 

159, 160—162 
New Year's Day, Catholic customs on» 

41, 158 
New Year's Hymns, parodies of, N. 6^, 

6s, 66, 67, 83 i, 85, 142, 157, 164, 

1 76, 223, 333, 368, 393 a, b, 394 e, f, 395 
New York, parodies on the Jews of, 

N. 7, 56, 73, 124, 146, 211, 329, 344, 

388 
New York Public Library Mss. 57, 264, 

N. 284; printed parodies, 196, N. 14, 

80, 100, 224, 293, 348 
Newspapers 

See Periodicals 
Nicholas I and the Jews, 84 — 85 
Nicholas II, satire on, N. 58, 288 
Nine articles of faith of the Catholic 

church, parody against, 33 
Nineteenth Century parodies, history 

of* 59-~il2; bibliography of, 209 — 

263 
Ninth Day of Ab N. 83 n 
Non-satiric parodies, 109 — 112 
Norellae of R. Samuel Edels, parody 

of the, 45 
Nudelman, H., N. 197 

Obscene parodies, 44, 50, 58, 86, 97, 

109, 188 
Offenbach, Aaron b. Abraham, 208 
Olschwang, J. S., N. 198—202 
Omer, celebration of the 33 d day of 

the, 70—71 
Oppression of the Jews 

See Persecution of the Jews 
Orden de la Agada, 51 
The Order of Passover and its Law^ 42 

—44 
Oxford, Bodleian Library 

See Bodleian Library 



Palestine 

See ytrusaUm 
Paley, J., N. 203 
Palinodes, examples of, 7, 18, N. i8» 

78. 173 
Palm Sunday, 41, 159 

Panuta^ the period of diTine displeasure, 

30 
Papel dispensation, 41 
Pi^pema, A. J., 80, N. 204 
Parma Ms. of Pilpul zeman, 155 
Parodies embodied in the liturgy, 4, 

35 
Parodies in Aramaic, 49 

Parodies in the Maghrib dialect, 121 

Parodies in Spanish, 51 

Parodies in Yiddish, 49—50, 199—203 

For others see those t/iat are marked 
with an asterisk in the Bibliography 
(chapt. XrV) 
Parodists : — 

Abulafia, Todros b. Joseph, 15 

Bedarshi, Abraham, 16 — 17 

Bensew, Judah Loeb, 55 — 56 

Buchner, Wolf, 54—55 

Calimani, Joshua Abraham 39 — 40 

Colomi, Malachai, 49 

Elijah Hayyim b. Benjamin of Ge- 
nazzano, 32 — 33 

Feder, Tobiah, 57—58 

Harisi, Judah, 5 — 7 

Ibn Ezra, Abraham, 3 — 4 

Ibn Shabbethai, Judah ben Isaac, 

7-15 
Immanuel of Rome, 17—19 

Uaac 37—38 

Isaac Israel of Hamburg, 54 

Kalonymos b. Kalonymos, 19 — 29 

Levi ben Gershon, 19, 23—28 

Luzzatto, Isaac b. Raphael, 52—53 

Mattathiah, 32 

Meir, 37 

Menahem ben Aaron, 4 — 5 

Modena, Leon, 33—34* 39 

Nagara, Israel^ 34—36 

Offenbach, Aaron b. Abraham, aoS 



^H 288 INDEX U 1 


^H 


/•«a* Din 


^^^1 Phinehu ben Abishi, 29—30 


Sr/ DtdsioHs 


^^B Falido. David Raphul, 4B-49 


Perverted Proverb*, 109, N. 96, lOI, 


^^1 Pag1ie*e, Zechiriah, 54 


168, 255, 274, 311, 315, 316. 328 


^^H PdIem. Isaac, 15 


Phinehas ben Abisha, author of Sama- 


^^H Rappa. Jonab, 41—41 


ritan parody, 29 


^^H Saogainelti, Rtpbael Jehiel, 51—52 


Physicianl, satires on, N. 52, 6o 


^^1 ScE'c. Joshual?), 51 


PScli, A. D., N. 35-41 


^^H^^ De Solln, Samuel Mendes, 5 1 




^^^^H Wiilft. Meit b. Joseph 173 


-4», 153-167 


^^^^^B Zabua, 5 


Pilpulists, satire on, N. 159 


^^^^H j^»- M/ /«««A>// »/ M^ AVA- fMMr^ 


Pirki Ahelh, parodiei of, 23, 100, 101, 


^^^^^H ^>'r /v. // cAaf. xjy 


105, 107, ioS, N. 4, 50. no 


^^^V Parody, objecCioni to, ao 


PittsbuTE Confereflce, 78, K. J7a 


^^^^1 Puody Qied in preaching, 51 — 53 


Piyutic parodies 


^^^H Parvenu, satire on (he, N. 391 c 


Sff Lilurgy 


^^H Fa»ov«r cercmoDiei, iitire on, N. 104. 


Plagiarism charged against Iba Shab- 


^H >°5 


belhai, 12; satire on, N. 245 


^^H Fuiorer Haggadah 


Poetasters, satire on, N. I, 94 


^^H mggadah 


See also Slyliitic parsdies 


^^^1 Passover hymns, parodies, 4> N. 2, 


Fogrom in Kiihioef; N. 397 


^H 3<^. 3S. 830. 9S, t33l>, Z35. 307a 


Poiinak. W.. K. 207 


^^^1 Peddler, satires on the, 103 — 105, N. 


Poland, folk-lore in, Jl 


^H 3. 49 


Polemic parodies, 12—13. 109, N. 6, 


^^^1 Peniiu, Jedaith 


14. 47. 51- 90, 101, 143. '45. 'JO. 


^^^1 Stt Btiatshi, Jdda'ah 


157. 158, 176. 190. W3. 109. 123. 


^^^H Penitential prayen, parodies of, 50, 55, 


281, 292, 325, 317. 331. 365. 3«8. 


^^H 56, 202, i»6, 217, N, 30, 33, 136, 


386. 393 


^^H 250, 281, 327, 339, 368g, 374. 393d, 


Polido, David Raphael, 4S— 49, 195 — 


^H 410 


196, 198—199 


^^^1 Pentecost Hymos, parodies of, 15, N. 


Polish Jews, satires on the life of the. 


^^H 3, 89, 121, 142, 172, i9[, 107, 2J9, 


N. 161, 164, 205. 35S. 356 


^H 3J' 


Political parodies, N. 289, 291, 394, 


^^H Pentecost. Kethubali for the feast of, 35 


377, 38s 


^^^1 Perek SiiraA, parodiei of, N. 135, 271, 


Poverty, satire On, N. 83 g, i, 138, 366 


^H 3S4a 




^^^1 FeriodicAls 


87. N, 44 


^^^1 Ste also yKuma/ism 


Prayers, parodies of, 5, lo— 11, 17, 


^^H PeriodicaU, parodies in the form of. 


N. 10, 3», 68, 82, 95. 334. 345. 39^. 


^^1 N. 9, 47, 51, 75, 77, S3, 90, 119, 


414b 


^^H 197. 303. 2S6, 313, 336, 34S, iS2. 


Prayers tor the dead, pwodlei of, 31. 


^H 367. 3S2. 3S4. 389. 419 


147, 196-199. N. 4t. 43 


^^H Perl, Joseph, 61 — 73, I^- 305—206 


Prayers for FesUvala, parodlet ot N. 


^^^L Penecuiion of the Jews described in 


148. 193 




Prayers of Mordecai and Esther, x 


^^^^^^b 234, 324 


Precepts, the 613. N. 83I 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



289 



Press 

See Periodicals 
Profane parodies 

See Obscene parodies 
Progressists 

See Maskilim 
Prologue to Faast parodied, N. 337 
Promissory note, parody of a, 36 



Rabener, M. S., N. 210 

Radin, A. M., N. 211 — 212, 247 

Rakqwski, A. A., 96—97, N. 213^215 

Ralbe, J., 77, N. 216 

Rappa, Jonah, 41—42, 153—167, 168, 

169, 171, 265 
Rapoport, S. L., on the influence of 

the Megalleh Temirin^ 7 1— 72 



Provcn9al parodies, 15 — 17, 23 — 28, , Rashi, parody of his commentary, 39, 



30—31. 134—147 
Provence, Purim customs in, 22, 26 — 27 

Proverbs in parody 

See Perverled Proz'crbs 
Proverbs, perverted 

See Perverted Proverbs 
Pugliese, Zechariah. 54, 204 — 206 
Pulgar, Isaac, 15 
Pumpiansky, A. E., N. 208 
Puns, in the Talmud, 2; in the Megillath 



45 
Rational criticism in Hebrew Litera- 
ture, 92 
Ravenna, Samuel, 52 
Rawnitzki, J. Ch., N. 217 
Realistic school of poets, 80 
Recipe, parody in the form of, 5 
Reform Judaism, satires on, 77^79* 
N. 53, 142, 174 a, 190, 192, 194, 272, 
320, 321, 401; in England, N. 359 
Setharimj 26; on English words, 108 Reform Rabbis, satires on, N. 142, 244, 
Purim, history of, in parody, 56; the | 258, 259, 310; of New York City, 
Humorous Letter for, 40; Penitential N. 306 

Prayers for, 55; Satire for, 55; wine- See also GoUhdl, Cries, Holdheim 
songs for, 56; customs of, 21— 22, Reingold, L, N. 218 
26—27, 56; dishes, 22; games of, | Reisen, A., N. 219^221 
12\ gift«; to children, 22; hymn, 5 1 Relics, healing power of, 41 
Purim king, elected one month before, Relics of the Besht, 67—68 
31; functions of, 26—27, 30— 3i» Religion, parodies against, 82^84 



135 — 139; resolutions concerning 
the, 30, 135—139; verses on the, 
26 — 27 

Purim laws, 46 

Purim plays, 27, 50, N. 46 

Purim Rabbi, 27 



See also Blasphemous parodies* 

Religion, on the lack of, N. 148 

Renan and Neubauer on the Vatican 

Ms. of the Massekheth Purim, 119— 

120; on the Megillath Setharim, 131 

Requiem, first parodied by Ibn Shab- 



Purim sermon on wine, a shorter ver- ' bethai 13; much in vogue in l8th 
sion of Massekheth Purim ed. Cra- cent, 48—49 

Resolutions pertaining to the Purim 
King. 30, 135-139 



cow, 37, 266 
Quadrille, Game of, 52 



. Responta, parodies in the form of, 
Kabbi Ben-Elazar we-Rabbi Shem N. 191, 196 



Tob N. 209 
Rabbinisra and Hasidism, Struggle 

between, 72 
Rabbis, satires on, N. 52, 200, 350 



Revealer of Secrets 

See Megalleh Temirin 
Revolutionary satires 

See Socialistic and Revolutionarv satires 



See also Crown rabbis; //asidic PaMis ; "RiotB in Kishinef, N. 397 
Reform Rabbis I Riots in Russia, 92^93 

19 



290 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Ritier Toggenborg parodied, N. 311 

Ritual, parodies in the style of the, 
N. 130, 131, 248, 368 h, 372 

Rodkinson, M. L., parodies by, N. 
222 — 223; polemic against, N. 6 

Roman names in Massekhiih Purim, 
24—25 

Romantic school of poets, 80 

Rome, Porim customs in, 22 

Roosevelt, President, satire on, N 289 

Rosenberg, A., N. 58 " 

Rosenberg, S., N. 224 

Rosenfeld, M., N. 225—228 

Rosengartcn, M. I., N. 229 

Rosenzweig, G., 78, 100, 103—104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, N. 230—252, 416 

Rossi, G. B. de, on the Massekheth 
J^rim 115 — 116, 131; on the Pro- 
vencal Massekheth Purim, 134; on 
the lilpul Zeman, 156 

Rothschild (Baron Edmond), panegyric 
on, N. 26 

Rubin, S., N. 253 

Rubinstein, A., N. 254 

Russia, on the manners, morals, customs 
and conditions in, 84—98, N. 44, 53, 
82, 83, 88, 125, 130, 131, 133. 138, 
187—189, 198, 202, 215, 234, 261, 
335» 391; riots in, 9«--93 
See also Czar^ 

Alexander II, Nicholas /, Nicholas II, 
Dostoyevsky^ Tchemichevsky 

Russian Literature, influence of, 80 

Russian song, parody ot, N. 219 

Russo-Japanese ivar, N. 287 

Sahara, Joseph 

See Zabaraj Joseph 
Sabbath Hymns, parodies of, I92 — 195, 

N. 39, 128, 129, 133 c, 190, 210, 

221, 238 
Sablotxky, M., N. 255—257 
Sachs, S., N. 52, 53, 258, 259 
Sahulah, Isaac ibn, 14 
Sajontschick, E. H., Nr. 260, 260 a 
Samaritan parody, 29—30 



San Daniele del Friuli, satire on the 

inhabitants of, 52 — 53 
Des Sangers Fluch, parody of, N. 279 a 
Sanguinetti, Raphael Jehiel, 51 — 52 
Sanctuaries of the Madonna, 41, 157 — 

158, 164—167 
Sarchi, I. L., N. 261 
Saul b. An an, the Karaite 

See Anan &" Saul, the Karaites 
Sayings of the Fathers 

See Pirke Aboth 
Schapira, E. L, N. 263—265 
Schapira, H., N. 262 
Schapiro, T. P., N. 14, 266—268 
Schatzkes, M. A., 76, N. 269 

See also N. 14/ 
Schcchter, N., N. 270—271 
Schcchter, S., on Hasidism, 60 
Scheindling, M., 78, N. 272 
Schereschewsky, A. M., N. 237 
Schereschewsky, Z. H., N. 274—278 
Schiller, parodies of, N. 7a, 93, I05» 

184, 185, 279. 297, 3"» 399» 421 
Schlossberg, M. J., N. 280 
Schnabel, L, N. 279— 279 a 
Scholarship, decline of Hebrew, N. 

182 
Scholetsetzer, Reb Leser, N. 279 
Schools, satire on the Hebrew, N. 295, 

303f 318 

See also Education, Yeshibotk 
Schorr, J. H., N. 281—282; polemic 

against, N. 10 1 
Schulmann, L., N. 283 
Segre, Joshua, 51 
Seifert, ML, N. 284—286 
Selihoth 

I See Penitential prayers 
Selikovitsch, G., N. 287—291 
Sepher Habakbuk 

See Habakbuk Na-Nabhi 
Sepher Nun Beth, N. 4 
Sermone in Idioma Ebraico, 51 — $2 
Sermon on wine, for Purim, 37 
I Sermons 

See Homilies 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



291 



Seventeenth century parodies, 39—48, 

151—195 
Shadchan, N. 62 
Shaikewitz, N. M., N. 292 — 295 
Shakespere, parody of 106, N. 296 
Sharkansky, A. M., 98, 106, 109, N. 

296—298 
Shemaiah we-Abtalion, N. 299 
Shrines of the Virgin, 41, 157— 158, 

164—167 
Shnll^n Arukh, parodies in the style 

of the, N. 29, 52. 7i» 299—303, 33S» 

354. 390, 391 
Silberbusch, D. I., N. 300—301 
Silberstein, S. J., N. 302 
Simlin, L. R., 95, N. 303 
Sixteenth century parodies, 33—38, 

148—151 
Skolnik, Z. H., N. 304 
Smolenskin, P., N. 305 
Socialism, parodies against, 84, N. 16, 52 
Socialistic and Revolutionary parodies, 

79—84, N. 2, 34, 59, 63, 65—67, 

254, 33o» 333. 336, 338, 339. 345. 

348, 368, 369, 373. 374, 378, 393, 

394, 41 ^ 412, 414, 420 
Solla, Samuel Mendes de, 51 
Solomon ibn Gabirol 

See Gabirolf Solomon ibn 

Solomon, J. P., 79. ^* 29^ 
Solotaroff, H., N. 345 
Sommerhausen, H., 1 10 — 1 1 1, N. 307, 308 
Soncino, Gershon, poem of, 125 — 126 
Songs 

See Ent^Ush Songs; Folk-songs; Russian 
sonj^; Wine-songs 
Sopher, S., N. 309 
Spanish, parodies in, 51 
Stage, satires on the, N. 284, 417, 

418 
Steinschneider, M., 78, N. 310 
Stem, I. F., N. 311, 311a 
Stylistic parodies, N. 83!; 163, 165, 204 
SuUer, D. B., N, 312 
Sulzberger Collection of Mss. 

See ycwisk Theological Seminary Mss, 



Superstition, parodies on, N. 92, 95 
Synagogues, on the N. 280 

Tables, game of 135, 145—146 
TaAeb, the Samaritan Messiah, 30 
Talmud, contains few parodies, 2; 
parodies against the, 16; parodies in 
the style of the, 19—27, 31, 39, 44— 

47. 52—53. N. 8, 12, 30, 31, 53, 
83d,m, fo3, 142, 145. 150. 187, 195, 
198, 212, 215, 240-247, 249, 258, 
259, 260a— 262, 264—267, 273,318, 
324, 364, 371,418; special passages 
parodied: Sabbath, 14; Besah, 14; 
Baba Kama, 86, 96; Baba Batra, 25 
See also Baraitha; MiskncJi; Pirke 

Aboth 
Talmud Schools, satire on, N. 198, 260 

See also Education; Heder; Yeshiboth 
Talmudic Miscellany ^ N. 4 
Talmudists, types of, 65—67 
Tammany Hall in Jewish Parody, 

N. 377 
Tawjew, L H., N. 313—316 
Tchemichevsky's influence on Jewish 

writers, 80 
Teachers of Hebrew, satires on, 94—95, 

106—107. N. 31, 53, 83 d, 303 
Tehinoth, first parody of^ 50^ 202 
Ten Commandments, parodies of the, 

48, 55. 100. N. 122, 272, 378, 379, 40a 
Testaments, burlesque, 48, 195—199 
Theatine Order, 157 

Thirteenth century-parodies, 5 — 19 
Tirkheltub, L N., N. 317 
Titles of Books, fictitious, N. 53 
Tober, M. H., N. 318 
Tom-o'-Bedlam, parodies in the form 

of, 50 
Tosaphoth, parody of the, 39, 45 
Trachtmann, J. S., N. 319—322 
Tresette, game of, 51—52 
Trinity, the, 41 
Troki, Isaac b. Abraham, his Support 

of Faith compared with Pilpul Zeman, 

42, 159—160 

19* 



292 



NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Trusts, satire on the, N. 416 
Twelfth century, Hebrew parody orison- 

ates in the, 3 
Types of Hasidim, 63— 6s 
Types of Maskilim, 68—69 
Types of Talmudists, 65—67 

Uganda, N. 75. "7, 342 
Uhland, parody of, N. 279 a 
Ulrich von Hutten, 61 
United States 

See America 
Upstarts, satire on, N. 391 c 
Urban II, satire on, 1 2 
Usurers, satires on, N. 53, 396 
Usury in Western Europe, 23 
Utilitarian tendencies in literature, 80, 

81-82 
Utopia of Socialism, 81 

Valentibus, Leon de, 119, 131 

Variae Lectiones, parody in the form 

of, N. 366 
Vatican MS. of Purim parodies described, 

119—120 
Vercelli, 41, 159 
Virgin, shrines of the, 41, 157 — 158, 

164 — 167 
Vocabularies. 

See Dictionaries 
Volozhin Yeshibah, Purim Rabbi in 

the, 27 

Walkow, S., N. 323, 324 

Wandering Jew Legend in parody, 
N. 409 

War, parodies on, N. 287, 380 

Wealth, satire on, ii— 12 

Wedding Bard, satires on the, N. 23, 97 

Wedding receptions in the 17 th cen- 
tury, 43 

Weissberg, I. J., N. 325 

Weissmann-Chajes, M., N. 326 — 328 

Weissman, R., N. 329, 417 

Whist, game of, N. 4 

Wills, Ethical, parodies of, 48, 195—199 

Winchevsky, M., 80—81, N. 330—339 



Wine, parody of benediction oyer, 50; 
praise of, 4$— 46* S^t 57f "i; Ser- 
mon on, 37 

Wine-Songs, $. ^5— »6» 3»« 37—38, 
47—48, 56. Ill— 112, 139, 188—195, 
N. 210, 250 

Wisdom and Wealth, satire on, 1 1 — 12 

Wise, I. M., polemic against, N. 272 

Wolf, L., N. 340 

Woman-hater, satire on the, 9 — ii, 43 

Women, praise of Italian, 23; satires 
against, 9 — 11 ; satires in defense of, 

8-9 

Wonder rabbis 

See Hasidic Rabbis 
Wooing in 17 th century, 43 
Wulft, Meir b. Joseph de, 173 

Yaha? ben Ra^^ah, N. 341 

Yeshiboth, satires on the, N. 198; 260; 
the Purim Rabbi in the, 27 
See also Education^ Heder; Talmud 
Schools^ Volazhin 

Yiddish, idioms literally rendered in 
Hebrew, 62; earliest parodies in, 
49 — 50, 199 — 203; journalism, N. 
284, 290 

Yigdalf parody of, 32—33 

Yoke fie Possemacher^ N. 73 

Zabara, Joseph, 5 
Zaddikim 

See Nasidic Rabbis 
Zangwill, I., 98, N. 342 
Zederbaum, A.— polemic against, N. 90 
Zedlitz, Joseph Christian Freiherr yon, 

parody of, N. 141 
Zelman, S. V., N. 343 
Zemah, D., N. 48 
Zevin, L J., N. 344 
Zionism, parodies dealing with, 94, N. 

25, 26, 171 
Zionists, satire on the Kharkof, N. 342 
Zohar, parodies in the style of the, 

57—58, N. 12, 83b, 124, 188, 194, 

211, 237, 268, 276, 376 
Zolotkoff, L., N. 346, 347